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R.  Cia}\  Son,  and  Taylor,  Prtnters, 

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The  First  Edition  of  this  book  having  been  rapidly 
exhausted,  I  have  been  encouraged  by  its  favourable 
reception  to  spare  no  labour  which  might  make  this 
Second  Edition  more  complete  and  trustworthy. 

Various  errors  have  been  detected,  and  while  new 
matter  to  the  extent  of  more  than  sixty  pages  has  been 
introduced,  a  slight  typographical  re-arrangement  has 
prevented  any  increase  in  the  absolute  bulk  of  the 
volume.  In  endeavouring  to  secure  increased  accuracy 
and  completeness,  I  have  derived  much  valuable  aid 
from  the  suggestions  of  many  hitherto  unknown  corre- 
spondents, as  well  as  from  the  able  and  careful  reviews 
which  have  appeared  in  the  literary  journals. 

My  especial  thanks,  however,  are  due  to  the  writers  of 
two  very  able  articles  which  appeared  respectively  in  the 
Quarterly  Review  and  the  Times  newspaper.  I  have  also 
to  thank  a  Saturday  Reviewer  for  pointing  out  some 
oversights,  though  I  regret  that  while  professing  an 
almost  fanatical  theoretic  love  for  accuracy  of  detail,  he 
should,  in  his  article,  have  exhibited  so  many  conspicuous 
illustrations  of  the  practical  difficulty  of  attaining  it. 
For  instance,  he  quotes  a  passage  where  I  say,  "  On  Brent 
Knoll,  near  Athelney,  in  Somersetshire,  is  a  camp  which 

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vi  Preface  to  the  Second  Edition. 

tradition  ascribes  to  Alfred,  and  near  the  foot  of  the  hill 
stands  the  village  of  BATTLEBURY."  The  Reviewer  re- 
marks that  this  "  statement  contains  more  mistakes  than 
there  are  lines.  Brent  Knoll  is  not  near  Athelney. 
Battlebury  is  not  a  village,  but  a  mound  ;  nor  is  it  near 
either  Brent  Knoll  or  Athelney."  I  certainly  do  not 
possess  the  advantage  which  the  reviewer  apparently 
enjoys  of  residing  in  Somersetshire,  but  «till  I  must 
maintain  that  I  am  altogether  right,  and  that  he  is 
altogether  wrong.  Gough,  one  of  our  safest  topo- 
graphical authorities,  asserts  that  Battlebury  is  '*  a  village," 
and  that  it  is  near  the  foot  of  Brent  Knoll.  The  Ord- 
nance Survey,  which  spells  the  name  in  the  alternative 
form,  Battleborough,  places  it  exactly  at  the  foot  of 
Brent  Knoll — half-a-mile  from  the  summit  of  the  hill. 
Moreover,  it  makes  Battleborough  not  a  mound,  but  a 
hamlet  of  ten  houses.  Brent  Knoll  is  about  half-a-day  s 
march  from  Athelney,  which  may  fairly  be  called  ^  near," 
when  my  object  was  to  suggest  that  the  camp  on  Brent 
Knoll  might  without  improbability  be  regarded  as  having 
been  an  outpost  of  Alfred's  head-quarters  at  Athelney. 

I  should  be  glad,  were  it  worth  the  space,  to  examine 
other  supposed  corrections  of  this  reviewer,  but  to  do 
so  would  be  wearisome  and  profitless.  A  few  of  his 
suggestions  I  have  thankfully  accepted  ;  with  regard  to 
the  rest,  I  must  demur  to  his  assumed  infallibility  both 
in  matters  of  opinion  and  of  fact. 


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Nearly  two  years  have  passed  since  this  volume  was 
first  announced  as  ready  for  the  press.  At  that  time  it 
did  not  seem  premature  to  make  such  an  announcement, 
inasmuch  as  ten  years  had  been  devoted,  more  or  less, 
to  the  collection  of  materials,  and  the  several  chapters 
of  the  work  had  been  written,  and  in  great  part  re- 

The  delay  that  has  occurred  in  the  publication  will 
easily  be  understood  and  accounted  for  by  those  who 
have  been  engaged  on  fields  of  research  where  new  and 
untrodden  paths  are  continually  inviting  exploration, 
and  where  many  commonly-received  opinions  require  to 
be  examined  anew,  and  perhaps  to  be  corrected  in 
accordance  with  later  or  more  exact  investigation.  Some 
limit,  however,  must  be  assigned  to  such  inquiries,  which 
might  otherwise  be  pursued  endlessly.  In  truth,  the 
volume  has  already  far  exceeded  the  size  that  was  at 
first  intended  for  it,  and  therefore,  such  as  it  has  become, 
it  is  now  put  into  the  reader's  hand. 

The  design  of  the  work,  and  an  outline  of  its  contents, 
are  sufficiently  set  forth  in  the  Introductory  Chapter,  and 
need  not  therefore  be  spoken  of  in  this  place. 


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viii  Preface  to  t/ie  First  Edition, 

It  may  appear  strange  that  a  subject  so  fertile  in  sug- 
gestive materials  should  not  already  have  received  due 
attention  from  any  competent  English  student.  Since 
the  publication,  two  centuries  ago,  of  Verstegan's  Resti- 
tution  of  Decayed  Intelligence  in  Antiquities y  no  work  has 
appeared  in  England  bearing  any  great  resemblance  to 
the  present  one.  There  are,  it  is  true,  a  few  alphabetical 
lists  of  geographical  etymologies: — such  are  Baxter's 
crude  collection  of  ingenious  conjectures  and  wild  ety- 
mological dreams,  and  Skinner's  Etymologicon  Onomas^ 
ticony  a  far  more  safe  and  sober  guide.  Of  more  recent 
date  are  Mr.  Chamock's  Local  Etymology,  a  book  ex- 
hibiting some  research,  but  no  critical  faculty  whatever, 
and  a  few  small  school-books,  of  greater  or  less  value,  by 
Messrs.  Sullivan,  Gibson,  Morris,  Hughes,  Boardman,  and 
Adams.  These,  however,  being  all  arranged  on  the  al- 
phabetical plan,  are  as  unreadable,  as  they  are,  for  the 
most  part,  untrustworthy. 

On  the  Continent,  in  Germany  especially,  subjects 
allied  to  that  of  this  volume  have  been  copiously  and 
eruditely  treated  by  such  men  as  Jacob  Grimm,  Pott, 
Zeuss,  Forstemann,  Wilhelm  Von  Humboldt,  Diefenbach, 
Knobel,  Renan,  and  Pictet  It  will  be  obvious  that  the 
author  has  derived  great  aid  in  the  accomplishment  of  his 
task  from  the  labours  of  these  distinguished  scholars, 
whose  acknowledged  learning,  accuracy,  ingenuity,  and 
caution  need  no  commendation  from  him.  Leo,  Gliick, 
Buttmann,  and  De  Belloguet,  though  lesser  stars  abroad, 
would  in  England  be  luminaries  of  the  first  magnitude. 
There  are  also  numerous  monographs  of  great  value 


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Preface  to  tJie  First  Edition,  ix 

hidden  in  the  transactions  of  foreign  academies : — ^such 
are  the  essays  of  Vilmar,  Piderit,  Massmann,  Petersen, 
and  Meyer,  with  which  the  English  monographs  of  Fer- 
guson, Hartshome,  and  Monkhouse  are  worthy  to  rank. 
The  somewhat  dangerous  works  of  Dr.  Donaldson  and 
Dr.  Latham  have  been  used  with  caution,  and  have  con- 
tributed useful  materials  and  suggestions. 

The  author  cannot  allow  himself  to  suppose  that,  in 
writing  upon  a  subject  which  ranges  over  so  wide  and 
various  a  field,  he  has  always  been  successful  in  his  en- 
deavour to  avoid  errors.  He  can  only  make  this  statement 
— ^that  he  has  laboriously  aimed  at  accuracy,  both  in 
advancing  general  statements,  and  in  making  references 
to  the  authorities  which  he  cites.  It  is,  perhaps,  un- 
necessary to  state  that  the  common  but  objectionable 
practice  of  quoting  at  second  hand  has  in  no  case  been 
adopted  without  the  reader's  attention  being  expressly 
drawn  to  the  fact.  For  the  convenience  of  those  who 
may  feel  inclined  to  pursue  any  of  the  lines  of  research 
which  are  indicated  in  the  notes,  a  Bibliographical  List 
has  been  compiled,  enumerating  the  exact  titles  and 
editions  of  the  books  consulted. 

In  conclusion,  the  author  has  the  agreeable  task  of 
acknowledging  his  obligations  to  those  who  have  given 
him  the  benefit  of  their  special  acquaintance  with  certain 
departments  of  his  subject.  The  chapters  relating  to 
the  Semitic  languages  have  been  kindly  revised  by  the 
Venerable  Archdeacon  Tattam,  D.D.  LLD.;  by  the 
Rev.  H.  G.  Williams,  B.D.  Professor  of  Arabic  at  Cam- 
bridge ;  and  by  E.  Stanley  Poole,  Esq.     The  chapter  on 


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X  Preface  to  the  First  Edition, 

Celtic  names  has  been  annotated  by  the  Rev.  John 
Davies,  M.A.  while  Professor  Donkin,  of  Queen's  Collie, 
Liverpool,  has  given  the  benefit  of  his  acquaintance  with 
the  Sanskrit  and  the  Romance  languages.  G.  P.  Marsh, 
Esq.  the  United  States  Minister  at  Turin,  has  contri- 
buted most  useful  bibliographic  information,  and  has 
also  communicated  observations  of  his  own  upon  the 
ethnology  of  Northern  Italy ;  and  the  Rev.  S.  A.  Brooke, 
Chaplain  to  the  British  Embassy  at  Berlin,  has  given 
constant  literary  aid,  and  has  made  numerous  valuable 
suggestions  during  the  progress  of  the  work.  Lastly,  the 
Author's  thanks  are  due  to  the  authorities  at  the  Topo- 
graphic Department  of  the  Royal  Engineers,  and  at  the 
library  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  who  have 
afforded  every  facility  for  the  consultation  of  their  ex- 
tensive collections  of  ancient  and  modern  maps. 


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Local  Names  always  significant,  and  possessed  of  great  vitality — 
Some  dcj^riptive — Geological  value  of  such  names — Othen  con- 
serve ethnological  and  historical  facts,  or  illustrate  the  state  of 
civilization  or  religion  in  past  times i 



Colonization  of  America — Greenland — Leif  Ericson — Columbus — 
Religioas  feeling  in  the  Names  given  by  the  Spaniards  and  by 
the  Puritans— Salem — Providence — The  Quaker  Colony — ^Native 
Indian  Names—The  Elizabethan  worthies:  Frobisher,  Davis, 
Baffin,  Hudson,  Drake,  and  Gilbert — Adventures  of  Captain 
Smith — ^The  French  plantations — The  Dutch  in  North  and  South 
America — Magalhaens — Spanish  and  Portuguese  discoveries — ^The 
Dutch  in  the  South  Seas— New  Zealand  and  New  Holland — 
Recent  Arctic  discoveries 9 



Local  names  are  the  beacon-lights  of  primeval  History — The  method 
of  research  illustrated  by  American  Names — Recent  progress  of 
Ethnology — ^The  Celts,  Anglo-Saxons,  and  Northmen — Retro- 
cession of  the  Sclaves —Arabic  Names — Ethnology  of  mountain 
districts— The  Alps 36 



Ethnic  Names  are  of  obscure  origin— Name  of  Britain — Many  nations 
bear  duplicate  names — Deutsche  and  Germans — "  Barbarians" — 
Welsh — Gaels— Aryans — ^Names  of  conquering  Tribes — Ancient 
Ethnic  Names  conserved  in  those  of  modem  cities — Ethnic  Names 


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xii  '  Contents. 


from  rulers— From  geographical  position— Europe — Asia — Africa 
— Ethnographic  Names — "Warriors" — "Mountaineers" — "  Low- 
landers"— **  Foresters"— "Coastlanders" — ^Greeks 53 



Physical  character  of  Phoenician  sites — ^Tyre — Sidon — Phenice — 
Phomician  colonies  in  Crete,  Cypras,  Sardinia,  Corsica,  Italy, 
Sicily,  Malta,  Africa,  Spain,  and  Britain 89 



The  Empire  of  the  Cailiphs — Arabic  Names  in  Southern  Italy  and 
Sicily — Tribes  by  which  the  -conquest  of  Sicily  was  effected — Con- 
quest of  Spain — ^Tarifa  and  Gibraltar — ^The  Arabic  article — River- 
names  of  Spain — Arabs  in  Southern  France — ^They  hold  the  passes 
of  the  Alps  —The  Monte  Moro  pass  and  its  Arabic  Names — ^The 
Muretto  pass  and  Pontresina      . 99 



England  is  the  land  of  indosures— This  denoted  by  the  character  of 
Anglo-Saxon  Names  which  end  in  "ton,**  **yard,"  "worth," 
"fold,"  "hay,"  and  "bury"— Ham,  the  home— The  Patronymic 
"  ing" — ^Teutonic  clans — Saxon  colony  near  Boulogne — ^The  Saxon 
settlement  in  England  began  before  the  departure  of  the  Romans — 
Early  Frisian  settlement  in  Yorkshire — Litus  Saxonicum  near  Caen 
— German  village-names  in  France  and  in  Italy — Patronymics  in 
Westphalia,  Franconia,  and  Swabia — Seat  of  the  "Old-Saxons"  .     117 



Incursions  of  the  Northmen — Norse  test- words:  "by,"  "thorpe," 
"toft,"  "ville,"  "garth,"  "ford,"  " wick"— Vestiges  of  the 
Danes  near  the  Thames — Essex,  Suffolk,  Norfolk,  and  Lincoln- 
shire— ^The  Danelagh — Norwegians  in  Sutherland,  the  Orkneys, 
Shetlands,  Hebrides,  and  Isle  of  Man — Cumberland  and  West- 
moreland— ^The    Wirall— Colony  in    Pembrokeshire— Devonshire 


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Contents.  xiii 


and  the  South  Coast — Northmen  in  Ireland — Intensity  of  the 
Scandinavian  element  in  different  parts  of  England — ^Northmen  m 
France — Names  in  Normandy — Norse  Names  in  Spain,  Sicily,  and 
the  Hellespont— Local  vestiges  of  the  Anglo-Norman  conquest— 
Anglo-Nonnan  nobles  in  Scotland I5S 



Prevalence  of  Celtic  Names  in  Europe — Antiquity  of  River-names — 
The  roots  Avon,  Dur,  Stour,  Esk,  Rhe,  and  Don^Myth  of  the 
Danaides — Hybrid  composition,  and  reduplication  of  synonyms — 
Adjectival  river-names :  the  Yare,  Alne,  Ban,  Douglas,  Leven, 
Tame,  Aire,  Cam,  and  Clyde — ^Celtic  mountain  names :  cefn,  pen, 
cenn,  dun — Names  of  Rocks — Valleys — Lakes — Dwellings — 
Cjrmric  and  Gadhdic  test-words — Celts  in  Galatia— Celts  in  Ger- 
many, France,  and  Spain — Euskarian  Names— Gradual  retro- 
cession of  Celts  in  England — Amount  of  the  Celtic  element — 
Division  of  Scotland  between  the  Picts  and  Gaels — Inverand  Aber 
—Ethnology  of  the  Isle  of  Man 193 



Contrast  between  Roman  and  Saxon  civilization,  as  shown  by  Local 
Names— Roman  roads — "Gates" — Bridges  and  fords— Celtic 
bridges — Deficiency  of  inns — Cold  Harbour — ^Saxon  dykes — 
Roman  vralls — Saxon  forts — "Bury" — Ancient  camps — Chester, 
caster,  and  caer — Stations  of  the  Roman  Legions — Frontier  dis- 
tricts— Castile — The  Mark— Pfyn,  Devises — Ethnic  shire-names  of 
England — ^Intrusive  colonization 249 



The  walls  of  Old  London— Gradual  extension  of  the  town — Absorp- 
tion of  surrounding  villages— The  brooks:  the  Holbom,  the 
Tyburn,  and  the  Westbourne — ^Wells,  conduits,  ferries — Monastic 
establishments  of  London — Localities  of  certain  trades — Sports 
and  pastimes — Sites  of  residences  of  historic  families  preserved  in 
the  names  of  streets — ^The  Palaces  of  the  Strand— Elizabethan 
London — Streets  dating  from  the  Restoration *     272 


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XIV  Contents, 




Places  of  Popular  assembly — Runnimede — Moot-hill — Detmold — 
The  Scandinavian  "  things  "  or  parliaments — ^The  Thingvellir  of 
Iceland — ^Tbe  Thingwalls  and  Dingwells  of  Great  Britain — 
Tynwald  Hill  in  the  Isle  of  Man— Battle-fields  :  Lichfield,  Battle, 
Slaughter— Conflicts  with  the  Danes — Eponymic  Names — Myths 
of  Early  English  History — Carisbrooke — Hengist  and  Horsa— Cissa 
— MWt  —  Cerdic — Oflfa  —  Maes  Garmon  —  British  Chieftains  — 
Valetta — Alexander— Names  of  the  Roman  Emperors— Modem 
Names  of  this  dass 290 



Local  Vestiges  of  Saxon  Heathendom — Tiw,  Frea,  Woden,  Thor, 
Balder— Celtic  Deities— Teutonic  Demigods— Wayland  Smith — 
Old  Scratch— Old  Nick— The  Nightmare— Sacred  groves  and 
temples — Vestiges  of  Sclavonic  Heathendon — The  Classic  Pan- 
theon— Conversion  of  the  Northern  Nations — Paulinus  at  Good- 
manham— "  Llan  "  and  '*Kir'— The  Hennits  of  the  Hebrides 
—The  Local  Saints  of  Wales — Places  of  Pilgrimage  —The  Monastic 
Houses 320 



The  nature  of  geological  changes — The  valley  of  the  Thames  once 
a  lagoon  filled  with  islets — Thanet  once  an  island — Reclamation 
of  Romney  Marsh — Newhaven — Somersetshire — The  Traeth  Mawr 
— ^The  Carse  of  Gowrie — Loch  Maree — ^The  Fens  of  Cambridge- 
shire— ^The  Isle  of  Axholme — Silting-up  of  the  Lake  of  Geneva — 
Increase  of  the  Delta  of  the  Po — Volcanoes — Destruction  of 
ancient  Forests — Icelandic  Forests  —  The  Weald  of  Kent — 
Increase  of  Population — Populousness  of  Saxon  England — ^The 
nature  of  Saxon  husbandry — English  vineyards— Extinct  animals  : 
the  wolt  badger,  auroch,  and  beaver — Ancient  Salt  Works — 
Lighthouses— Changes  in  the  relative  commercial  importance  of 
towns 347 


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Contents.  xv 




Vitality  of  Local  Names — Recurrence  to  Ancient  Names— Changes 
in  Names  often  simply  phonetic — Lincoln — Sarum — Whitehall — 
Phonetic  corruptions  among  savage  tribes — Interchange  of  suffixes 
of  analogous  sound — ^Tendency  to  contraction — Laws  of  Phonetic 
change — ^ExampIes— Influence  of  popular  etymological  speculation 
on  the  forms  of  Names — ^Tendency  to  make  Names  significant  — 
Examples — Transformation  of  French  Names — Invention  of  new 
Saints  from  Local  Names — Transformed  names  often  give  rise 
to  legends — Bozra — Thongcastle — ^The  Dun  Cow — Antwerp — ^The 
Mouse  Tower— The  Amazons  of  the  Baltic— Pilatus — The  Picts — 
The  Tatars — Poland— Mussulman  —  Negropont— Corruptions  of 
Street-Names — America— The  Gypsies 375 



Growth  of  words  out  of  names — Process  of  transformation— Ex- 
amples: cherry,  peach,  chestnut,  walnut,  quince,  damson, 
Guernsey  lily,  currant,  shallot,  coffee,  cocoa,  and  rhubarb — 
Tobacco— Names  of , wines  and  liqueurs— Gin,  negus,  and  grog 
—Names  of  animals  :  turkey,  ermine,  sable — Breeds  of  horses — 
Fish — ^Names  of  Minerals:  loadstone,  magnet,  agate,  jet,  nitre, 
ammonia— Textile  fabrics — Manufactures  of  the  Arabs:  muslin, 
damask,  gauze,  fustian — Manufactures  of  the  Flemings  :  cambric, 
diaper,  duck,  ticking,  frieze — Republics  of  Northern  Italy — Cravats 
— Worsted — Names  of  vehicles — The  coach — Names  of  weapons — 
Inventions  called  from  the  name  of  the  inventor — Pasquinade, 
punch,  haxlequin,  charlatan,  vaudeville — Mythical  derivations — 
Names  of  coins — Moral  significance  attached  to  words  derived 
from  Ethnic  Names— Examples :  Gothic,  bigot,  cretin,  frank, 
romance,  gasconade,  lumber,  ogre,  fiend,  slave — Names  of  servile 
Races — Tariff— Cannibal — Assassin — Spruce— Words  derived  from 
the  practice  of  pilgrimage  :  saunter,  roam,  canter,  fiacre,  tawdry, 
flash — History  of  the  word  palace 402 


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xvi  Contents. 




Dangers  which  beset  the  Etymologist —Rules  of  Investigation — 
Names  in  the  United  States— List  of  some  of  the  chief  components 
of  Local  Names 453 


List  of  Names  of  ancient  Tribes  preserved  in  the  Names  of  Modem 
Cities  and  Provinces    .    .    ' 4S9 


Comparison  of  Saxon  Patronymics  in  Artois  and  in  England   .     .     .     491 
Comparison  of  Patronymics  in  England,  France,  and  Germany    .     .     496 


Index  of  Local  Names 514 

Index  of  Matters 538 


Chromolithographic  Map  of  the  settlements  of  the  Celts,  Saxons, 
Danes,  and  Norwegians  in  the  British  Isles  and  Northern  France.         i 

Sketch-Map  showing  the  distribution  of  Arabic  names  in  Spain  and 
Portugal 105 

Sketch-Map  of  the  Saxon  colony  in  Picardy  and  Artois     ....     132 

Sketch-Map  showing  the  Teutonic  settlements  in  France  ....     145 

Sketch-Map  showing  the  settlements  of  the  Northmen  in  Normandy     185 

♦»*  In  these  Maps  each  dot  represents  the  position  of  an  ethnographic 
local  name. 


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Abela,  F.  Giovanfrancesco :—  Malta 
lUustratay    awero  descrizione    di 
Malta,  Isola  del  Mare  Siciliano  e 
AdriatuOy     con  sue  antichiti^   ed 
altre    notizUj   &o.     2    vols.    fol. 
Malta,  1772. 
Adami,    M.    Canonid  Bremensis — 
Ubdlus  de  situ  Dania.    (Elzevir. ) 
24mo.  Lugduni  Batavonim,  1629. 
Addnng,   Johann   Christoph,    und 
Vater  : — Mitkridaies  ;  oder  allge- 
meine    Sprachenkunde,     4    vols. 
8vo.  Bert.  1806,  1809,  1 81 7. 
Alcock,     Sir    Rutherford  :  —  The 
Capital  of  the  Tycoon  ;  a  Narra- 
tive of  a  Three    Years^  Residence 
in  Japan.     2  vols.    8vo.    Lond. 
Amari,  Michele: — Storia  dei  Musul- 
mani  di   Sicilia.     2    vols.    8vo. 
Firenze,  1854— 1858. 
Ammiani    Marcellini — Qua   super- 
sunt.      3     vols.     8vo.      Lipsiae, 
Ansted,    Prof.   D.    T.   \—A  Short 
Trip  to  Hungary  and   Transyl- 
vania.    8vo.     Lond.  1862. 
Ansted,  Prof.  D.  T. ,  and  Latham, 
Dr.  R.  G. :—  The  Channel  Islands. 
8vo.     Lond.     1862. 
Astnic,  Jean : — MimoirespourVHis- 
toire  Naturdle  de  la  Province  de 
Languedoc.    4to.     Paris,  1737- 
Archaological  Association^   Journal 

of  the.     8vo.     Lond. 
Archaohgical  Institute^  Proceedings 

of  the.     8vo.     Lond. 
Amdt,   Christian    Gottlieb  von  :— 

Ueber  den  Ursprung  und  die 
verschiedenartige  Verwandtschafl 
der  Europdischen  Sprachen.  8vo. 
Frankiiirt  am  Main,  1818. 

Arnold,  Thomas,  D.D. : — History 
of  Rome.  3  vols.  8vo.  Lond. 

Bancroft,  Geoi^  : — History  of  the 
United  States^  from  the  Discovery 
of  the  American  Continent*  Tenth 
Thousand.    5  vols.  i2mo.    Lond. 

Baring-Gould,     Sabine,     M.  A. : — 

Iceland^    its    Scenes   and  Sagas. 

8vo.     Lond.  1863. 
Barry,  Rev.  John: — History  of  the 

Orkney  Islands.     Second  Edition. 

4to.    Lond  1808. 
Barth,  Dr.  i  — Travels  in  North  and 

Central  Africa  in  1849-55.  5  vols. 

8vo.     Lond.  1857. 
Barth,  C.  Y<2x\'.—-Ueber  die  Drtdden 

der  Kelten,    und  die  Priester  der 

Alten  Teutschen.    8va  Erlangen, 

Baxter,  William  : — Glossarium  An- 

tiquiiatumBritannicarttm.  Second 

Edition.    8vo.     Lond.  1773. 
Beardmore,  Nathaniel : — Manual  of 

Hydrology.     8vo.     Lond.     1862. 
Beaufort,     Emily    A.  :  —  Egyptian 

Sepulchres   and   Syrian  Shrines^ 

including  some  stay  in  the  Lebanon  ^ 

at    Palmyra,    and   in     Western 

Turkey.     2   vols.    8yo.      Lond. 

Becker,  W.  A.  i—Charicles ;  Illus- 

trations  of  the  Private  Life  of 


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the  Ancient  Greeks,    Translated 
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Beckmann,  J.  : — History  of  Inven- 
tionsj  Discoveries^  and  Origins, 
Translated  by  Johnson.  Fourth 
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Bender,  Dr.  Joseph  :— Z>^  Deut- 
schen  Orfsnamen,  in  geographi- 
scheTy  historischer,  besonders  in 
sprcuhlicher  Hinsicht,  8vo,  Sie- 
gen,  1846. 

Bergmann,  Fr^d^ric  Guillaume  : — 
Les  Gites ;  ou  la  filiation  GMa- 
logiqtu  des  Scythes  aux  Giles,  8vo, 
Strasbourg,  1859. 

Betham,  Sir  William  :—7:4/r  Gael 
and  the  Cymbri,    8vo.     Dublin, 


Bianchi-Giovini,  A.  : — Sulla  Domi- 
nazione  degli  Arabi  in  Italia,  8vo. 
Milano,  1846. 

BiondeUi,  B.  : — Studii  Linguistici. 
8vo.     Milano,  1856. 

BlomeHeld,  Francis  : — An  Essay 
towards  a  Topographical  History 
^/Norfolk,  5  vols.  fol.  Fers- 
field,  1739—1775- 

Bocharti,  Sanmelis — Opera  Omnia, 
Editio  Tertia.  3  vols.  fol.  Lug- 
duni  Batavorum,  1582. 

Booth,  Rev.  John,  B.A.z^Epi- 
grams,  Aneient  and  Modem, 
i2mo.     Lond.  1863. 

Borring,  fitienne : — Sur  la  Limite 
Mh-idionale  de  la  Monarchie  Da- 
noise.     8vo.     Paris,  1849. 

Borrow,  George : — Wild  Wales  ; 
its  People,  Language,  and  Scenery, 
3  vols.  8vo.     lx)nd.  1862. 

Bosworlh,  Rev.  Joseph,  D.D.  : — 
The  Origin  of  the  English,  Ger- 
manic, and  Scandinavian  Lan- 
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Bouche,  Charle8-Fran9ois  : — Essai 
sur  PHistoirede  Prat>efice,  2  vols. 
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Boudard,  P.  A.  \—Sur  VOrigine 
des  Premiers  Habitants  des  lies 
BaUareSy  in  the  Revue  Archeo- 
logique,  vol.  xii.  pp.  248 — 250, 

Boudard,     P.     A. : — Numismatiquc 

Ibirienne,     4to.     Beziers. 
Bowditch,  N.  I. : — Suffolk  Surnames.    - 

Second   Edition.     8vo.     Boston. 

1858.     . 
Brace,  Charles  L.  :—The  Paces  of 

the  Old  World,  8vo.  Lond.  1863. 
Brandes  :  —  Das      Ethnographische 

Verhdltniss  der  Kelien  und  Ger- 

manen,     8vo.     Leipsig,  1857. 
British  Association,  Reports  of  the. 

8vo.     Lond. 
Brown,   Charles  Philip  : — Camatic 

Chronology.     4to.     Lond.     1863. 
Bruce,  Rev.  John  Collingwood : — 

The  Roman  Wall:  an  Historical, 

Topographical,  and  Descriptive 
Account  of  the  Barrier  of  the 
Lower  Isthmus,  410.  Lond.  1851. 

Buchanan,  William  ; — An  Inquiry 
into  the  Genealogy  and  Present 
State  of  the  Ancient  Scottish  Sur- 
names,   8vo,    Glasgow,  1820. 

Buckingham  andChandos,  Richard, 
Duke  oi-^The  Private  Diary  of. 
3  vols.  8vo.     I^ond.  1862. 

Buckingham,  James  Silk — Auto- 
biography of  2  vols.  8vo.  Lond. 

Buckle,  H.  T.  -.—History  of  Civili- 
sation in  England,  ^  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.   1857,  1 86 1. 

Bunsen,  Christian  Charles  Josias : —  - 
Outlines  of  the  Philosophy  of  Uni- 
versal History,  2  vols.  8vo.  Lond. 

Bunsen,  C.  C.  J.  \—0n  the  Results 
of  Recent  Egyptian  Researches  in 
Reference  to  Asiatic  and  African 
Ethnology,  in  the  British  Associa- 
tion Reports  for  1847. 

Buiigon,  Rev.  John  W^illiam : — 
Letters  from  Rome  to  Friends  in 
England,     8vo.     Lond.   1862. 

Bum,  Robert  Scott : — Notes  of  an 
Agricultural  Tour  in  Belgium, 
Holland,  and  the  Rhine,  Svo. 
Lond.     1862. 

Burton,  R.  F.  : — Abeokuta  and  the 
Camaroons  Mountains,  2  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  1863, 

Burton,  R.  F.: — A  Mission  to  Gdelc^ 


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Bibliog  raphkal  L  ist  of  Books  consulted,  xi  x 

King  of  Dakome,  2yols.  8vo. 
Lond.   1864. 

Butler,  Rev.  Alban:— r^^  Lives  of 
the  Fathersy  Martyrs^  and  other 
principal  SainUy  compiled  from 
Original  Monuments  and  other 
authentic  Records.  Stereotype 
Edition.  12  vols.  Svo.  London 
and  Dublin,  1824. 

Buttmann,  Al. : — Die  Deutschen 
OrtsnameUy  mit  besondere  Beriick- 
sichtigung  der  l/rspriinglich  Wen^ 
discheny  in  der  Mittelmark  und 
Niederlausitz.  8vo.  Berlin,   1856. 

Buttmann,  Philipp : — Mytkologusy 
Oder  gesammelte  Abhandlungen 
iiber  die  Sagen    des  Alterthums, 

2  vols.     8vo.     Berlin,  1828-9. 
Buyers,  Rev.  William: — Recollections 

of  Northern  Iftdia,  8vo.  London, 

Calendar   of  State   Papers.      Svo. 

Lond.  1856— 1863. 
Cambro-Briton   and  Getteral  Celtic 

Repository,     3  vols.  8vo.     Lond. 

Camden,  W.  : — Britannia^  Second 

Edition.      Edited  by  R.  Gough. 

4  vols.  fol.     Lond.   1806. 
Caswall,  Rev.  Henry,  U.K. -.—The 

American  Church  and  the  Ameri- 
can Union*     8vo.       Lond.  1861. 
Causdn    de    Perceval,    A.    P. : — 

£ssai  sur  VHistoire  des  Arabes, 

3  vols.    8vo.    Paris,  1847-8. 
Chalmers,  George: — Caledonia:  an 

Accounty  Historical  and  Topo- 
graphicy  of  North  Britain,  3  vols. 
4to.     Lond.  1810— 1824. 

Chambers,  Robert: — Ancient  Sea 
MarginSy  Memorials  of  Changes, 
Svo.     Lond.  1848. 

Chamock,  Richard  Stephen  :  — 
Local  Etymology:  a  Derivative 
Dictionary  of  Geographical  Names, 
Svo.     Lond.  1859. 

Codex  Diplomaticusy  see  Kemble. 

Conde,  Jose  Antonio : — Historia  de 
la  Dominacion  de  los  Arabes  en 
Espana,     Svo.     Fans,  1840. 

Conybeare,  Rev.  W.  J.,  and  How- 
son,  Rev.  J.  S.  I— The  Life  and 

b  2 

Epistles   of  St.    Paul,        Third 

Edition.     2  vols.     Svo,     Lond. 

[Cooley,  W.  !>.]:  — The  History  of 

Maritime  and  Inland  Discovery, 

(Lardner*s  Cabinet  Cyclopaedia.) 

3  vols.  i2mo.    Lond.  1830 — 1831. 
Contzen : — Die    Wanderungen    der 

Kdten.     8vo.     Leipsig,  1861. 
Courson,     Aur^Iien    de  :  — Histoire 

des  Peuples  Bretons,     2  vols.  4to. 

Court  de  Gebelin: — Le  Monde  Pri- 

mitif    5  vols.    4to.     Paris,  1773 

Cowel : — A  Law  Dictionary,     Fol. 

Lond.  1727. 
Crichton,  Dr.  Andrew,  and  Whea- 

ton.    Dr.   Henry: — Scandinavia^ 

Ancient   and  Afodem,     2    vols. 

i2mo.     Ed  in.  1838. 
Cunningham,  Peter  : — A  Handbook 

for  Londony   Past  and  Present. 

2  vols.     Svo.     Lond.   1849. 
Curtius,    Ernst : — Griechische     Ge- 

schichte.     2  vols.     Svo.     Berlin, 

1857,  1861. 
Curtius,  Ernst : — Die  Tonier  vor  der 

lonischer  Wanderung,  Svo.   Ber- 
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Curtius,    Georg : —  Grundziige    der 

Griechischer  Etymologic,     Vol.  i. 

Svo.     Leipsig,  1858. 
Darwin,  Charles  '.—On  the  Origin 

of  Species   by  means  of  Natural 

Selection,    Fifth  Thousand.     Svo. 

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Dasent,  George  Webbe,  D.C.L.  :— 

The  Story  ^ Burnt  Njal,    2  vols. 

Svo.     Lond.  1 86 1. 
Dasent,  G.  W.  .—  The  Norsemen  in 

Iceland,      In  Oxford   Essays  for 

Davies,  Edward : — Celtic  Researchesy 

on  the   Originy    TradiiionSy   and 

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tiques  sitr  tOrigine  et  la  Parenti 
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et  des  Ancuns  Celtes,  Vol.  i. 
8vo.     Paris,  1858. 

Dennis,  George  : — The  Cities  and 
Cemeteries  of  Etruria.  2  vols. 
8vo.     London,  1848. 

Depping,  E.  B.  : — Histoire  des  Ex- 
.     pJditions  Maritimes  des  Normands, 
2  vols.     8vo.     Paris,  1826. 

De  Smet: — Essai  sur  les  noms  de 
la  I'landre  orietitale  et  occidentale. 
In  the  Memoires  de  V  Academic 
Royale  de  la  Belgique,  vol.  xxiv. 
and  vol.  xxix.  Bnixelles,  1820, 
1825.    . 

Diefenbach,  Dr.  Lorenz: — Lexicon 
Comparativum  Lingttarum  In- 
do- German  ieamm,  Vergleic/ien- 
des  Worterbuck  der  Gothischen 
Sprache.  2  vols.  8vo.  Frankfort 
am  Main,  1847-1851. 

Diefenbach,  Dr.  Lorenz  : — Celtica» 
I.  Sprachliche  Dokiimenta  zur  Ge- 
schichte  der  Kelten,  8vo.  Stutt- 
gart, 1839. 

Diefenbach,  Dr.  Lorenz: — Celtica. 
IT.  Versuck  einer  genealogiscke 
Geschichte  der  Kelten,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Stuttgart,  1840. 

Diefenbach,  Dr.  Lorenz: — Origines 
EuropacB.  Die  alien  Vblker  Eu' 
ropas,  mil  ihren  Sippen  undNach- 
barft.  8vo.  Frankfurt  am  Main, 

Diez,  Friedrich: — Lexicon  Etymo- 
logicon  Lingitarum  JRomanontm. 
Etymologisches  IVorterbueh  der 
Romanischen  Sprachen,  8vo. 
Bonn,  i8j3. 

Diez,  YritCiTi^i—Grammatik  der 
Romanischen  Sprachen.  3  vols. 
8vo.     Bonn,  1836 — 44. 

Dixon,  B.  Homer  :  —  Surtiames, 
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Dixon,  Rev.  W.  H.,  M.A.,  and 
Raine,  Rev.  James,  M.  A.  : — Fasti 
Eboraccnses  ;  Lives  of  the  Arch- 
bishops of  York,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  1863. 

Domesday  Book,  see  Ellis. 

Donaldson,  John  William,  D.D.: — 
The  New  Cratybis ;  or  Contri- 
butions towards  a  more  accurate 
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Second  Edition.  8vo.  Lond. 

Donaldson,  John  William,  D.D.:— 
Varronianus  ;  a  Critical  and  His- 
torical Introduction  to  the  .Eth- 
nography of  Ancient  Italy ,  &c. 
Second  Edition.  8vo.  Lond. 

Donaldson,  John  William,  D.D.: — 
On  English  Ethnography,  In 
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Lond.  1856. 

Dorow,  Dr.  :  —  Denkmdler  alter 
Sprache  und  Kunst,  2  vols.  8vo. 
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Drake,  Nathan  : — Shakespeare  and 
his  Times.  2  vols.  4to.  Lond.  181 7. 

Drake,  Samuel  G.  ',—  The  Book  of 
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Ducange,  Car.  Dufresne  : — Glossa- 
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Dudo  i—De  Moribus  et  cutis  Pri- 
mcrum  Normannia  Dunwi.  In 
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Duff,  M.  E.  G.,  M.A.  '.^Sicily. 
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Dufferin,  Lord  : — Letters  from  High 
Latitudes,     8vo.     Lond.  1857. 

Duncker,  Maximilian  Wolfgang : — 
Origines  Gcrmanicce.  4to.  Berlin, 

Dyer,  George: — Vulgar  Errors^ 
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Ellis,  Sir  Henry  : — Domesday  Book, 
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Engelhardt : — Das  Monte  Rosa  und 
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Engelmann,  Dr.  W.  H.:-~Glossaire 


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da  Mots  Espagttols  et  Portugais 

cUrivh  de  PArabt.     8vo.     Leyde, 

Ersch    and    Gruber  :  —  Allgemeine 

Encyklopddie  der  WissensckafUn 

und  Kiinste.  122  vols.  4to.  Leip- 

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Esquiros,  Alphonse:  —  The  Dutch 
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WraxalL      2  vols.  8vo.       Lond. 

Ethnology  and  Topography,  in  The 

Chnrch    of    England    Quarterly 

Keview,  No.  bcxv.     8vo.     Lond. 

Eustace,  Rev.  John  Chetwoode  : — 

A  Classical  Tour  through  Italy, 

4  vols.  8vo.     Lond.  181 5. 
Ewald,    Heinrich: — Geschichte   des 

Volkes  Israel,     3  vols.  8vo.     Got- 

tingcn,  1843. 
Fairholt,  Frederick  William  : — Up 

the    Nile  and  Home  Again,    A 

Handbook  for    Travellers,     8vo. 

Lond.  1862. 
Farrar,    Frederick    W.,     M.A.:— 

Essay  on  the  Origin  of  Language, 

i2mo.     Lond.  i860. 
Feiguson,  Robert : — The  Northmen 

in  Cumberlandand  Westmoreland, 

i2mo.     Lond.  1856. 
.       FergusoUf    Robert :  —  The    River- 
^  Names  of  Europe,     i2mo.  Lond. 

Fimison,  'Azx^:— Islands  Landna- 

mabok,     4to.     Havnise,  1774. 
Fleming,     George :  —  Travels     on 

HorsdKuk  in  Mantchu  Tartary. 

Royal  8vo.     Lond.  1863. 
Forbes,  Duncan  : —  The  History  of 

Chess.     8vo.     Lond.  i860. 
Forbes,  James  D. : —  Travels  through 

the  Alps  of  Savoy,  with  Observa- 
tions on  Glaciers.  *4to.  Edinburgh, 

Forbiger,  Albert: — Handbueh  der 
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bearbeitet,  3  vols.  8vo.  Leipsig, 

Ford,  Richard  : — Gatherings  from 
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Foistemaon,  Ernst  i-^Die  Deutschen 

Ortsnamen,    8vo.      Nordhausen, 

Forstemann,  Ernst  :  —  Altdeutsches 
Namenbuch.  2  vols.  4to.  Nord- 
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Forstemann,  Ernst :  —  Deutsche 
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Frontier  Lands  of  the  Christian 
and  the  Turk,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Ix>nd.  1853. 

Gardner,  George  : — Travels  in  the 
Interior  of  Brasil^  1836— 1 84 1. 
Second  Edition,  8vo.  Lond. 

Gamett,  Rev.  Richard— r^ii?  Phi- 
lological  Essays  of  Edited  by  his 
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Gayangos,  Pascual  de  : — History  of 
the  Mohammedan  Dynasties  in 
Spain^  by  Ahmed  Ibn  Aloham- 
med  Al-Makkuri.  Translated 
with  Notes,  2  vols.  4to.  Lond. 
1840— 1843. 

Gentleman* s  Magazine, 

Germania:  Viertel-Jahrsschrift  fiir 
Deutsche  A  Iter thumskunde,  Stutt- 
gart und  Wien,  1856,  &c 

GerviUe,  M.  de: — Recherches  sur 
les  Anciens  Noms  de  lieu  en  Nor- 
mandie.  In  the  M^moires  de  la 
Sod^t^  Royal  des  Antiquaires  de 
France,  voL  vi.  8vo.  Paris, 

Gesenius,  Dr.  W.  : — Versuch  iiber 
die  Maltesische  Sprcwhe,  zur  Beur- 
theilung  der  neulich  Wieder- 
holtcn  Behauptung  dass  sie  ein 
Ueberrest  der  Altpunischett  sey. 
4to.     Leipsig,  18 10. 

Gesenius,  Dr.  W. :  —  Scriptura 
Linguaque  Phoenicia  Monumenta, 
4to.     Leipsig,  1837. 

Gibbon,  Edward: — The  History  of 
the  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman 
Empire.  New  Edition.  8  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  182  J. 

Gibson,  T.  A.,  and  Gibson,  G.  M.: 
— Etymological  Geography  ;  being 
a  Classified  List  of  Terms  and 
Epithets  of,  most  frequent  occur- 


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rence  entering  as  Prefixes  or  Post- 
fixes  into  the  Composition  of  GeO' 
graphical  Names.  Second  Edition* 
8vo.     Edinburgh,  184O. 

Gilbert,  Josiah,  and  Churchill,  G. 
C:  — The  Dolomite  Mountains, 
8vo.     London,  1864. 

Gladstone,  Rt.  Hon.  W.  E.  :— 
Studies  on  Homer  and  the  Homeric 
Age.  Vol.  i.  8vo.    Oxford,  1858. 

Gliick,  Christian  Wilhelm  :— Z)<^ 
bei  Caius  yidius  Casar  vorkom- 
ffienden  Kdtischen  Namen^  in 
ihrer  Echtheit  gestdlt  und  er- 
Idutert.       8vo.    Miinchen,  1857. 

Gough,  R.  see  Camden. 

Grimm,  Jacob  :  —  Geschichte  der 
Deutschen  Sprache,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Leipsig,  1848. 

Grimm,  Jacob  : — Deutsche  Gram- 
matik.  4  vols.  8vo.  Gottingen, 
1822 — 1837. 

Grimm,  Jacob  : — Deutsche  Mytho- 
logie.  Second  Edition.  8vo. 
Gottingen,  1843-46. 

Grimm,  Wilhelm  : — Die  Deutsche 
Jfddensage,  8vo,  Gottingen, 

Grote,  Harriet : — Collected  Papers^ 
original  and  reprinted^  in  prose 
and  verse,     8vo.     Ix>nd.  1802. 

Guest,  Dr.  E.:— C?«  Gentile  Names, 
In  the  Philological  Proceedings, 
vol.  i. 

Haigh,  Daniel  H.:— ZAr  Coftquest 
of  Britain  by  th€  Saxons.  8vo. 
Lond.  1 86 1. 

Hakluyt,  Richard  .—The  Principal 
Navigations y  Voyages^  Tra^ques, 
and  Discoveries  of  the  English 
Nation.  3  vols.  fol.  London, 
1599 — 1600. 

Haldorsen,  Biom  : — Islandske Lexi- 
con.   2  vols.  4to.    Havnise,  1 81 4. 

HalFs  Chronicle,  collated  wUh  the 
Editions  of  1 548  and  1$  50.  410. 
Lond.  1809. 

Hallam,  Henry  : — View  of  the  State 
of  Europe  During  the  Middle 
Ages.  Fifth  Edition.  3  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  1829. 

HalliNNcll,  J.  O.,  F.R.S.  i—Rambles 

in  Western  Cornwall  by  the  Foot- 
steps of  the  Giants.     8vo.     Lond. 

Hartshorne,  Rev.  Charles  Henry, 
M.A.  : — Salopia  Antiqua^  with 
Observations  upon  the  Names  of 
Places,     Royal  8vo.    Lond.  1841. 

Hart  wig,  Dr.  G.-^The  Tropical 
World.     8vo.-     Lond.  1863. 

Haupt,  Moriz  : — Zeitschrifi  fur 
Deutsches  Alterthum,  12  vols. 
8vo.     Leipsig,  1841,  &c. 

Hinchliff,  Thomas  Woodbine : — 
South  American  Sketches.  8vo. 
Lond.  1863. 

Hoeck,  Karl: — Kreta.  3  vols.  8va 
Gottingen,  1823-9. 

Hofer,  Albert: — Zeitschrifi  fUr  die 
Wissenschafl  der  Sprache.  8vo. 
Greifswald,  1845,  &c 

Holtzmann,  Adolf :  — Kdten  und 
Germanen:  Eine  Historische  Un^ 
tersuchung,   4to.   Stuttgart,  1855. 

Horsley,  John  :  — Britannia  Ro- 
mana;  or,  the  Roman  Antiquities 
of  Britain,  Folio.  London,  1732, 

[Hotten,  J.  C]  -.—The  Slang  Dic- 
tionary ;  or  the  Vtdgar  Words, 
Street  Phrases,  and  Fast  Expres- 
sions of  High  and  Low  Society. 
8vo.    Lond.  1864. 

Hoveden,  Roger  de,  apud  Saville*s 

Hue,  V  Ahhti— The  Chinese  Empire. 
2  vols.  8vo.   >  London,  1852. 

Humboldt,  Alexander  von : — 
Cosmos :  Sketch  of  a  Physical  De- 
scription of  the  Universe.  Seventh 
Edition.  2  vols.  8vo.  Lond.  1849. 

Humboldt,  Wilhelm  von  : — Prii- 
fung  der  Untersuchungen  Uber 
die  Urbewohner  Hispaniens,  4to. 
Berlin,  1 82 1 .  Reprinted  in  vol  il 
of  the  Collected  Works. 

Hume,  Dr.  A. : — Geographical  Terms 
considered  as  tending  to  enrich  the 
English  Language,  Reprinted 
from  Vol.  xi.  of  the  Transactions 
of  the  Historic  Society  of  Lan- 
cashire and  Cheshire.  8vo. 
Liverpool,  1859. 

Ihre,  Johannes : — Ghssarium  Suio- 


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Goikicum.    2  vols.    Folio,  Upsal, 

Innes,  Cosmo  :  —  Origints  Faro- 
cAiaies  Scotia,  2  vols.  4to. 
Edinb.  1850—55. 

Ingram,  Rev.  J. ,  B.  D. :—  The  Saxon 
C/ironuU,  with  an  English  Trans- 
lation.    4to.     London,  1823. 

Islands  Landnamabok : — See  Finn- 

Jacobi,  Victor:  — Z>/>  Bedeuiung 
der  bohmischen  Dorfnamen  fUr 
Sprach'  und  Weltgeschichte,  8va 
Leipsigt  1856. 

Jephson,  Rev.  J.  M. : — Narrative  of 
a  Walking  Tour  in  Brittany. 
8vo.     Lond.   1859. 

Kausler  :  —  Wirtembergisches  Ur- 
kundenbttch,  Herausgegebem  von 
dent  Koniglichen-Siaatsarchiv  in 
Stuttgart,  2  vols.  4to.  Stuttgart, 
1849  and  1858. 

Keferstein,  Chr.  :  — Ansichten  iiber 
die  Keltischen  Alterthumer.  2  vols. 
Halle,  1846— 1848. 

Kelly,  W.  '.—Curiosities  of  Indo- 
European  Folk  Lore  andTradition. 
8vo.     Lond.  1864. 

Kemble,  John  Mitchell  :  —  The 
Saxons  in  England:  a  History 
of  the  English  Conimomvealth  tUl 
the  Feriod  of  the  Norman  Con- 
quest,    2  vols.     Lond.  1849. 

Kemble,  John  M.  .—Codex  Diplo- 
maticus  yEiH  Saxonici.  5  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  1845— 1848. 

Kennett,  Rev.  W.  -.—Farochial  An- 
tiquities. 2  vols.  4to.  Oxford,  181 8. 

Kenrick,  John,  M.A.  t — Essay  on 
Frimaval  History.  8vo.  Lond. 

Kenrick,  John,  M.A.  : — Phoenicia. 

8vo.     Lond.  1855. 

Kenrick,   John,    M.A.  : — Afuient 

Egypt  under  the  Fharaohs.  2  vols. 

8vo.     Lond.  1850. 

Kenrick,  John,  M.A.  \— The  Egypt 

of  Herodotus,   8vo.    Lond.    1841. 

K[cnrick],   J.  \—0n  the  Names  of 

the    Antehellenic    Inhabitants    of 

Greece,  in  vol.  i.  of  the  Philological 

Museum.  8vo.  Cambridge,  1832. 

King,  Rev.  Samuel  William  :—  The 
Italian  Valleys  of  the  Fennine 
Alps.     8vo.     Lond.  1858. 

Knapp,  J.  A.  : — English  Roots  and^ 
Ramifications.    8vo.   Lond.  1857. 

Knobel,  August : — Die  Volkertafel 
der  Genesis.  Ethnographische 
Untersuchungen.  8vo.  Giessen, 

Kuhn,  Dr.  A.  :—Zur  altesten  Ge- 
schichte  der  indo-germanischen 
Volker.     4to.     Berlin,  1845. 

Kuhn,  Dr.  A.  : — See  Zeitschrifl fUr 
Vergleichende  Sprachforschung. 

Laing,  Samuel: — The Heiniskringla, 
or  Chronicle  of  the  Kings  of  Nor- 
way.  Translated  from  the  Ice- 
landic ofSnorro  Sturleson.  3  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  1844. 

Landnamabok : — See  Finnson. 

Lappenberg,  J.  M.  '.^History  of 
England  under  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Kings.  Translated  by  Thorpe. 
2  vols.  8vo.     Lond.  1846. 

Lappenberg,  J.  M.  : — History  of 
England  under  the  Anglo-Norman 
Kings.  Translated  by  Thorpe. 
8vo.  fLond.  1857. 

La  Roquette :  —  Recherckes..  See 

Lassen,  Christian  : — Indische  Altcr- 
thnmskunde.  VoL  i.  Bonn,  1847. 

Latham,  Dr.  Robert  Gordon: — The 
English  Language.  Fourth  Edi- 
tion.    2  vols.  8vo.     1855. 

Latham,  Dr.  R.  G. : — Man  and 
his  Migrations.,  i2mo.  Lond. 

Latham,  Dr.  R.  G.  \—The  Nation- 
alities of  Europe.  2  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  1863. 

L'atham,  Dr.  R.  G.  \—The  Ger- 
mania  of  Tacitus,  with  Ethno- 
logical Dissertations  and  Notes. 
8vo.     Lond.  1851. 

Latham,  Dr.  R.  G.  \-^The  Eth- 
nology of  the  British  Islands. 
i2mo.     Lond.  1852. 

Latham,  Dr.  R.  G.  : — Optiscula  : 
Essays,  chiefly  Fhilological  and 
Critical.  8vo.  Lond.  and  Leipsig, 


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Latham,  Dr.  R.  G. :  —  ChannH 
Islands.     Ste  Ansted. 

Latham,  Dr.  R.  G.  i^The  Eastern 
Origin  of  the  Celtic  Nations,  See 

Leake,  William  Martin: — Travels 
in  Northern  Greece.  4  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  1835. 

Lechner,  Dr.  Ernst,  P/arrer  in 
Celerina  St  Moritz  : — Pis  Lan* 
guard.     8vo.     Leipsig,  1858. 

Lw,  Dr.  Heinrich  :— Ftfr/cw/i^(p« 
ii.ber  die  Geschichte  des  Dentschen 
Volkes  und  Reiches.  3  vols.  8vo. 
Halle,  1 8^4,  57,  and  61. 

Leo,  Dr.  Heinrich : — RecUtudines 
Singularum  Personarum.  8vo. 
Halle,  1842. 

Leo,  Dr.  Heinrich: — Treatise  on 
the  Local  Nomenclature  of  the 
Anglo'Saxons^  as  exhibitea  in  the 
"  Codex  Diplomaticus  yEvi  Sax- 
onici.**  Translated  by  Williams. 
(A  translation  of  a  portion  of  the 
preceding  work.)  8vo.  Lond. 

Leo,  H . : — Feriengeschriften.  Ver- 
mischte  Abhandlungen  tur  Ge- 
schichte der  Deutschen  und  Kel- 
tischen.  8vo.    Halle,  1847— 1852. 

Leo,  H.  \—Walhen  und  Deutsche. 
In  Knhn's  Zeitschrift  fiir  Verglei- 
chende  Sprachforschung,  vol.  ii. 

1853.       ^ 

Le  Prevost :  —  Rechtrches.  See 

Lewis,  Sir  George  Comewall: — 
Essay  on  the  Origin  and  Fomui- 
tion  of  the  Romance  Languages, 
Second  Edition,  8vo.  Lond.  1862. 

Lewis,  Sir  Geoiige  Comewall : — 
An  Inquiry  into  the  Credibility  of 
the  Early  Roman  History.  2  vols. 
8vo.  1855. 

Liddell,  Henry  G.  :  History  of 
Rome.    2  vols.  8vo.  1855. 

Lindsay,  Lord :  —  Progression  by 
Antagonism.     8vo.  Lond.  1846. 

Lingard,  John  : — History  of  Eng- 
land.     Fifth  Edition,    lOjVols, 

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Lluyd,      Edward:  —  Adversaria. 

Appended  to  Second  Edition  of 
Baxter's  Glossarium  Antiquit. 
Britann.  q.  v. 

Loudon,  J.  C.  : — Encyclopadia  of 
PlatUSf  comprising  the  description 
of  ail  the  Plants  indigenous  tOy  or 
cultivated  in^  Britain.  8vo.  Lond. 

Louth :  —  7>4^  Wanderer  in  Western 
France.     8vo.  Lond.  1863. 

Lucas,  Samuel : — Secularia.  8vo. 
Lond.  1862. 

Lyell,  Sir  Charles: — Principles  of 
Geology:  or,  the  Modem  Changes 
of  the  Earth  and  its  Inhabitants^ 
considered  in  illustration  of  Geo- 
logy.    Ninth  Edition.  8vo.  Lond. 


Lyell,  Sir  Charles,  M.A.  :—The 
Geological  Evidettces  of  the  Anti- 
quity  of  Man.     8vo.  Lond.  1863. 

Macaulay,  Lord  : — History  of  Eng- 
land.    8vo.  Lond.  1856. 

Mackay,  Charles: — A  History  of 
London.     8vo.  Lond.  1838. 

Maclear,  George  Frederick,  M.A.  : 
— A  History  of  Christian  Missions 
during  the  Middle  Ages.  8vo. 
Cambridge,  1863. 

Mahn,  Dr.  C.  A.  T.:—l/eberden 
Ursprung  und  die  Bedeuhing  des 
Namens  Premten,  8vo.  Berlin, 

Mahn,  Dr.  C.  A.  F.  x—Ueber  die 
Bedeutung  des  Namens  der  Stddte 
Berlin  und  Kbln.  8vo.  Berlin, 

Mannhardt,  Dr.  Wilhelm  :  —  Die 
Gotterwelt  der  deutschen  und  nor- 
dischen  Vdlker.  Vol.  i  8vo. 
Berlin,  i860. 

Mannhardt,  Dr.  WUhelm  :— Or- 
manische  Mythen.  8vo.  Berlin, 

Marsh,    Geoige  P. :  — Lectures  on  ■ 
the  English  Language.    Edited  by 
Dr. W.Smith.  i2mo.  Lond.  1862. 

Marsh,  George  P. : —  The  Origin  and 
History  of  the  English  Language. 
8vo.  Lond.  1862. 

Marsh,  Geoige  P.  : — Man  and  Na- 
ture; or,  PhysiccU  Geography  as 


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modified  by  Human  Action,  Lond. 

8vo.  1864. 
Matthsei  Paris :  —  Historia  Major. 

Ed.  Wm.  Wats.     Folio.     Lond. 

Maniy,  L.  F.  Alfred : — Histoire  des 

Grandes  Forits  de  la  GavU^  et  de 

PancUnne  France.    8vo.     Paris, 


Mayhew,  Henry  :  —  German  Life 
and  Manners  as  seen  in  Seucony 
at  the  present  day,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  1864. 

Menage : — Les  ia  Langue 
Franfoise.     4to.  Paris,  165a 

Meyer,  Dr.  Charles  \—On  the  Im- 
portance of  the  Study  of  the  Cdtic 
Language.  In  the  Reports  of  the 
British  Association  for  1847. 

Meyer,  Dr.  H.  i^Die  Ortsnamen 
des  Kantons  ZUrich,  In  the 
Mittheilnngen  der  Antiquarischen 
Gesellschait  in  Zurich,  voL  vL 
4to.  1848. 

Michel,  Francisque  : — Histoire  des 
Races  Maudites  de  la  France  et  de 
VEspagne.     2  vols.  8vo.     Paris, 


MiUcr,  Hngh  :  —  Shetch'Booh  of 
Popular  Geology  ;  being  a  series  of 
Lectures  delivered  before  the  Philo- 
sophical Institution  of  Edinburgh, 
8vo.     Edinburgh,  1859. 

Milman,  Henry  Hart,  Dean  of 
St.  VzxlVs:— History  of  Latin 
Christianity.  Second  Edition,  6 
Tols.  8vo.  1857. 

Monimsen,  Theodore*: — The  History 
of  Rome,  Translated  by  the  Rev. 
W.  P.  Dickson.  2  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  1862. 

Mommsen,  Theodore:  —  The 
Earliest  Inhabitants  of  Italy. 
Translated  by  George  Robertson. 
8vo.  Lond.  1858. 

Monkhouse,  Rev.  W.,  B.D.  :— 
Etymologies  of  Bedfordshire,  8vo. 
Bedford,  1857. 

Mone,  Franz  Joseph: — Geschichte 
des  Heidenthums  im  niirdlichen 
Europa,  2  vols.  8vo.  Leipsig 
nnd  Darmstadt,  1822,  1823. 

Mone,  Franz  Joseph  :  —  Cdtische 
ForschuHgen  zur  Geschichte  Mittel- 
europas.  8vo.  Freiburg  inBreis- 
gau,  1857. 

Morris,    R.  : — The    Etymology    of    ^' 
Local  Names,  with  a  short  Intro- 
diution    to    the    Relationship    of 
Languages.    i2mo.  Lond.  1857. 

Motley,  John  Lothrop  : — The  Rise    ■ 
of  the  Dutch  Republic.     3  vols. 
i2mo.  Lond.  1861. 

Movers,  F.  C.  : — Die  Phonitier. 
3  vols.  8vo.  Berlin  und  Bonn, 
1841,  49,  50. 

Movers,  F.  C. : — Phbnizien.  In  Ersch 
und  Grubei's  AUgemeine  Ency- 
klopadie.  Part  iii.  vol.  xxiv.  pp. 

Miiller,  Ferd.  H.  \—Der  Ugrische 
Volhsstamm.    2  vols.  8vo.  Berlin, 

1837,  1839. 

Miiller,  Hermann  : — Die  Marfcen 
des  Vaterlandes.  Vol.  i.  8vo. 
Bonn,  1837. 

Miiller,  Karl  Otfried : — Prolegomena 
zu  einer  WissenschafUichen  My- 
thologie.    8vo.  Gottingen,  1825. 

Muller,  C.  O.  -.-^ History  and  Anti- 
quities of  the  Doric  Race.  Trans- 
lated by  H.  Tufnell  and  G.  C. 
Lewis.  Second  Edition.  2  vols. 
8vo.     1839. 

Miiller,  Max,  M.  A. : — Lectures  on 
the  Science  of  Language.  Second 
Edition.  8vo.  Lond.  1862. 
Second  Series,  1864. 

Miiller,  Max: — On  Comparative 
Mythohsf.  In  Oxford  E^ys  for 
1856.     8vo.     Lond. 

Miiller,  Wilhelm  .—GeschichU  und 
System  der  cUtdeutschen  Rel^ion. 
8vo.     Gottingen,  1844. 

Murphy,  J.  C.  -.--The  History  of 
the  Mahometan  Empire  in  Spain, 
4to.     Lond.  1 8 16. 

Murray,  John: — A  Handbook  for 
Travellers  in  Switzerland  and 
the  Alps  of  Savoy  and  Piedmont. 
Eighth    Edition.      8vo.      Lond. 

Murray,  John  : — Handbook  of  Devon 
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Newmah,  Francis  W. :  —  Regal 
Rome.     i2ino.     Lond.  185a. 

Nicholls,  Rev.  H.  G.,  M.A.  .—The 
Forest  of  Dean^  an  Historical  and 
Descriptive  Account,  Sq.  8vo. 
Lond.  1858. 

Niebuhr,  B.  G. : — Lectures  on  An- 
cient Ethnography  and  Geography. 
Translated  by  Dr.  L.  Schmitz. 
2  vols.  8vo.     Lond.  1853. 

Niebuhr,  B.  G.  : — Lectures  on  the 
History  of  Rome.  Edited  by  Dr. 
L.  Schmitz.  3  vols.  8vo.  Lond. 
1844— 1849. 

Niebuhr,  B.  G.  i—The  History  of 
Rome.  Translated  by  T.  C  Hare, 
and  Connop  Thirl  wall.  Fourth 
Edition.  3  vols.  8va  Lond. 
1847— 1851. 

Olshausen,  J.  : — Ueber  phonicische 
Ortsnameti  ausserhalb  des  semi- 
tischen  Sprachgehiets.  In  vol.  viii. 
of  the  Rheinisches  Museum  fur 
Philologie.  8vo.  Frankfurt  am 
Maine,  1853. 

Ormerod,  George : — History  of  the 
County  Palatine  and  City  of 
Chester.  3  vols.  fol.    Lond.  1819. 

Palgrave,  Sir  Francis: — History  of 
Normandy  and  EnglancL  4  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  185 1,  1857,  1864. 

Palgrave,  Sir  Francis: — History  of 
the  Rise  and  Progress  of  the 
English  CommomvaUth  during  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Period.  2  vols.  4to. 
Lond.  1832. 

Panzer,  Friederich: — Beitrag  %ur 
Deutschen  Mythologies  8vo. 
MUnchen,  1848. 

Papon  : — Histoire  Ghtirale  de  Pro- 
vence. 4vols.  4to.  Paris,  1777 — 

Pauli,  Dr.  Reinold  : — Pictures  of 
Old  England.  Translated  by 
E.  C.  Otte.     8vo.     Lond*  i86i. 

Pennant,  Thomas: — A  Tour  in 
Wales.  2  vols.  4to.  Lond. 
1778— 1784. 

Pennant,  Thomas: — Some  Account 
of  London.  Third  Edition.  4to. 
London,  1 793. 

Pertz,    G.    H.  : — Monumenta  Ger- 

mania  Historica,  ab  anno  Christi 
500  usque  ad  annum  1 500.  12 
vols.  fol.     Hannov.  1826— 1848. 

Petersen,  N.  M.,  and  Le  Prevost : 
— Recherches  sur  Vorigine^  Vity- 
mologigy  et  le  signification  primi- 
tive de  qudques  noms  de  lieux  en 
Normandie.  Traduitesau  danois 
par  M.  de  La  Roquetie.  In  the 
Bulletin  de  la  Soci^te  de  Geo- 
graphic, Jan.  1835.  8vo.  Paris, 

Philological  Museum.  2  vols,  8vo. 
Cambridge,  1832,  1833. 

Philological  Society^  Proceedings  of 
the.  6  vols.  8vo.  Load.  1842 — 

Philological  Society^  Transactions  of 
the.    8vo.     Lond.  1854— 186 1. 

Philology^  Comparative : — In  the 
Edinburgh  Review,  vol.  xci.  Oct 

Philosophical  Transactions  of  the 
Royal  Society  of  London.  4to. 

Pictet,  Adolphe  '.-^Les  Origines 
Indo-Europiennesj  ou  les  Aryas 
Primitifs.  2  vols.  8vo.  Paris, 
1859,  1863. 

Piderit,  Dr.  F.  C.  H.  :—L>ie  Oris- 
namen  in  der  Provinz  Nieder* 
hessen.  In  the  Zeitschrift  des  Ve- 
reins  fur  hessische  Geschichtc  und 
Landeskimde,  vol.  i.  pp.  283 — 
316.     Kassel,  1837. 

Piers  Ploughman,  The  Vision  and 
the  Creed  of.  2  vols.  i2mo. 
Lond.  1832. 

Pihan,  A.  P.  : — Glossaire  des  Mots 
Entftfais  tirSs  de  PArabe^  du 
Persan,  et  du  Turc^  6^c,  8vo. 
Paris,  1847. 

Planta,  Joseph: — Ah  Account  of 
the  Romansch  Language.  In  the 
Philosophical  Transactions  of  the 
Royal  Society,  voL  IxvL  4to. 

Porter,  Major  Whitworth,  R.E.  :— 
History  of  the  Knights  of  Malta., 
2  vols.  8vo.     Lond.  1858. 

Poste,  Rev.  Beale  : — Britannic  Re- 
searches,   8vo.    Lond.  1853. 


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Bibliographical  L  ist  of  Books  consulted.       xxvii 

Pott,  Dr.  A.  F.  '.—Etymologische 
Forukungm  auf  dem  Geinete  dtr 
Indo  '  Germaniscken  Sprackenl 
2vols.  8vo.     Lemgo,  1833. 

Pott,  Dr.  August  Friedrich :  — 
Die  Personen-nametiy  insbesotidere 
die  Familien-namen  undihreEnt- 
sUkungsarUn,  auch  unter  Beriick- 
sicktigutifT  der  Orisnamen,  8vo. 

Pott,  Dr.  A.  F.  >-Dte  Zigeuner  in 
Europa  und  Asien,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Halle,  1844,  1845. 

Pott,  Dr.  A.  Y.'.—Mytko-Etymo- 
logie.  In  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift 
Vol.  ix. 

Pott,  Dr.  A.  F.  i—Etymologiscke 
Spakne.  In  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift. 
Vol.  V. 

Pott,  Dr.  A.  F.  \—Indo-Germani' 
scker  Sprcicksiamm.  InErschund 
GrubePs  AUgemeine  Encyklo- 
|Kidie.  Second  Section.  Vol. 
xriiL  pp.  I — 112. 

Poulson,  George: — TTie  History 
and  Antiquities  of  tke  Seignory 
of  Holdemess,  2  vols.  4to.  HoL^ 
i8i40,  1841. 

Preller,  C.  \^Grieckiscke  Mytko- 
logie.  2  vols.  8vo.    Leipsig,  1854. 

Prescott,  W.  H.  \— History  of  Ferdi- 
nand and  Isabella,  3  vols.  i2mo. 
Lond.  1850. 

Prescott,  W.  H.  -.—History  of  tke 
Conquest  of  Peru.  Fourth  Edition. 
3  vols.  i2mo.     Lond.  185a 

Prichard,  Dr.  James  C. : — Researckes 
into  tke  Pkysical  History  of  Man- 
kind, Third  Edition.  4  vols. 
8vo.  1S41 — 1847. 

Prichard,  Dr.  James  C.  \—Tke 
Eastern  Origin  of  tke  Celtic 
Nations.  Edited  by  Dr.  Latham. 
8vo.     Lond.  1857. 

Prichaixl,  Dr.  J.  C,  i—On  tke 
Various  Methods  of  Researck 
wkick  Contribute  to  tke  Advance^ 
ment  of  Etknology,  In  the  Re- 
ports of  the  Seventeenth  Meeting 
of   Uie  British   Association,  for 

Pryce,   William,   M.D.  : — Arckao* 

logia  Cornu-Britanniea :  or  an 
Essay  to  Preserve  tke  Ancietit 
Comisk  Language,  4to.  Sher- 
boume,  1790. 

Purchas: — His  Pilgrimes.  5  vok. 
Folio.     Lond.  1625. 

Quarterly  JoumcU  of  Education. 
10    vols.    8vo.      Lond.    1831 — 

Quarterly  Journal  of  tke  Geological 

Society.     8vo.     Lond. 
Radlof;   Dr.  I.   G.  .—Neue  Unter- 

suckungen  des  Keltentkumes,  8vo. 

Bonn,  1822. 
Rawlinson,    Rev.    Geotge,    M.A., 

Sir  Henry  Raivlinson,   K.C.B., 

and  Sir  J.  G.  WUkinson,  F.R.S.  : 

— Tke  History  of  Herodotus,     A 

New  Engiisk  Version^  witk  copious 

Notes  and  Appendices^  &c.    4  vols. 

8vo.     Lond.  1858. 
Redding,     Cyrus  :  —  History    and 

Description    of    Modern    IVines, 

Third  Edition.  8vo.  Lond.  185 1. 
Rees,  Rev.    W.   J.  \-^Lives  of  tke 

Cambro-Britisk      Saints,       4to. 

Llandovery,  1853. 
Rees,  Prof.    Rev.    Rice,   M.A.  :— 

An  Essay  on  tke  Welsk  Saints ^  or 

tke  Primitive  Ckristians  usually 

considered  to  kavc  been  tke  founders 

of  Ckurckesin  Wales,  8vo.  Lond. 

Reinaud,  L'Abbe  Joseph-Toussaint : 

—  Invasions    des     Sarazins    en 

France^  et  de  France  en  Savoie ; 

en    Pihnont   et   dans  la  Suisse^ 
pendant  les  8«,  9®  ^/  loe  Siicles 

denotreire,     8vo.     Paris,  1836. 
Renan,   Ernest : — De  V  Origine  du 

Langage.     Second  Edition.    8vo. 

Paris,  1858. 
Renan,  Ernest  : — Histoire  GSnhale 

et  Systime  Compart  des  Langues 

Shnitiques.  Pt.  i.   Third  Edition. 

8vo.     Paris,  1863. 
Revue  Arckhlogique,     8vo.     Paris.* 
Robertson,  E.   William  : — Scotlatul 

under  ker  Early  Kings  ;  a  History 
of  tke  Kingdom  to  the  Close  of  tke 

Tkirteentk  Century,     2  vols.  8vo. 

Edinburgh^  l862« 


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xxviii       Bibliographical  L  ist  of  Books  cofisulted. 

Robinson,  Edward,  D.D. : — Biblical 
Researches  in  Palestine^  Mount 
Sinaiy  and  Arabia  Petraa,  3 
vols.  8vo.     Lond.  1841. 

Robinson,  Edward,  D.D.,  LL.D.  : 
— Later  Biblical  Researches  in 
Palestine  and  the  adjcuent  Regiotu, 
8vo.  Lend.  1856. 

Russell,  W.  H.  :  —  My  Diary, 
North  and  South,  2  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  1863. 

Saint  Fargeau,  A.  Girault  de:-T- 
Dictionnaire  des  Unites  les  Com- 
munes de  la  France,  3  vols.  4to. 
Paris,  1844 — 1846. 

St  John,  James  Augustus : — History 
of  the  Pour  Cottquests  of  Eng- 
land, 2  vols.  8vo.  Lond. 

Salverte,  Eus^be : — Essai  Historique 
et  Philosophiquc  sur  les  Noms 
cTHommes,  de  Peuples,  et  des 
Lieux,    2  vols.  8vo.    Paris,  1824. 

Sankey,  William  S.  i-^The  Porte- 
feuille  of  Science  and  Art,  8vo. 
Edinburgh,  1838. 

Saxon  Chronicle.     .SVv  Ingram. 

Sayer,  Captain  :—The  History  of 
Gibraltar.     8vo.     Lond.  1802. 

Schafismk,  Paul  Joseph  -.—Slawische 
Alterthiimer,  Deutschvon  M.  von 
Aehrenfeld.  2  vols.  8va  Leip- 
sig,  1843,  1844. 

Schleicher,  A.  :  —  Die  Sprachm 
EuropcLs,     8vo.     Bonn,  1850. 

Schleicher,  A.  :  —  Zur  Vergleich' 
etidett  Sprachengeschichte,  Bonn, 

Schmeller,  J.  A.  -.--Ueber  die  soge- 
nannten  Cimbem  der  VII.  und 
XIII.  Communen  auf  den  Vene- 
dischen  Alpen,  und  ikre  Sprache. 
In  the  Abhandlungen  der  Philo- 
sophisch  -  Philolog  -  Classe  der 
Koniglich  Bayerisch  Akademie 
der  Wissenschaften,  vol.  ii.  pt 
•  3,  pp.  559 — 708.    4to,  Mtinchen, 


Schott,  Albert :— Z)*>  Deutschen 
Colonien  in  Pihnont.  8vo.  Stutt- 
gart und  Tubingen,  1842. 

Schott,  Albert  x-^Die  Deutschen  am 

Monte  Rosa,  mit  ihren  Stammge^ 
nosser  in  IVallis  und  Uechtland, 
4to.     Zurich,  1840. 

Sheppard,  Dr.  John  G.  \— The  Fall 
of  Rome,  and  the  Rise  of  the  New 
Nationalities.    8vo.     Lond.  1 861. 

Singer,  S.  ^ . '.--Wayland  Smith, 
a  Dissertation  on  a  Tradition  of 
the  Middle  Ages  ;  from  the  French 
of  G.  B,  Dipping  and  Francisque 
Michel,  with  additions.  i2mo. 
Lond.  1847. 

Skene,  William,  F.  '.-^The  High- 
landers  of  Scotland  :  tJuir  Origin, 
History,  and  Antiquities.  2  vols. 
i2mo.     1837. 

Smiles,  Samuel :—  Lives  of  the  En- 
gineers, 2  vols.  8vo.  Lond.  1861. 

Smith,  George,  LL.D. :  —  The 
Cassiterides :  an  Inquiry  into  the 
Commercial  Operations  of  the 
Phoenicians  in  Western  Europe, 
8vo.     Lond.  1863. 

Smith,  Goldwin  : — Irish  History 
and  Irish  Character,  8vo.  Oxfoixl 
and  Lond.  1861. 

Smith,  J.  T.: — Antiquarian  Rambles 
through  the  Streets  of  London.  2 
vols.  8vo.     Lond.  1846. 

Smith,  Captaine  John  : — The  Gene- 
roll  Historic  of  Virginia,  New 
England,  and  the  Summer  Isles, 
4to.     Lond.  1627. 

Smith,  Captaine  John  i^The  True 
Traods,  Adventures,  and  Obser- 
vations of, in  Europe,  Asia,  Africke, 
and  America,    4ta    Lond.  1630. 

Smith,  Dr.  W.  -.—Dictionary  of 
Greek  and  Roman  Geography, 
2  vok  8vo.    Lond.  1856,  1857. 

Sousa,  Fr.  Joa5  de  : —  Vestigios  da 
Lingua  Arabica  em  Portugal. 
8vo.     Lisboa,  1789. 

Souvestre,  Emile: — Les  Demiers 
Britons,  2  vols.  i2mo.  Paris, 

Sparschuh,  Dr.  N.  :  —  BerichH- 
gungen  und  Beitrage  zu  Grimm^s 
Geschickte  der  Deutschen  Sprache. 
8vo.     MainU,  1850. 

Stalder,  Franz  Joseph : — DieLandes- 
sprachen      der      Schweiz,     oder 


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Bibliographical  List  of  Books  consulted.       xxix 

Sckwazerische  DiaUktologU*  i2mo. 
Aarau,  1819. 

Stanley,  Rev.  A.  P.  (Dean  of 
Westminster) : — Historical  MemO' 
rials  of  Canterbury.  Second 
Edition.     8to.     Lond.  1855. 

Stanley,  Rev.  A.  P.  \~-The  Study 
of  Modem  History  in  London, 
A  Lecture,     8to.     Lond.  1854. 

Stanley,  Dr.  Arthur  Penrhyn  : — 
Sinai  and  Palestine :  in  Connexion 
with  their  History.  Twelfth 
Thousand.     8vo.     Lond.  1862. 

Stanley,  Dr.  A.  P.  : — Lectures  on 
the  History  of  the  Jewish  Church. 
8vo.     Lond.  1863. 

Steub,  Ludwig  : — Ueber  die  Urbe- 
wohner  Rdtiens^  und  ihrerZusam* 
menhang  nut  den  Etruskem,  8vo. 
Miinchen,  1843. 

Steub,  Ludwig  :—-?i/r  Rhdtischen 
Ethnologie.  8vo.    Stuttgart,  1854. 

Stow,  John  : — Survey  of  the  Cities 
of  London  and  Westminster.  2 
vols.  Folio.     Lond.  1720. 

Strinnholm,  A.  M.  : — VikingsUge 
der  aJten  Skandinavier.  Aus  dem 
Sckwedischeny  von  Dr.  C.  F. 
Frisch.     8vo.     Hambuig,  1839. 

Sullivan,  Robert,  LL.D.  :— ^  Dic- 
tionary of  Derivations ;  or^  an 
Introduction  to  Etymology  on  a 
new  plan.  Seventh  Edition.  i2mo. 
Dublin,  1855. 

Symington,  Andrew  James  : — Pen 
and  Pencil  Sketches  of  Faroe  and 
Iceland.     8vo.     Lond.  1862. 

Talbot,  H.  Fox '.—English  Ely- 
mologies.     8vo.     Lond.  1847. 

Tallack,  William  : — Malta  under 
the  PheniciatiSy  Knights,  and 
English.     8vo.     Lond.  1861. 

Taylor,  Joseph: — Antiquitates  Curi- 
osa  :  the  Etymology  of  many  Re^ 
markable  Old  Sayings^  Proverbs, 
and  Singular  Customs  Explained. 
i2mo.     Lond.  18 18. 

Thierry,  Amedee : — Histoire  des 
Caulois.  Second  Edition.  3  vols. 
8vo.     Paris,  1835. 

Thierry,  Augustin  :  —  Historical 
Works  of  containing  the  Conquest 

of  England  by  the  Normans,  and 

Narrative  of  the  Merovingian  Era. 

8vo.  Lond.  1851. 
Thirlwall,  Connop,   Bishop  of  St. 

David's  -.—The  History  of  Greece. 

8vo.  Lond.  1845. 
Thombury,  G.  W.  \^The Monarchs 

of  the  Main;  or.  Adventures  of  the 

Buccaneers.     3  vols.  8vo.     Lond. 

Thorpe,  Benjamin: — Northern  My- 
thology ;  comprising  the  principal 
Popular  traditions  and  supersti- 
tions of  Scandinavia,  North  Ger- 
many, and  the  Netherlands,  3 
vols.  8vo.     Lond.  185 1. 

Thrupp,  John  : — The  Anglo-Saxon 
Home,  a  History  of  the  Domestic 
Institutions  and  Customs  of  Eng- 
land from  the  Fifth  to  the  Eleventh 
Century.     8vo.     Lond.  1862. 

Timbs,  John : — Curiosities  of  London. 
i2mo.     Lond.  1855. 

Tooke,  John  Home  :  —  EIIEA 
ITTEPOENTA  :  or,  the  Diversions 
of  Purley.  Second  Edition. 
(First  Edition  of  part  ii.)  4to. 
Lond.  1798— 1805. 

Train,  Joseph  : — An  Historical  and 
Statistical  Account  of  the  Isle  of 
Man,      2  vols.   8vo.      Douglas, 


Trench,  Richard  Chenevix,  D.D. 
(Archbishop  of  Dublin)  : — On  the 
Study  of  Words.  Fifth  Edition. 
i2mo.     Lond.  1853. 

Trench,  Dr.  R.  C.  -.—English  Past 
and  Present.  Five  Lectures. 
Fourth  Edition.  i2mo.  Lond. 

Trench,  Dr.  R.  C.  :—A  Select  Glos- 
sary of  English  Words  used  for- 
merly in  senses  differetit from  their 
present.  Second  Edition.  Lond. 
i2mo.     1859. 

TroUope,  Adolphus  :—A  Lenten 
Journey  in  Umbria  and  the 
Marches.    8vo.     Lond.  1862. 

Tschudi : — Haupt-SchlUssel  zu  ver- 
schiedenen  Alterthumen.  Fol. 
Constantz,   1758. 

Turner,    Sharon  : — The  History  of 


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XXX         Bibliographical  L  ist  of  Books  consulted. 

ike  Anglo-Saxons.     Fifth  Edition. 
3  vols.  8vo.     Lond.  1828. 

Ungrisches  Magazin,  4  vols.  8vo. 
Pressburg,  1781 — 1787. 

Verstegan,  Richard : — Restitution  of 
Decayed  Intelligence  in  Antiquities^ 
l2mo.     Lond.  1673. 

Vilmar,  Dr. : — Die  Ortsnamen  in 
Kurhessen.  In  the  Zeitschrift  des 
Vereins  fUr  hessische  Geschichte 
und  I^andeskunde.  Vol.  i.  pp.  237 
— 282.     8vo.     Kassd,  1837. 

Warnkonig,  Leopold  August :  — 
Flandrische  Staats-  und  Rechts- 
geschichte ^  biszum  Jahr^  1305-  3 
vols.  8vo.  Tubingen,  1835 — 1842. 

Waiter,  Rev.  John  Wood:— 754if 
Seaboard  and  the  Down  ;  or^  My 
Parish  in  the  South.  2  vols.  8vo. 
Lond.  i860. 

Weber,  Albrecht: — IndischeSkizzen, 
8vo.     Berlin,  1857. 

Wedgwood,  Hensleigh  : — A  Dic- 
tionary of  English  Etymology, 
Vols.  i.  and  ii.  8vo.  Lond. 
1859,  &c. 

Welsford,  Henry : — On  the  Origin 
and  RamificcUions  of  the  English 
Language,     8vo.     Lond.  1845. 

Wenrich,  Joannes  Georgius :  — 
Rerum  ab  Arabibus  in  ItcUia 
instdisque  adjcuentibus^  Sicilia 
maxime^  Sardinia  atque  Corsica 
gestarum  CommentariL  8vo. 
Lipsi«e,  1845. 

Weston,  Stephen,  B.D.  '.-^Remains 
of  Arabic  in  the  Spanish  and 
Portuguese  Languages,  i2mo. 
Lond.  1818. 

Wheeler,  T.  Talboys:— T^y*^  Geo- 
graphy of  Herodotus,  8vo.  Lond. 

Whitaker,  John:— 7*^  History  of 
Manchester,     2  vols.  4to.     L^nd. 


WhiUker,  Thomas  Dunham : — An 
History  of  the  Original  Parish  of 
Whalley,  and  Honor  of  Clittieroe, 
Third  Edition.  Folio.  Lond.  181 8. 

Wilkinson,  Sir  T-  O.  \— Manners 
and  Customs  of  the  Ancient  Egyp- 
tians^    6  vols.  8vo.    Lond.    First 

Series,     1837;     Second    Series, 

Williams,  Archdeacon  John :  — 
Essays  on  Various  Subjects,  •  '8vo. 
Lond.  1858. 

Williams,  Roger  : — A  Key  into  the 
Languages  of  America,  i6mo. 
Lond.  1643. 

Wilson,  Daniel: — The  Archceology 
and  Pre-historic  Annals  of  Scot- 
land.    Royal  8vo.     Edin.  1 851. 

Wilson,  Daniel,  F.S.  A.  :  —  Pre- 
historic Man  ;  Researches  into  the 
Origin  of  Civilization  in  the  Old 
and  the  Hew  IVorU.  2  vols,  8vo. 
Cambridge,  1862. 

Wilton,  Rev.  Edward,  M.A.  : — 
TheHegeb.or  ''South  Country ''^ 
of  Scripture.    i2mo.  Lond.  1863. 

Witte,  J.  H.  F.  Carl  i—Alpinisches 
und  Transalpinisches.  Nenen  Vor- 
trdge.     i6mo.     Berlin,  1858. 

Worsaae,  J.  J.  A.  \—An  Account 
of  the  Danes  attd  Norwegians  in 
England^  Scotland^  and  Ireland. 
8vo.     Lond.  1852. 

Wright,  Thomas,  M.A.  : — Essays 
on  Archceological  Subjects,  2  vols. 
8vo.     Lond.  1861. 

Wright,  Thomas,  M.A.  .—Wander- 
ings of  an  Antiquary t  chiefly  upon 
the  Traces  of  the  Romans  in 
Britain.     i2mo.     Lond.  1854. 

Wright,  Thomas,  M.A.  \-^The  Celt, 
the  Ronuin,  attd  the  Saxon,  8vo. 
Lond.  1861. 

Wright,  Thomaa,  M.A.  i—On  Way- 
land  Smith.  In  the  Journal  of  the 
Archaeological  Association,  vol. 
xvi.  pp.  50—58. 

[Yonge,  C.  U.]-.— History  of  Chris- 
tian Names,  2  vols.  8vo.  Lond. 

Zeitschrift  fur  Vergleichende  Sprach- 
forschung  auf  dem  Gebiete  des 
Deutschen,  Griechischen  und  La- 
teinischen.  Herausgegeben  von 
Dr.  T.  Aufrecht  und  Dr.  A. 
Kuhn.  10  vols.  8vo,  Berlin, 
1852,  &c. 

Zeitschrift  der  Morgenlandische 


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Bibliographical  List  of  Books  consulted.       xxxi 

Ztitschrifi  fiir  Detttsche  Mythologies  2  vols,  (paged  continuously)  8vo. 

uiui  SUtenkuruU,     4   vols.    8vo.  Leipsig,  1853. 

Gottinffcn,  1853 — 1859.  Zeuss,  Kaspar: — Die  Herkunft  der 

Zeit:chr0fiir  Deutsches  Alterthum.  Baiern    von   den    Markomannen 

See  Haupt.  gfgt*^  die  bisherigen  MuthmassuU' 

Zeitschrifi  fUr  die  Wissenschaft  der  genbewiesen.  8vo.  MUnclien,  1839. 

Spracke.    8vo.    Greifswald,  1845,  Zeuss,     Kaspar: — Die    Deutschen 

&C.     See  Hofer.  und  die   Nachbarstdmnu,      8vo. 

Zenss,  J.  C  : — Grammatica  Celtica,  Miinchcn,  1837. 

Classical  writers,  such  as  Pliny,  Tacitus,  Josephus,  Juvenal,  Jerome, 
Beda,  Gregory  the  Great,  &c.  are  cited  by  the  chapter  and  verse.  The 
same  has  been  done  with  the  English  classics^— such  as  Shakespeare, 
Chaucer,  Wicliflfe,  Milton,  Scott,  and  Blackstone. 

The  titles  of  the  German  Philological  Journals  quoted  are  given  at  full 
length  in  the  preceding  list.  This  has  not  seemed  to  be  necessary  with 
well-known  English  periodicals — such  as  the  Quarterly^  Edinburgh^  North 
British^  and  Saturday  Reviews^  The  Times,  The  Guardian,  Notes  and 

Great  use  has  been  made  of  Richardson's  New  Dictionary  of  the  English 
Language,  2  vols.  4to.  ;  as  well  as  the  useful  Imperial  Dictiofuiry.  I  nave 
constancy  consulted  K.  von  Spruner's  Historisch-Geographisches  Hand- 
Atlas ;  the  Maps  of  the  Useful  Knowledge  Society  ;  the  Ordnance  Survey 
of  Great  Britain ;  and  the  convenient  reduction  published  by  Crutch  ley. 
I  have  also  used  the  large  Government  Surveys  of  France,  Switzerland, 
Belgium,  WUrtembeig,  Bavaria,  &c  and  other  ancient  and  modem  maps 
too  numerous  to  mention. 


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Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

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fiHlTlSH  ISLES  &l«OiU  JifiRK  FJ 
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Local  Names  always  significant,  and  possessed  of  great  vitality — Some  de- 
scriptive— Geological  value  of  such  names — Others  conserve  ethnological  and 
historical  facts,  or  illustrate  the  state  of  citnlization,  or  religion  in  past 

Local  names — whether  they  belong  to  provinces, 
cities,  and  villages,  or  are  the  designations  of  rivers  and 
mountains — are  never  mere  arbitrary  sounds,  devoid  of 
meaning.  They  may  ?ilways  be  regarded  as  records  of 
the  past,  inviting  and  rewarding  a  careful  historical  in- 

In  many  instances  the  original  import  of  such  names 
has  faded  away,  or  has  become  disguised  in  the  lapse 
of  ages;  nevertheless,  the  primeval  meaning  may  be 
recoverable,  and  whenever  it  is  recovered  we  have  gained 
a  symbol  that  may  prove  itself  to  be  full-fraught  with 
instruction ;  for  it  may  indicate — emigrations — ^immigra-  v 
tions — ^the  commingling  of  races  by  war  and  conquest,   "^ 



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2  Signijp^ancy  of  Local  Names. 

or  by  the  peaceful  processes  of  commerce : — the  name 
of  a  district  or  of  a  town  may  speak  to  us  of  events 
which  written  history  has  failed  to  commemorate.  A 
local  name  may  often  be  adduced  as  evidence  determi* 
native  of  controversies  that  otherwise  could  never  be 
brought  to  a  conclusion.       t   \} 

The  names  of  places  are  conservative  of  the  more 
archaic  forms  of  a  living  language,  or  they  embalm  for 
us  the  guise  and  fashion  of  speech  in  eras  the  most 
remote.  These  topographic  words,  which  float  down 
upon  the  parlance  of  successive  generations  of  men,  are 
subject  in  their  course  to  less  phonetic  abrasion,  than 
the  other  elements  of  a  people's  speech.  Such  words,  it 
is  true,  are  subject  to  special  perils,  arising  from  at- 
tempts at  accommodating  their  forms  to  the  require- 
ments of  popular  etymological  speculation  ;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  they  are  more  secure  than  other  words  from 
the  modifying  influences  of  grammatical  inflexion. 

The  name  of  many  an  ancient  city  seems  as  if  it 
were  endowed  with  a  sort  of  inherent  and  indestructible 
vitality :  it  is  still  uttered,  unchanged  in  a  single  letter 
— monumentum  (ere perennius — while  fragments  of  marble 
columns,  or  of  sculptures  in  porphyry  or  granite,  are 
seen  strewing  the  site  confusedly.^ 

What  has  been  affirmed  by  the  botanist  as  to  the 
floras  of  limited  districts,  may  be  said,  with  little  abate- 
ment, concerning  local  names — ^that  they  survive  the 
catastrophes  which  overthrow  empires,  and  that  they 
outlive  devastations  which  are  fatal  to  almost  every- 
thing besides.  Wars  may  trample  down  or  extirpate 
whatever  grows  upon  a  soil,  excepting  only  its  wild 
flowers,  and  the  names  of  those  sites  upon  which  man 
^  As  in  the  case  of  Tadmor,  Sidon,  or  Hamath. 


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Permanence  of  Names.  3 

has  found  a  home  Seldom  is  a  people  utterly  exter- 
minated,^ for  the  proud  conqueror  leaves  "  of  the  poor  of 
the  land"  to  till  the  glebe  anew;  and  these  enslaved 
outcasts,  though  they  may  hand  down  no  memory  of 
the  splendid  deeds  of  the  nation's  heroes,  yet  retain  a 
most  tenacious  recollection  of  the  names  of  the  hamlets 
which  their  own  ignoble  progenitors  inhabited,  and  near 
to  which  their  fathers  were  interred. 

Nineteen-twentieths  of  the  vocabulary  of  any  people 
lives  only  in  the  literature  and  the  speech  of  the  cul- 
tured classes.*  But  the  remainder — the  twentieth  part — 
has  a  robust  life  in  the  daily  usage  of  the  sons  of 
toil:  and  this  limited  portion  of  the  national  speech 
never  fails  to  include  the  names  of  those  objects  which 
are  the  most  familiar  and  the  most  beloved.  A  few 
score  of  ''household  words'*  have  thus  been  retained 
as  the  common  inheritance  of  the  whole  of  the  Indo- 
European  nations ; '  and  the  same  causes  have  secured 
the  local  preservation  of  local  names. 

1  Thus  in  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament,  we  have,  inci- 
dentally, a  proof  of  the  large  Caaaanite  element  remaining  after  the 
Isradiitsh  conquest  of  Palestine.  We  see  the  old  Canaanite  names 
straggling  for  existence  with  those  imposed  by  the  conquerors : — Kirjath 
Arba  with  Hebron;  Kirjath  Sepher  with  Debir;  Keneth  with  Nobar; 
Laz  with  Bethel ;  Ephratah  with  Bethlehem. — See  Stanley's  Lectures  on 
ike  Jewish  Chstrch^  p.  275. 

s  Of  the  50^000  words  in  the  English  language,  some  10,000  constitute 
the  vocabulary  of  an  educated  Englishman,  and  certainly  not  1,000,  perhaps 
not  more  than  500^  are  heard  in  the  mou^is  of  the  labouring  classes. — See 
Marsh,  Lectures  en  the  Engiish  Language,  pp.  125,  1^6;  Max  Mtiller^ 
Lectures  on  the  Science  rf  Language,  p.  268;  Saturday  Review,  Nov.  3, 1 861. 

>  The  names  of  the  numerals,  of  father,  mother,  and  brother,  of  the  parts 
of  the  body,  of  two  or  three  of  the  commoner  metals,  tools,  cereals,  and 
dcmiesticated  animals,  such  as  the  cat,  the  mouse,  and  the  goose,  as  well  as 
the  names  of  the  plough,  of  grist,  of  fire,  of  the  house,  as  well  as  some  of 
the  personal  pronouns  and  numerals,  come  within  this  category.  The 
analysis  of  words  of  this  class  enables  us  to  speculate  upon  the  relative 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

4  Significancy  of  L  ocal  Names. 

These  appellations,  which  have  thus  been  floated 
forward  from  age  to  age,  have  often,  or  they  had  at 
first,  a  descriptive  import ; — they  tell  us  something  of 
the  physical  features  of  the  land.  Thus  it  is  that  they 
may  either  give  aid  to  the  philologist  when  the  aspect 
of  the  country  remains  the  same — its  visible  forms  stand- 
ing in  view  as  a  sort  of  material  lexicon  of  a  tongue 
that  has  ceased  to  be  vernacular ;  or,  on  the  other  hand, 
where  the  face  of  nature  has  undergone  extensive 
changes — ^where  there  were  formerly,  it  may  be,  forests 
that  have  been  cleared,  marshes  that  have  been  drained, 
coast-lines  that  have  advanced  seaward,  rivers  that  have 
extended  their  deltas  or  found  new  channels,  estuaries 
that  have  been  converted  into  alluvial  soil,  lakes  that 
have  been  silted  up,  islands  that  have  become  gentle 
inland  slopes  surrounded  by  waving  corn- flats; — in  all 
such  cases,  instances  of  which  will  be  adduced  hereafter, 
these  pertinacious  names  have  a  geological  significance — 
they  come  into  use  as  a  record  of  a  class  of  events,  as 
to  which,  for  the  most  part,  written  history  is  silent.  In 
this  manner — and  the  instances  are  many — the  names  of 
»  places  become  available  as  the  beacon-lights  of  geologic 
history.    In  truth,  there  are  instances  in  which  local 

epochs  at  which  the  Celtic,  Romance,  Sclavonic,  and  Teutonic  families 
separated  from  the  parent  stock,  or  from  each  other,  and  also  to  detect  what 
progress  had  been  made  in  the  arts  of  life  at  the  periods  when  each  of  these 
separations  took  place.  See  Grimm*8  Gtschkhte  der  Deutschen  Spracht, 
pp.  9 — 113  ;  MaxMiiller,  On  Comparative  Mythology,  in  the  Oxford  Essays 
for  1856,  pp.  14 — ^26;  Leo,  Vorlesungen,  vol.  I  p.  il  ;  Wilson,  Prehistoric 
Annals  of  Scotland,  p.  350;  Weber,  Indische  Skizzen,  pp.  9,  10;  Glad- 
stone, Homer,  vol.  L  p.  299 ;  Pritchard,  Reports  of  Brit.  Assoc,  for  1847, 
p.  -940;  Mommsen,  Inhabilants  of  Italy,  pp.  ii — 14 ;  Pictet,  Origines 
Indo-Europ.  pt  i.  pp.  149 — 530 ;  pt.  ii.  pp.  739 — 75 1 ;  Bunsen,  Philosophy 
of  Universal  History,  vol.  L  pp.  75,  76 ;  Mannhardt,  Gotterwell,  vol.  i. 
p.  47 ;  Kuhn,  Zur  alteste  Gesckichte, 


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Descriptive  Import  of  Names,  5 

names,  conserved  in  places  where  little  or  nothing  else 
that  is  human  has  endured,  may  be  adduced  as  evidence 
of  vast  physical  mutations,  side  by  side  with  the  stone 
hatchets  and  the  spear-heads  of  the  drift  of  Abbeville, 
the  canoes  and  anchors  found  in  the  alluvium  of  the 
Carse  of  Falkirk  and  Strathclyde,  the  gnawed  bones  of 
the  Kirkdale  Cavern,  the  glaciated  rocks  of  Wales,  the 
rain-dinted  slabs  of  Sussex,  and  other  massive  vouchers 
in  the  physical  history  of  the  globe. 

The  picturesque  or  descriptive  character  of  local  names 
is,  as  might  be  anticipated,  prominently  exemplified  in 
the  appellations  bestowed  on  the  most  striking  feature 
in  landscape — ^mountain  peaks  and  ranges.  Thus  it  is 
easy  to  perceive  that,  in  every  region  of  the  world,  the 
loftier  mountains  have  been  designated  by  names  which 
describe  that  natural  phenomenon,  which  would  be  most 
certain  to  impress  the  imagination  of  a  rude  people. 
The  names  of  Snowdon,  Ben  Nevis,  Mont  Blanc,  the 
Sierra  Nevada  in  Spain,  Snafell  in  Iceland,  the  Sneeuw 
Bergen  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  the  Sneehatten  in 
Norway,  Sneekoppe  in  Bohemia,  and  the  Weisshorn,  the 
Weissmies,  and  the  Tdte  Blanche  in  Switzerland,  as  well 
as  the  more  archaic  or  more  obscure  names  of  Lebanon, 
of  Caucasus,  of  Haemus,  of  the  Himalaya,  of  Dwajala- 
giri,  and  of  Djebel-es-Sheikh,  are  appellations  descrip- 
tive, in  various  languages,  of  the  characteristic  snowy 
covering  of  these  lofty  summits. 

But  there  are  many  names  which  conjoin  historical 
and  physical  information.  Thus,  when  we  learn  that  the 
highest  summit  in  the  Isle  of  Man  is  called  SNAFELL,  we 
recognise  at  once  the  descriptive  character  of  the  name, 
and  we  might  be  satisfied  with  simply  placing  it  in  the 
foregoing  list    But  when  we  discover  that  the  name 


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6  Significatuy  of  Local  Names, 

Snafell  Is  a  true  Norse  word,  and  that  it  serves  moreover 
for  the  name  of  a  mountain  in  Norway,  and  of  another  in 
Iceland,  we  find  ourselves  in  presence  of  the  historical 
fact  that  the  Isle  of  Man  was,  for  centuries,  a  dependency 
of  the  Scandinavian  Crown — Shaving  been  conquered  and 
colonized  by  the  Norwegian  Vikings,  who  also  peopled 

This  is  an  instance  of  what  we  may  call  the  ethnolo- 
gical import  of  names.  The  chief  value  of  the  science  of 
geographical  etymology  consists  in  the  aid  which  it  is 
thus  able  to  give  us  in  the  determination  of  obscure  etb- 
nol(^ical  questions.  There  are  many  nations  which  have 
left  no  written  records,  and  whose  history  would  be  a 
blank  volume — or  nearly  so — ^were  it  not  that  in  the 
places  where  they  have  sojourned  they  have  left  traces 
of  their  migrations,  sufficient  to  enable  us  to  reconstruct 
the  main  outline  of  their  history.  The  hills,  the  valleys, 
and  the  rivers  are,  in  fact,  the  only  writing-tablets  on 
which  unlettered  nations  have  been  able  to  inscribe  their 
annals.  It  may  be  affirmed  that,  with  hardly  an  except 
tion,  the  great  advances  in  ethnological  knowledge  which 
have  recently  taken  place  are  due  to  the  decipherment  of 
the  obscure  and  time-worn  records  thus  conserved  in 
local  names.  The  Celtic,  the  Iberic,  the  Teutonic,  the 
Scandinavian,  and  the  Sclavonian  races  have  thus,  and 
for  the  most  part,  thus  only,  made  known  to  us  their 
migrations,  their  conquests,  and  their  defeats. 

To  this  subject — Etymology  in  its  relations  to  Ethno- 
logy— ^several  of  the  succeeding  chapters  will  be  devoted. 

But  we  sometimes  derive  historical  information  in  a 
still  more  explicit  form  from  local  names.  They  often 
preserve  the  memory  of  historic  sites,  and  even  enable 
us  to  assign  approximate  dates  to  certain  memorable 


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Historical  Import  of  Names.  y 

events.  Thus  there  is  a  meadow,  near  Stamford  Bridge/ 
which  still  goes  by  the  name  of  BATTLE  FLATS.  For 
eight  centuries,  this  name  has  kept  in  its  tenacious  grasp 
the  memory  of  the  precise  locality  of  the  famous  terri- 
torial concession  which  Harald,  son  of  Godwine,  made  to 
Harald  HardrAda,  King  of  Norway,  "  seven  feet  of  En- 
glish ground,  or  as  much  more  as  he  may  be  taller  than 
Qther  men."^  And  at  the  other  extremity  of  the  king- 
dom the  name  of  the  town  of  battle,  in  Sussex,  is  the 
epitaph  which  marks  the  spot  where,  \n  less  than  a  month, 
the  Saxon  king  lost  his  kingdom  and  his  life. 

The  names  of  messina  in  Sicily,  of  carthagena  in 
Spain,  and  of  MILETUS  in  Ionia,  repeat  the  names  of 
the  mother-cities  which  sent  out  these  colonies ;  and  the 
name  of  TRIPOLI  reminds  us  that  there  were  three  cities, 
— Tyre,  Sidon,  and  Aradus — ^which  joined  in  establishing 
the  new  settlement 

The  name  of  the  Philippine  Islands  tells  us  of  the 
reign  in  which  the  Spanish  galleons  steered  from  Peru 
across  the  Southern  Sea.  The  name  of  Louisiana  re- 
minds us  that,  in  the  days  of  the  Grand  Monargue, 
France  was  the  rival  of  England  in  the  colcftiization  of 
the  Western  World ;  and  the  names  of  Virginia,  of  the 
CAROLINAS,  and  of  GEORGIA  give  us  the  dates  of  the 
first  foundation  of  England's  colonial  empire,  and  of 
some  of  the  chief  successive  stages  in  its  progress.  The 
word  LONDONDERRY  Speaks  to  us  of  the  resettlement  of 
the  desolated  city  of  Derry  by  the  London  guilds ;  while 
the  names  KING'S  COUNTY  and  QUEEN'S  COUNTY, 
PHILIPSTOWN,  and  MARYBOROUGH,  commemorate  the 

^  Stamford  Bridge  was  long  known  as  Battle  Bridge — Pons  Belli, — 
Lappenbefg,  An^-Saxon  Kings^  voL  ii.  p.  iSi. 

'  Saga  of  Haiald  HardridA,  in  Laing's  ff^imskrinf^^  ToL  ui  p.  89. 


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S  Significancy  of  Local  Nantes. 

fact  that  it  was  in  the  days  of  King  Philip  and  Queen 
Mary  that  the  O'Mores  were  exterminated,  and  twd  new- 
counties  added  to  the  English  Pale. 

There  are  materials  of  yet  another  class  which  may  be 
collected  from  the  study  of  ancient  names.  From  them 
we  may  decipher  facts  that  have  a  bearing  on  the  history 
of  ancient  civilization.  With  regard,  for  example,  to 
Saxon  England,  we  may  from  local  names  draw  many 
inferences  as  to  the  amount  of  cultivated  land,  the  state 
of  agriculture,  the  progress  of  the  arts  of  construction, 
and  even  as  to  the  density  of  the  population,  and  its 
relative  distribution.  In  the  same  records  we  may  dis- 
cover vestiges  of  various  local  franchises  and  privileges, 
and  may  investigate  certain  social  differences  which  must 
have  characterised  the  districts  settled  respectively  by 
the  Saxons  and  the.  Danes.  And  we  may  collect  en- 
chorial vestiges  of  the  heathenism  of  our  forefathers,  and 
illustrate  the  process  by  which  it  was  gradually  effaced 
by  the  efforts  of  Christian  teachers. 

We  thus  perceive  how  many  branches  of  scientific, 
historical,  and  archaeological  research  are  capable  of  being 
elucidated  •by  the  study  of  names ;  and  it  is  manifest 
that,  upon  many  grounds,  the  work  of  their  Historical 
Interpretation  is  called  for.  The  almost  virgin  soil  of  a 
rich  field,  which  has  never  yet  been  systematically  culti- 
vated, presents  itself  before  the  labourer ;  and  an  indus- 
trious criticism,  bringing  into  combination  the  resources 
of  Geography,  of  Physical  Description,  of  Geology,  of 
Archaeology,  of  Ethnology,  of  Philology,  and  of  History, 
may  hope  to  reach  results,  more  or  less  important,  in 
each  of  these  departments  of  knowledge ;  or,  at  all  events, 
it  cannot  fail  to  indicate,  for  future  exploration,  some  pf 
the  sites  where  lie  buried  the  hidden  treasures  of  the  past 


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Colonization  of  America. 



ColonhuUum  of  America — Greenland^Leif  Ericson — Columbus— Religious 
fedifig  in  the  Names  given  by  the  Spaniards  and  by  the  Puritans — Salem 
—Providence— The  Quaker  Colony— Native  Indian  Names—  The  Eliza- 
bethan  worthies :  Frobisher^  Davis,  Baffin,  Hudson,  Drake,  and  Gilbert- 
Adventures  of  Captain  Smith— The  French  plantations— The  Dutch  in 
North  and  South  America — Magalhaens — Spanish  and  Portuguese  dis- 
coveries— TTte  Dutch  in  the  South  Seas-^New  Zealand  and  New  Holland 
— Recent  Arctic  discoveries^ 

1  HE  peopling  of  the  Eastern  Hemisphere  is  an  event  of 
the  distant  past  The  names  upon  the  map  of  Europe 
have  remained  there,  most  of  them  for  ten,  many  of  them 
for  twenty,  centuries*  To  study  them  is  a  task  full  of  dif- 
ficulties ;  for  they  are  mostly  derived  from  obscure  or 
unknown  languages,  and  they  have  suffered  more  or  less 
from  the  phonetic  changes  of  so  many  years.  But  with 
the  New  World  the  case  is  different.  The  colonization 
of  America  has  been  effected  during  the  modern  historic 
period,  the  process  of  name^iving  is  illustrated  by 
numerous  authentic  documents,  and  the  names  are  de- 
rived from  living  languages.  Just  as  the  best  introduction 
to  the  study  of  geolc^y  is  the  investigation  of  recent 
formations,  abounding  in  the  remains  of  still  existing 
organisms,  so  we  may  fitly  commence  our  present  task 
by*aa  examination  of  what  we  may  call  the  tertiary  de- 


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lo  Nanus  of  Recetit  Origin. 

posits  of  America  and  Australia,  which  are  still  in  process 
of  formation ;  and  we  shall  then  be  better  prepared  to 
explore  the  Wealden  and  other  secondary  formations  of 
the  Teutonic  Period,  and  the  still  older  primary  Celtic 
strata — Silurian,  Cambrian,  and  Devonian.  We  shall 
find  that  the  study  of  the  more  recent  names  throws 
much  light  on  those  natural  laws  which  have  regulated 
the  nomenclature  of  Europe :  and  the  investigation  is, 
moreover,  full  of  interest,  from  the  numerous  associations 
with  the  names  of  the  bold  conquistadors  and  the  daring 
seamen  whose  enterprise  has  added  another  continent  to 
the  known  world. 

By  means  of  the  names  upon  the  map,  we  may  trace 
the  whole  history  of  the  successive  stages  by  which  the 
white  men  have  spread  themselves  over  the  Western 
World.  We  may  discover  the  dates  at  which  the  several 
settlements  were  founded,  we  may  assign  to  each  of  the 
nations  of  Europe  its  proper  share  in  the  work  of  colo- 
nization, and,  lastly,  we  may  recover  the  names  of  the 
adventurous  captains  who  led  their  little  bands  of  daring 
followers  to  conquer  the  wilderness  from  nature,  or  from 
savage  tribes. 

The  name  of  GREENLAND  is  the  only  one  which  is 
left  to  remind  us  of  the  Scandinavian  settlements  which 
were  made  in  America  during  the  tenth  century.  The 
discoveries  of  Leif,  son  of  Eric  the  Red,  have  been  for- 
gotten, and  the  Norse  names  of  Vinland  (Massachusetts), 
Markland  (Nova  Scotia),  Helluland  it  mikla  (Labrador), 
and  Litla  Helluland  (Newfoundland),  have  been  super-> 
seded,  and  now  survive  only  in  the  memory  of  the 

Without  disparagement  of  the  claims  of  Leif  Ericson 
to  the  discovery  of  the  New  World,  we  may  r^ret  HtxaiX 


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Columbm.  1 1 

the  names  of  the  city  of  COLOMBUS  and  of  the  district 
of  COLUMBIA  form  the  only  memorials  of  the  bold  Ge- 
noese adventurer ;  and  we  may  wish  that  the  name  of  the 
entire  continent  had  been  such  as  to  remind  us,  day  by 
day,  of  the  exploits  of  Christopher  Columbus  rather  than 
of  those  of  Amerigo  VespuccL  Alexander  von  Hum- 
boldt^ has,  indeed,  vindicated  Vespucci  from  the  chaise 
of  trickery  or  forgery  which  Las  Casas  attempted  to 
fasten  upon  him;  and  we  must,  therefore,  regard  the 
aame  of  America  as  an  unfortunate  mistake  rather  than 
as  an  inglorious  and  successful  fraud.^ 

The  deep  religious  feeling  of  the  earlier  voyagers  is 
well  illustrated  by  the  names  which  they  bestowed  upon 
their  discoveries.  The  first  land  descried  by  Columbus 
was  the  island  of  SAN  SALVADOR.  From  day  to  day  he 
held  on,  in  spite  of  the  threats  of  his  mutinous  crew,  who 
threatened  to  throw  the  crazy  visionary  into  the  sea. 
With  what  vividness  does  this  name  of  San  Salvador 
disclose  the  feelings  with  which,  on  the  seventieth  night 
of  the  dreary  voyage,  the  brave  Genoese  caught  sight  of 
what  seemed  to  be  a  light  gleaming  on  some  distant 
shore ;  how  vividly  does  that  name  enable  us  to  realize 
the  scene  when,  on  the  next  day,  with  a  humble  and 
grateful  pride,  he  set  foot  upon  that  new  world  of 
which  he  had  dreamed  from  his  boyhood,  and,  having 
erected  the  symbol  of  the  Christian  faith  and  knelt  before 
it,  he  rose  from  his  knees  and  proclaimed,  in  a  broken 
voice,  that  the  land  should  henceforth  bear  the  name  of 
San  Salvador — the  Holy  Saviour,  who  had  preserved  him 
through  so  many  perils  1 

^  Cosmos^  voL  il  note  457. 

*  The  error  obtained  cnrrency  from  a  work  on  Geography,  published  in 
the  year  1507. 


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1 2  Names  of  Recent  Origin. 

We  cannot  but  reverence  the  romantic  piety  which 
chequers  the  story  of  the  violence  and  avarice  of  the  con* 
quistadors.  On  the  discovery  of  unknown  shores,  the 
first  thought  of  those  fierce  soldiers  was  to  claim  the 
lands  as  new  kingdoms  of  their  Lord  and  Master,  and  to 
erect  forthwith  His  symbol,  the  SANTA  CRUZ,  the  VERA 
CRUZ,  the  name  of  which  marks  upon  our  maps  so  many 
of  the  earliest  settlements  of  the  Spaniards  and  Por- 

The  name  of  SAN  SEBASTIAN,  the  first  Spanish  colony 
founded  on  the  continent  of  South  America,  forms  a 
touching  memorial  of  the  perils  which  beset  the  earlier 
colonists.  On  disembarking  from  the  ships,  seventy  of 
the  Spaniards  were  killed  by  the  poisoned  arrows  of  the 
Indians ;  on  which  account  the  dangerous  spot  was  put 
under  the  special  protection  of  the  martyr,  who,  by  reason 
of  the  circumstances  of  his  death,  might  be  supposed  to 
feel  a  personal  and  peculiar  sympathy  with  those  who 
were  exposed  to  the  like  sufferings.^ 

As  in  the  case  of  many  great  men,  there  seems  to 
have  been  a  sort  of  mysticism  underlying  the  piety  of 
Columbus.  On  his  third  voyage  he  discerned  three 
mountain-peaks  rising  from  the  waters,  and  supposed  that 
three  new  islands  had  been  discovered.  On  a  nearer 
approach,  it  was  found  that  the  three  summits  formed 
one  united  land — a  fact  which  the  admiral  recognised  as 
a  mysterious  emblem  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  there- 
fore bestowed  upon  the  island  the  name  of  LA  TRINIDAD, 
which  it  still  retains. 

^  So  too  the  name  of  the  ladrones,  or  *'  Robbers'  Islands/*  comme- 
morates the  losses  of  Magelhaen's  crew  from  the  thievish  propensities  of  the 
natives.  The  name  sierra  leone,  The  Lion's  range,  records  the  terrors 
of  the  Portuguese  discoverers  at  the  nightly  roaring  of  the  lions  in  the 
mountains  which  fringe  the  coast 


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The  Soldiers  of  the  Cross,  1 3 

The  Spaniards  were  devout  observers  of  the  festivals 
of  the  Church,  and  this  circumstance  often  enables  us  to 
fix  the  precise  day  on  which  great  discoveries  were  made. 
Thus  FLORIDA,  with  its  dreary  swamps,  is  not  the 
**  Flowery  Land,"  as  it  is  sometimes  thought  to  be  ;  but 
its  name  records  the  fact  that  it  was  discovered  by  Juan 
Ponce  de  Leon  on  Easter  Sunday — a  festival  which  the 
Spaniards  call  Pascua  Florida,  from  the  flowers  with 
which  the  churches  are  then  decked.  The  island  of 
DOMINICA  was  discovered  on  a  Sunday — dies  Dominica. 
"NATAL  was  discovered  by  Vasco  de  Gama  on  Christmas- 
day — dies  Natalis,  Alfonso  de  Sousa  founded  the  first 
Portuguese  colony  in  the  Brazils,  and  its  name  JANEIRO, 
recalls  the  fact  that  he  landed  on  the  Feast  of  St  Janu- 
arius.  The  town  of  ST.  AUGUSTINE^  the  oldest  in  the 
United  States,  was  founded  on  St.  Augustine's-day  by 
Melendez,  who  was  sent  by  Philip  IL  of  Spain  on  the 
pious  mission  of  exterminating  a  feeble  colony  of 
Huguenot  refugees,  who  were  seeking,  on  the  coast  of 
Florida,  that  religious  liberty  which  was  denied  them  in 
their  native  land. 

The  islands  of  ASCENSION  and  ST.  HELENA,  the  River 
ST.  LAWRENCE,  and  other  places  too  numerous  to  men- 
tion, thus  date  the  day  of  their  discovery  by  their  names. 

A  religious  feeling  equally  intense  with  that  which 
dictated  the  names  bestowed  by  the  Spanish  discoverers, 
but  very  different  in  character,  is  evinced  by  the  names 
which  mark  the  sites  of  the  Earlier  Puritan  colonies  in 
North  America. 

Salem  was  intended  to  be  the  earthly  realization  of 
the  New  Jerusalem,  where  a  "  New  Reformation,"  of  the 
sternest  Calvinistic  type,  was  to  inaugurate  a  fresh  era  in 
the  history  of  the  world,  and  a  strict  discipline  was  to 


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14  Names  of  Recent  Origiiu 

eradicate  every  frailty  of  our  human  nature  from  this 
City  of  the  Saints.  From  the  laws  of  the  neighbouring 
town  of  Newhaven,^  as  given  by  Hutchinson,  we  may 
gather  some  notion  of  Life  in  this  Puritan  Utopia. 
Among  other  things,  it  was  there  enacted,  under  severe 
penalties: — 

''  That  no  one  shall  be  a  freeman  unless  he  be  con* 

' ''  That  no  one  shall  run  on  the  Sabbath,  or  walk  in 
his  garden. 

'^  That  no  one  shall  make  beds,  cut  hair,  or  shave,  and 
no  woman  shall  kiss  her  children  on  the  Sabbath. 

"That  no  one  shall  make  mince-pies,  or  play  any  in- 
strument, except  the  trumpet,  drum,  and  jews*-harp, 

"  That  no  food  or  lodging  shall  be  given  to  any  Quaker 
or  other  heretic" 

The  laws  of  Massachusetts  assigned  the  penalty  of 
death  to  all  Quakers,  as  well  as  to  ''  stubborn  and  rebel- 
lious sons,"  and  to  all  ^'children,  above  sixteen,  who 
curse  or  smite  their  natural  father  or  mother,"  and  to 
persons  guilty  of  idolatry,  witchcraft,  or  blasphemy. 

These  laws,  breathing  the  spirit  of  Christianity  as 
understood  by  the  Puritan  exiles  for  conscience*  sake, 
quickly  bore  their  fruit.  Roger  Williams,  a  noble-hearted 
man,  who,  strange  to  say,  had  been  chosen  to  be  minister 
at  Salem,  dared  to  affirm  the  heresy  that  **  the  doctrine 
of  persecution  for  cause  of  conscience  is  most  evidently 
and  lamentably  contrary  to  the  doctrine  of  Christ  Jesus,** 

^  Caswall,  TkeAmtrkan  Church  and  the  American  Union^  p*3S>  Lucas, 
SeculariUf  pp.  419,  227.  Since  the  first  Edition  of  Words  and  Places  was 
published  I  have  received  a  letter  from  an  American  correspondent  in  which 
he  informs  me  that  these  so-called  "Blue  Laws"  are  a  forgery.  My  cor- 
respondent assigns  no  reasons,  bat  I  sincerely  hope  his  statement  is  correct. 


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Puritan  Names*  1 5 

and  that  ^  no  man  should  be  bound  to  worship  against 
his  own  consent"  For  maintaining  these  heterodox 
opinions,  which  struck  at  the  root  of  the  New  England 
system  of  polity,  Williams  had  sentence  of  exile  pro- 
nounced s^inst  him.  He  wandered  forth  into  the  snows 
of  a  New  England  winter :  '*  for  fourteen  weeks,"  he  says, 
*  he  often,  in  the  stormy  night,  had  neither  fire  nor  food, 
and  had  no  house  but  a  hollow  tree/ 

The  savages  showed  him  the  mercy  which  his  fellow- 
Christians  had  refused  him,  an  Indian  chief  gave  him 
food  and  shelter ;  but  that  wigwam  in  the  far  forest  was 
soon  pronounced  to  be  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Puritan  colony,  and  the  Apostle  of  Toleration,  hunted 
even  from  the  wilderness,  embarked  with  five  companions 
in  a  canoe,  and  landed  in  Rhode  Island.  With  simple 
piety  he  called  the  spot  where  the  canoe  first  touched 
the  land,  by  the  name  of  PROVIDENCE — ^a  place  which 
still  remains  the  capital  of  Rhode  Island,  the  State  which 
Williams  founded  as  ''a  shelter  for  persons  distressed  for 
conscience."  * 

The  name  of  CONCORD,  the  capital  of  the  State  of 
New  Hampshire,  shews  that  some  at  least  of  the 
Puritans  were  actuated  by  feelings  more  in  harmony 
with  the  spirit  of  the  religion  they  professed;  while 
PHILADELPHIA,  the  City  of  Brotherly  Love,  tells  a 
touching  tale  of  the  unbrotherly  persecutions  which 
filled  the  gaols  of  England  with  60,000  Quakers, — 
persecutions  from  which  they  fled,  in  the  hope  of  in- 
augurating a  Utopian  era  of  peace  and  harmony. 

All  readers  of  Pepys'  amusing  Diary  are  familiar  with 
the  name  of  his  colleague  at  the  Admiralty,  Sir  William 
Feim.    The  funds  which  should  have  found  their  way 

^  Bancroft^  History  rfike  United  States^  red.  i  pp.  276—286. 


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1 6  Names  of  Recent  Origin, 

into  the  naval  chest  were  diverted  to  purposes  more 
agreeable  to  the  "  merry  monarch"  than  the  purchase  of 
tar  and  timber ;  and,  in  consequence,  the  fortune  which 
the  Comptroller  of  the  Navy  bequeathed  to  his  Quaker 
son,  was  a  claim  on  the  royal  purse  for  the  sum  of 
16,000/.  The  money  not  being  forthcoming,  young 
:Penn — ^who,  much  to  the  annoyance  of  his  family,  had 
embraced  the  tenets  of  the  Quakers — obtained,  in  satis- 
faction of  his  claims,  a  large  grant  of  forest-land  in 
North  America,  and  led  forth  a  colony  of  Quakers  to 
found  the  new  colony,  called,  after  himself,  PENN- 

The  name  of  BOSTON  reminds  us  of  the  part  of 
England  from  which  the  first  Puritan  settlers  emigrated. 
They  had,  with  much  difficulty,  escaped  from  the  Lin- 
colnshire coast — ^some  of  them  having  been  apprehended 
on  the  beach  for  the  crime  of  attempting  to  reach  a 
country  where  they  might  worship  according  to  their 
consciences.  Their  first  refuge  was  in  Holland,  from 
whence  the  Mayflower  carried  them  to  the  shores  of 
New  England,  and  on  the  nth  of  December,  1620, 
landed  them  on  a  desolate  spot,  five  hundred  miles  from 
the  nearest  settlement  of  white  men.  To  this  spot  they 
gave  the  name  of  PLYMOUTH — a  reminiscence  of  the  last 
English  land  which  they  had  seen  as  they  passed  down 
the  Channel* 

HOBOKEN  (an  Indian  word,  meaning  the  "smoke 
pipe")  was  the  name  of  a  spot  in  New  Jersey,  at  which 
the  settlers  met  the  Indian  chiefs  in  council,  and  smoked 
the  pipe  of  peace,  while  they  formed  a  league  of  amity 

1  The  Puritan  emigration  lasted  twenty  years — ^from  1620  to  1640.  During 
this  period,  21,000  emigrants  crossed  the  Atlantic.  The  population  of  the 
six  New  England  States  is  now  upwards  of  three  millions* 


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Indian  Names.  ly 

— ^too  soon,  alas!  to  be  broken  by  the  massacre  of 
BLOODY  BROOK,  where  so  many  of  the  colonists  were 
treacherously  slain.  Hoboken  is  one  of  the  many  Indian 
names  which  we  find  scattered  over  the  map  of  the 
American  continent,  and  which  are  frequently  used  to 
designate  the  great  natural  features  of  the  country,  the 
lakes,  the  rivers,  the  mountain  ranges,  and  the  chief 
natural  territorial  divisions.^  Such  are  the  names  of 
the  NIAGARA,  the  POTOMAC,  the  OTTAWA,  the  RAPPA- 
The  name  of  MEXICO  is  derived  from  Mexitli,  the 
Aztec  war-god.  TLASCALA  means  "the  place  of  bread." 
HAYTI  is  the  "  mountainous  country."  The  ANDES  take 
their  name  from  the  Peruvian  word  anta — copper.  Local 
names  are  the  only  memorial  of  many  once  powerful 
tribes  which  have  become  extinct.  The  names  of  the 
ALLEGHANY  Range,  the  MOHAWK  Valley,  Lake  HURON, 
Lake  ERIE,  Lake  NIPISSING,  the  City  of  NATCHEZ, 
CHEROKEE  County,  the  River  OTTAWA,  and  the  States 
of  KANSAS,  OHIO,  and  ILLINOIS  are  all  derived  from  the 
names  of  tribes  already  extinct  or  rapidly  becoming  so. 
Centuries  hence,  the  historian  of  the  New  World  will 
point  to  these  names  as  great  ethnological  landmarks : 
they  will  have,  in  his  eyes,  a  value  of  the  same  kind  as 
that  which  is  now  attached  to  the  names  of  Hesse, 
Devonshire,  The  Solway,  Paris,  or  Turin.^ 

The  name  of  VIRGINIA  carries  us  back  to  the  reign  of 

^  The  rivers  and  mouDtaiiis  receive  their  names  from  the  earliest  races, 
villages  and  towns  from  later  colonists.  Many  illustrations  of  the  principle 
will  be  adduced  in  Chapter  IX. 

See  Chapter  IV.  and  Appendix  A. 


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1 8  Names  of  Recent  Origin, 

the  Virgin  Queen,  and  gives  us  the  date  of  the  exploits 
of  those  hardy  sailors,  who  cast  into  the  shade  the  deeds 
even  of  the  Spanish  conquistadors.  Not  far  from  the 
scene  of  one  of  his  ruinous  enterprises,^  the  most  chival- 
rous, the  most  adventurous,  the  most  farsighted,  and  the 
most  unfortunate  of  Englishmen,  has  recently  had  a 
tardy  tribute  paid  to  him,  in  the  adoption,  by  the 
Legislature  of  North  Carolina,  of  the  name  of  kaleigh 
as  the  designation  of  the  capital  of  the  State  in  which 
Raleigh's  colony  was  planted.  On  RALEIGH  island,  at 
the  entrance  of  Roanoke  Sound,  may  still  be  discerned 
the  traces  of  the  fort  around  which  the  adventurers 
built  the  CITY  OF  RALEIGH,  a  place  which  has  now 
vanished  from  the  map.  Of  Raleigh's  other  enterprises, 
more  especially  of  his  quixotic  ascent  of  the  Orinoco  for 
four  hundred  miles  in  small  open  boats,  no  local  name 
remains  as  a  memorial. 

The  names  of  other  heroes  of  the  Elizabethan  era  are 
to  be  sought  elsewhere.  In  the  Northern  Seas  we  find 
a  record  of  the  achievements  of  four  brave  Englishmen 
— Frobisher,  Davis,  Baffin,  and  Hudson.  The  adven- 
turous spirit  which  actuated  this  band  of  naval  worthies 
is  shown  in  the  declaration  of  Martin  Frobisher,  who 
deemed  the  discovery  of  the  North- West  Passage  "  the 
only  thing  of  the  world  that  was  yet  left  undone  by 
which  a  notable  minde  might  be  made  famous  and 
fortunate."  In  command  of  two  little  barks,  respectively 
of  25  and  20  tons,  and  accompanied  by  a  small  pinnace, 
FROBISHER  Steered  for  the  unknown  seas  of  ice,  and, 
undaunted  by  the  loss  of  the  pinnace  and  the  mutinous 
defection   of  one   of  his   crews,    he  persevered   in   his 

^  Cape  fear  commemorates  the  narrow  escape  from  destruction  of  one 
of  the  expeditions  sent  out  by  Raleigh. 


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Frobisher^  Davis,  and  Baffin.  19 

.  enterprise,  and  discovered   the  strait  which  bears  his 

John  Davis,  with  two  ships  respectively  of  50  and  35 
tons,  followed  up  the  discoveries  which  Frobisher  had 
made.  With  a  brave  heart  he  kept  up  the  courage  of 
his  sickly  sailors,  who  were  struck  with  terror  at  the 
strange  sight  of  huge  floating  icebergs  towering  overhead, 
and  at  the  fearful  crash  of  the  icefloes  as  they  ground  one 
against  the- other,  and  threatened  the  ships  with  instant 
destruction.  When,  at  length,  the  wished-for  land  came 
in  sight,  it  was  found  to  be  so  utterly  barren  and  inhos- 
pitable that  the  disappointed  seamen  gave  it  the  name 
which  it  still  bears — CAPE  DESOLATION.  But  Davis 
persevered,  and  was  rewarded  by  the  discovery  of  an 
open  passage  leading  to  the  North-West,  to  which 
the  name  of  DAVIS*  straits  has  been  rightfully 

Bylot  and  Baffin,  with  one  small  vessel,  and  a  crew  of 
fourteen  men  and  two  boys,  eclipsed  all  that  Davis  had 
done,  and  ventured  into  unknown  seas,  where,  for  the 
next  two  hundred  years,  none  dared  to  follow  them. 
They  discovered  the  magnificent  expanse  of  water 
which  is  known  by  the  name  of  BAFFIN'S  BAY,  and  they 
coasted  round  its  shores  in  hopes  of  finding  some  outlet 
towards  the  North  or  West.  Three  channels  were 
discovered,  to  which  they  gave  the  names  of  Sir  James 
LANCASTER,  Sir  Thomas  SMITH,  and  Alderman  JONES, 
by  whose  countenance  and  pecuniary  assistance  they 
had  been  enabled  to  equip  the  expedition. 

The  adventurous  life  and  tragic  fate  of  Henry  Hud- 

1  Hackluyt,  Navigations^  vol.  iii.  pp.  29 — 96.  Cf.  Calendar  of  State 
Papersy  Dom.  Ser,  1577-9. 

*  Hackluyt,  Navigations,  vol,  iii.  pp.  9? — 120, 

C  2 


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20  .  Names  of  Recent  Origin, 

son  would  make  an  admirable  subject  for  an  historical 
romance.  The  narration  is  quaintly  given  in  Purcltas 
His  Pilgrimes;^  but,  fortunately  or  unfortunately,  it 
has  not,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  been  selected  as  a  theme 
by  any  modern  writer.  Hudson's  first  voyage  was  an 
attempt  to  discover  the  North-East  Passage  to  India. 
With  ten  men  and  a  boy,  he  had  succeeded  in  attaining 
the  coast  of  Spitzbergen,  when  the  approach  of  winter 
compelled  him  to  return.  In  a  second  voyage  he 
reached  Nova  Zembla.  The  next  year  he  traced  the 
unknown  coast-line  of  New  England,  and  entered  the 
great  river  which  bears  his  name.  His  last  expedition 
was  rewarded  by  still  greater  discoveries  than  any  he 
had  hitherto  effected.  In  a  bark  of  55  tons  he  attempted 
the  North-West  Passage,  and,  penetrating  through 
HUDSON'S  STRAIT,  he  reached  HUDSON'S  BAY,  where 
his  ship  was  frozen  up  among  the  icefloes.  Patiently  he 
waited  for  the  approach  of  spring,  although,  before  the 
ship  was  released,  the  crew  had  been  reduced  to  feed 
on  moss  and  frogs.  After  awhile,  they  fortunately 
succeeded  in  catching  a  supply  of  fish,  and  prepared  to 
return  home,  with  provisions  for  only  fourteen  days. 
Dismayed  at  this  prospect  of  starvation,  the  crew 
mutinied,  and,  with  the  object  of  diminishing  the 
number  of  mouths  to  be  fed,  they  treacherously  seized 
their  brave  captain ;  and  having  placed  in  a  small  boat 
a  little  meal,  a  musket,  and  an  iron  pot,  they  cast 
Hudson  adrift,  with  eight  sick  men,  to  find  a  grave  in 
the  vast  inland  sea,  the  name  of  which  is  the  worthy 
epitaph  of  one  of  the  most  daring  of  England's  seamen. 
The  names  of  these  four  men — Frobisher,  Davis,  Baffin, 
and  Hudson — ^the  world  will  not  willingly  let  die. 
^  Purchas,  PUgrimes^  yol.  ill  pp.  567 — 609. 


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Hudson^  Drake,  and  Gilbert  2 1 

The  naval  triumphs  of  the  Elizabethan  era  are  also 
associated,  in  the  minds  of  Englishmen,  with  the  exploits 
of  Drake  and  Gilbert,  although  they  have  not  been 
fortunate  enough  to  give  their  names  to  seas  or  cities. 
Drake's  almost  fabulous  adventures — his  passage  of  the 
Straits  of  Magalhaens— his  capture  of  huge  treasure- 
ships  with  his  one  small  bark — ^his  voyage  of  1,400  miles 
across  the  Pacific,  which  he  was  the  first  Englishman  to 
navigate — ^his  discovery  of  the  western  coast  of  North 
America,  and  his  successful  circumnavigation  of  the 
globe,  form  the  subject  of  a  romantic  chapter  in  the 
history  of  maritime  adventure. 

But  a  still  higher  tribute  of  admiration  is  due  to 
the  brave  and  pious  Sir  Humphrey  Gylberte,  who,  on 
his  return  from  his  expedition  to  NEWFOUNDLAND, 
attempted  to  cross  the  Atlantic  in  his  "Frigat,"  the 
Squirrel^  a  little  vessel  of,  10  tons.  Near  the  Azores, 
a  storm  arose,  in  which  he  perished.  The  touching 
account  of  his  death  as  given  in  Hackluyt,  is  well 
known,  but  it  can  hardly  be  repeated  too  often :  "  The 
Generall,  sitting  abaft  with  a  booke  in  his  hand,  cried 
out  to  us  in  the  Hind,  so  oft  as  we  did  approach  within 
hearing,  *  We  are  as  neere  to  heaven  by  "sea  as  by  land,* 
— ^reiterating  the  same  speech,  well  beseeming  a  souldier 
resolute  in  Jesus  Christ,  as  I  can  testifie  he  was.  The 
same  Monday  night,  about  twelve  of  the  clocke,  or  not 
long  after,  the  Frigat  being  ahead  of  us  in  the  Golden 
Hinde,  suddenly  her  lights  were  out,  whereof,  as  in  a 
moment,  we  lost  the  sight,  and  withall  our  watch  cryed 
the  Generall  was  cast  away,  which  was  too  true ;  for  in 
that  moment  the  Frigat  was  devoured  and  swallowed  up 
of  the  sea,"  ^ 

^  Hacklnyt,  Navigations,  voL  iii.  p.  159. 


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22  Names  of  Recent  Origin. 

Such  were  the  gallant  gentlemen  and  "soldiers  resolute 
in  Jesus  Christ"  who  made  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  illus- 

The  records  of  the  progress  of  English  colonization 
during  the  next  reign  are  to  be  sought  on  the  banks  of 
the  JAMES  River.  On  either  side,  at  the  entrance  of 
this  river,  are  Cape  henry  and  Cape  CHARLES.  Cape 
Charles  was  called  after  "Baby  Charles,"  and  Cape 
Henry  bears  the  name  of  the  hopeful  prince  whose 
accession  to  the  throne  might  probably  have  changed 
the  whole  course  of  English  history.  ELIZABETH 
County,  which  formed  M'Clellan's  base  of  operations 
in  the  late  campaign,  and  in  which  stands  Fortress 
Monroe,  was  so  called  in  honour  of  the  sister  of  these 
princes — the  hapless  Winter  Queen,  the  mother  of 
Prince  Rupert.  SMITH'S  ISLES,  near  Cape  Charles,  and 
SMITHFIEL1>,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  James  River, 
^re  memorials  of  Captain  John  Smith,  a  man  of  rare 
genius  and  enterprise,  to  whom,  even  more  than  to 
Raleigh,  the  ultimate  establishment  of  the  English 
colony  in  Virginia  is  due. 

Even  in  those  days  of  wild  adventure.  Smith's  career 
had  been  such  as  distinguished  him  above  all  his  fellow- 
colonists  in  Virginia.  When  almost  a  boy  he  had  fought, 
under  Leicester,  in  that  Dutch  campaign,  the  incredible 
mismanagement  of  which  has  been  so  ably  detailed  by 
Mr.  Motley.  His  mind,  as  he  tells  us,  "  being  set  upon 
brave  adventures,"  he  had  roamed  over  France,  Italy, 
and  Egypt,  doing  a  little  piracy,  as  it  would  now  be 
called,  in  the  Levant.  Coming  to  Hungary,  he  took 
service  for  the  war  with  the  Turks,  against  whom  he 
devised  many  "excellent  stratagems,"  and  performed 
prodigies  of .  valour   in   various   single    combats    with 


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Captain  John  Smith.  21 

Turkish  champions,  slaying  the  "  Lord  Turbashaw,"  also 
"  one  Grualgo,  the  vowed  friend  of  Turbashaw,"  as  well 
as  '*  Bonny  Mulgro,"  who  tried  to  avenge  the  death  of 
the  other  two. 

After  numerous  adventures,  for  which  the  reader  must 
be  referred  to  his  amusing  autobiography,  a  general  en- 
gagement took  place,  and  Captain  Smith  was  left  for 
dead  upon  the  field  of  battle.  Here  he  was  made 
prisoner,  and  sold  into  slavery  at  Constantinople.  Being 
regarded  with  too  much  favour  by  his  "fair  mistresse," 
who  "tooke  much  compassion  on  him,"  he  was  sent  into 
the  Crimea,  where  he  was  "  no  more  regarded  than  a 
beast."  Driven  to  madness  by  this  usage,  he  killed  his 
taskmaster,  the  Tymor,  whose  clothes  he  put  on,  and 
whose  horse  he  appropriated,  and  thus  succeeded  in  es- 
caping across  the  steppes ;  and,  after  overcoming  many 
perils,  he  at  last  reached  a  Christian  land.  "  Being  thus 
satisfied  with  Europe  and  Asia,"  and  hearing  of  the 
"  warres  in  Barbarie,"  he  forthwith  proceeded  to  the  in- 
terior of  Morocco,  in  search  of  new  adventures.  We 
next  hear  of  him  "  trying  some  conclusions  at  sea  "  with 
the  Spaniards;  and  at  last,  at  thirty  years  of  age,  he 
found  himself  in  Virginia,  at  a  time  when  a  great  portion 
of  the  hundred  colonists  had  perished,  and  the  survivors 
were  meditating  the  abandonment  of  what  seemed  a 
hopeless  enterprise.  Before  long.  Smith's  force  of  cha- 
racter placed  him  at  the  Hfead  of  affairs,  which  soon  began 
to  improve  under  the  influence  of  his  resolute  and  hope- 
ful genius.  But  the  position  of  responsibility  in  which 
he  was  placed  could  not  put  a  stop  to  the  execution  of 
his  adventurous  projects.  In  an  open  boat  he  made  a 
coasting  voyage  of  some  three  thousand  miles,  in  the 
course  of  which  he  discovered  and  explored  the  Potomac. 


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24  Names  of  Recent  Origin, 

On  the  occasion  of  one  of  these  expeditions,  his  com- 
panions were  all  cut  off  by  the  Indians,  and  he  himself, 
**  beset  with  200  salvages,"  was  taken  prisoner  and  con- 
demned to  die.  Brought  before  the  King  of  Pamaunkee, 
"  the  salvages "  had  fastened  him  to  a  tree,  and  were 
about  to  make  him  a  target  for  the  exhibition  of  their 
skill  .^n  archery,  when  he  obtained  his  release  by  the 
adroitMisplay  of  the  great  medicine  of  a  pocket-compass. 
"  A  bagge  of  gunpowder,"  which  had  come  into  the  pos- 
session of  the  salvages,  "  they  carefully  preserved  till  the 
next  spring,  to  plant  as  they  did  their  corne,  because 
they  would  be  acquainted  with  the  nature  of  that  seede.^ 
Taken  at  length  before  "  Powhattan,  their  Emperor,"  for 
the  second  time  Smith  had  sentence  of  death  passed 
upon  him.  "  Two  great  stones  were  brought ;  as  many 
as  could,  layd  hands  on  him,  dragged  him  to  them,  and 
thereon  laid  his  head,  being  ready  with  their  clubs  to 
beate  out  his  braines."  At  this  juncture  "  Pocahontas, 
the  king's  dearest  daughter,"  a  beautiful  girl,  the  "  non- 
pareil of  the  country,"  was  touched  with  pity  for  the 
white-skinned  stranger;  and,  "when  no  intreaty  could 
prevaile,"  she  rushed  forward  and  "  got  his  head  in  her 
armes,  and  laid  her  owne  upon  his  to  save  him  from 
death,"  and  thus  succeeded,  at  the  risk  of  her  life,  in  ob- 
taining the  pardon  of  the  prisoner.  Pocahontas  was 
afterwards  married  to  John  Rolfe,  "an  honest  and  dis- 
creet "  young  Englishman,  and  from  her  some  of  the  first 
families  of  the  Old  Dominion  are  proud  to  trace  their 

1  This  account  is  abridged  from  The  True  Travels^  Adventures,  and 
Observations  of  Captain  John  Smith  in  Europe,  Asia,  Africke,  and  America^ 
Londpn,  1629 ;  and  The  Generall  Historie  of  Virginia,  New  England,  and 
the  Sommer  /s/es,  London,  1627 — ^two  most  quaint  and  delightful  works,  of 


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The  French  Plantations,  25 

The  State  of  FLORIDA,  as  the  name  imports,  was 
originally  a  Spanish  colony.  LOUISIANA,  NEW  ORLEANS, 
MOBILE,  and  many  other  names,  remind  us  that,  in  the 
reign  of  Louis  XIV.,  France  held  firm  possession  of  the 
Valley  of  the  Mississippi,  and  stretched  a  chain  of  forts, 
by  ST.  LOUIS,  ST.  CHARLES,  and  the  State  of  Illinois,  to 
FOND  DU  LAC  and  LAC  SUPERIEUR,  the  "  Upper  Lake  " 
of  the  great  chain  of  lakes,  as  far  as  DETROIT,  the  "  nar- 
row passage  "  between  the  LAC  ST.  CLAiR  and  Lake  Erie. 
In  Canada  we  are  surrounded  by  French  names.  QUEBEC 
is  a  name  transferred  from  Brittany,^  and  MONTREAL  is 
the  "  Royal  Mount,"  so  named  by  the  Frenchman  Cartier 
in  1535.  Lake  CHAMPLAIN  takes-  its  name  from  Champ- 
lain,  a  bold  Normand  adventurer  "delighting  marvellously 
in  these  enterprises,"  who  joined  an  Indian  war-party, 
and  was  the  first  to  explore  the  upper  waters  of  the  St 
Lawrence  and  the  Mississippi.  The  Habitans  (as  the 
French  Canadians  of  the  Lower  Province  are  called)  still 
retain  the  characteristics  of  the  Normand  peasantry  in 
the  time  of  Louis  XIV.  Cape  BRETON  was  discovered, 
by  mariners  from  Brittany,  as  early  as  the  lifetime  of 
Columbus.  The  name  of  the  State  of  verjiqnt  shows 
that  it  came  within  the  great  French '  dominipn,  and  the 

which  a  well-edited  reprint  would  be  opportune.  A  brief  narrative  of 
Smith's  adventures  will  be  found  in  Bancroft,  HUtory  oftht  United  States^ 
voL  t  pp.  94 — 112;  Drake,  Book  of  the  Indians^  bk.  iv.  pp.  7 — 18;  and 
Cooley,  History  of  Maritime  and  Inland  Discovery^  vol.  ii  pp.  212 — 215. 
See  also  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Colonial  Series,  1614.  Smith,  of  Virginia, 
bore  for  arms  a  chevron,  between  the  three  Turks'  heads,  which  he  had  cut 
off.  He  is  the  hero  of  the  Blackletter  Ballad  in  the  British  Museum, 
entitled — "The  Honor  of  a  London  Prentice;  being  an  account  of  his 
matchless  manhood  and  boyhood."— Smith's  Antiquarian  Ramble  in  the 
Streets  of  London,  vol.  ii.  p.  133. 

1  The  etymology  of  Lamartiniere  from  Quel  heel  What  a  cape !  is  too 
absurd  to  need  refutation. 


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26  Namei  of  Recent  Origin. 

State  of  MAINE  repeats  in  the  New  World  the  name  of 
one  of  the  maritime  provinces  of  France.  But  the  genius 
of  Lord  Chatham  wrested  the  empire  of  the  New  World 
from  France ;  and  Fort  Du  Quesne,  the  key  of  the  French 
position  in  the  Valley  of  the  Ohio,  under  its  new  name  of 
PITTSBURGH,  commemorates  the  triumphs  of  the  great 
war-minister,  and  is  now  one  of  the  largest  cities  in 
the  United  States. 

The  State  of  DELAWARE  was  "planted"  in  1610  by 
Lord  De  la  Warr,  under  a  patent  granted  by  James  I. 
The  further  progress  of  colonization  in  this  region  is 
commemorated  by  the  Roman  Catholic  colony  of  MARY- 
LAND, named  after  Henrietta  Maria,  Queen  of  Charles 
I. ;  and  BALTIMORE,  the  capital  of  the  State,  takes  its 
name  from  Lord  Baltimore,  the  patentee  of  the  new 
colony,^  who  thus  transferred  to  the  New  World  the 
Celtic  name  of  the  little  Irish  village  from  which  he  de- 
rived his  title. 

New  jersey,  in  like  manner,  was  founded  under  a 
patent  granted,  in  the  reign  of  Charles  IL,  to  Geoi^e 
Carteret,  Lord  Jersey ;  while  NOVA  SCOTIA  was  a  con- 
cession to  Sir  William  Alexander,  a  Scotchman,  who, 
with  a  band  of  his  compatriots,  settled  there  in  the  time 
of  James  II.  Its  recolonization  in  the  reign  of  George 
II.  is  marked  by  the  name  of  HALIFAX,  given  in  honour 
of  Lord  Halifax,  the  president  of  the  Board  of  Trade. 

The  city  of  Charleston,  Albemarle  Sound,  the 
rivers  ASHLEY  and  COOPER,  and  the  States  of  North  and 
South  CAROLINA,^  date  from  the  time  of  the  Restoration ; 

*  Calendar  of  State  Papers^  Colonial  Series^  1632. 

'  The  name  of  the  Carolinas  seems  to  have  been  revived  at  this  period, 
having  been  originally  given  at  the  time  of  the  first  colonization  by  the 
Huguenots  in  the  reign  of  Charles  IX.  of  France. 


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Progress  of  English  Colonization.  2J 

and  the  people  are  justly  proud  of  the  historical  asso- 
ciations which  attach  to  many  of  the  local  names.^ 
ANNAPOLIS,  the  capital  of  Maryland,  as  well  as  the 
RAPIDAN  and  NORTH  ANNA  Rivers,  bring  us  to  the  reign 
of  Queen  Anne ;  and  GEORGIA,  the  last  of  the  thirteen 
colonies,  dates  from  the  reign  of  George  IT.  NEW 
INVERNESS,  in  Georgia,  was  settled  by  Highlanders  im- 
plicated in  the  rebeUion  of  1745.  FREDERICKSBURG,  the 
scene  of  the  recent  bloody  repulse  of  the  Federals,  and 
FREDERICK  CITY,  in  Maryland,  bear  the  name  of  the 
weak  and  worthless  son  of  George  IL  As  has  been 
observed  by  the  Southern  correspondent  of  the  Titnes^ 
•*  It  is  safe  to  observe  that  Virginia  has  done  more  than 
the  mother  country  to  keep  alive  the  memory  of  a  prince, 
who  lives  for  Englishmen  only  as  he  is  gibbeted  in  the 
Memoirs  of  Lord  Harvey."  ■ 

The  Scandinavian  colony  of  NEW  SWEDEN  has  been 
absorbed  by  the  States  of  Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  and 
New  Jersey ;  but  a  few  names,  like  SWEDESBORO*  and 
DONA,  still  remain  as  evidences  of  a  fact  now  almost 

The  map  of  the  State  of  NEW  YORK  takes  us  back  to 
the  reign  of  Charles  II.  The  King's  brother,  James, 
Duke  of  York  and  Albany,  had  a  grant  made  to  him 
of  the  as  yet  unconquered  Dutch  colony  of  the  NEW 
NETHERLANDS,  the  two  chief  cities  of  which,  NEW  AM- 
STERDAM and  FORT  ORANGE,  Were  rechristened,  after 
the  Dutch  had  been  dispossessed,  by  the  names  of  NEW 
YORK  and  ALBANY,  from  the  titles  of  the  royal  patentee. 
The  names  of  the  KATSKILL  Mountains,  staten  Island, 
BROOKLYN   (Breukelen),    WALLABOUT   Bay,  YONKER's 

*  Yiyissx^Ly  Diary  North  and  Souths  voL  I  p.  171. 
■  Times,  Dec.  27,  i86a. 


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28  Names  of  Recent  Origin. 

Island,  the  haarlem  River,  and  the  villages  of  flush- 
ing, STUYVESANT,  and  BLAUVELT,!  are  among  the  local 
memorials  which  still  remind  us  of  the  Dutch  dominion 
in  North  America.* 

The  Dutch  colony  in  South  America  has  had  a  greater 
permanence.  NEW  AMSTERDAM,  fredenberg,  blauw- 
BERG,  and  many  other  Dutch  names  in  the  same  neigh- 
bourhood, surrounded  as  they  are  by  Portuguese  and 
Spanish  names,  are  an  exhibition  of  the  results  of  in- 
trusive colonization,  and  are  instructive  analogues  of  ob- 
scure phenomena,  which  we  shall  hereafter  find  exhibited 
on  the  Continent  of  Europe. 

Cape  horn,  or  rather  cape  hoorn,  as  it  should 
properly  be  written,  is  also  a  vestige  of  the  early  enter- 
prise of  Holland.  The  name  is  derived  from  Hoorn,  a 
village  on  the  Zuyder  Zee,  which  was  the  birthplace  of 
Schouten,^  the  first  seaman  who  succeeded  in  doubling 
the  Cape.  Before  the  time  of  Schouten's  voyage,  the 
Pacific  had  been  entered  by  the  STRAITS  OF  MAGAL- 
haens,  a  passage  between  Tierra  del  Fiiego  and  the 
mainland,  which  had  been  discovered  by  a  man  who,  for 
genius,  fertility  of  resource,  and  undaunted  courage,  de- 
serves a  place  on  the  roll  of  fame  beside  Columbus, 
Cortez,  Smith,  and  Hudson.  Fernando  Magalhaens  was 
a  Portuguese,  engaged  in  the  Spanish  service,  and  was 
sent  out  to  wrest  from  his  fellow-countrymen  the  pos- 
session of  the  Moluccas,  which,  under  the  terms  of  the 

^  We  may  add  the  names  of  Kinderhook,  Haverstraw,  Spuyten  Duyvel, 
Watervliet,  Rooeefdt,  Roseboom,  Rosendale,  Staatsburg,  and  Clavcrack. 

>  The  word  creek,  which  often  appears  in  American  river-names,  appears 
to  be  a  vestige  of  the  Dutch  dominion.  Kreek  is  a  common  suffix  in  the 
Netherlands.    Forstemann,  Ortsnamen^  p.  35. 

>  Esquiros,  The  Dutch  at  Homey  voL  i.  p.  255. 


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Magalhaens,  29 

famous  Papal  Bull,  were  conceived  to  be  included  in  the 
Spanish  moiety  of  the  world.  Threading  his  way 
through  the  straits  which  bear  his  name,  Magalhaens 
held  on  his  way,  in  spite  of  the  mutiny  of  his  crews,  the 
loss  of  one  ship,  and  the  desertion  of  another,  and  at 
last  reached  the  Philippine  Islands,  where,  during  an 
attack  by  the  natives,  he  fell  beneath  a  shower  of  spears. 
TORRES*  STRAITS  bear  the  name  of  one  of  Magalhaens* 

The  PHILIPPINES  and  the  CAROLINES  bear  the  names 
of  two  Spanish  monarchs,  Philip  II.  and  Charles  II., 
under  whose  respective  auspices  the  first  were  colonized 
and  the  second  were  discovered. 

The  MARQUESAS  received  their  name  in  honour  of  the 
Marquis  Mendoza  detCafiete,  who,  from  his  Viceroyalty 
of  Peru,  equipped  the  expedition  which  led  to  the  dis- 
covery. But  these  were  not  the  only  results  of  Spanish 
enterprise  in  the  Pacific.  JUAN  Fernandez,  a  bold 
Spanish  sailor,  chanced  upon  the  solitary  isle  which  bears 
his  name — an  island  which  is  chiefly  memorable  to 
Englishmen  from  having  been,  for  four  years,  the  abode 
of  one  of  Dampier*s  comrades — ^Alexander  Selkirk, 
whose  adventures  suggested  to  De  Foe  the  inimitable 
fiction  of  Robinson  Crusoe.  The  BERMUDAS,  "  the  still- 
vexed  Bermoothes,"  alluded  to  in  Shakespeare's  Tempesty 
were  discovered,  at  an  earlier  period,  by  another  Spaniard, 
Juan  Bermudez:  they  took  the  name  of  the  SOMERS 
ISLANDS,  by  which  they  were  long  known,  from  the  ship- 
wreck of  Sir  George  Somers,  one  of  the  deputy-governors 
of  Virginia.^ 

We   cannot  complete  the  list  of  Spanish  explorers 
without  a  mention  of  the  name  of  ORELLANA,  which, 
^  See  Calendar  0/ State  Papers,  Colonial  Series,  i6io. 


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30  Names  of  Recent  Origin. 

according  to  some  maps,  is  borne  by  the  largest  river  of 
the  world.  There  are  few  more  romantic  narratives  of 
adventure  than  the  history  of  Orellana's  voyage  down 
the  Amazons.  In  the  company  of  Gonzales  Pizarro  he 
left  Peru,  and  having  penetrated  through  the  trackless 
Andes,  he  came  upon  the  head  waters  of  a  great  river. 
The  provisions  brought  by  the  explorers  having  at  length 
become  exhausted,  their  shoes  and  their  saddles  were 
boiled  and  eaten,  to  serve  as  a  condiment  to  such  roots 
as  could  be  procured  by  digging.  Meanwhile  the  ener- 
gies of  the  whole  party  were  engaged  in  the  construction 
of  a  small  bark,  in  which  Orellana  and  fifty  men  com- 
mitted themselves  to  the  mighty  stream,  which,  in  seven 
long  months,  floa'ted  them  down  to  the  Atlantic,  through 
the  midst  of  lands  utterly  unknown,  clad  to  the  water's 
edge  with  gigantic  forest-trees,  and  peopled  by  savage 
and  hostile  tribes.  Not  content,  however,  with  describing 
the  real  perils  of  the  voyage,  or,  perhaps,  half-crazed  by 
the  hardships  which  he  had  undergone,  Orellana,  on  his 
return  to  Spain,  gave  the  reins  to  his  imagination,  and 
related  wild  travellers'  tales  concerning  a  nation  of  female 
warriors  who  had  opposed  his  passage;  and  posterity 
has  punished  his  untruthfulness  by  enshrining,  in  a 
memorial  name,  the  story  of  the  fabled  amazons,  and 
letting  the  remenibrance  of  the  daring  explorer  fade 

We  find  the  records  of  Portuguese  adventure  in  BAHIA, 
PERNAMBUCO,  BRAGANgA,  and  a  host  of  other  names 
in  the  Brazils,  which  were  accidentally  discovered  by 
Cabral,  who  was  sailing  with  an  expedition  destined  for 
the  East   Indies,      But  the  great  field  of  Portuguese 

1  See  Cooley,  Hist,  of  Afaritinu  attd  Inland  Discovery,  vol.  il  p.  S4 ; 
Prescott,  Conquest  oj Peru,  vol.  ii.  pp.  320—323. 


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Portuguese  and  Dutch  Discoverers.  3 1 

enterprise  lay  in  the  East,  where  the  names  BOMBAY, 
MACAO,  and  FORMOSA,  attest  the  widespread  nature  of 
the  commerce  which  the  newly  found  sea-route  to  India 
threw  into  the  hands  of  its  discoverers.  Their  track  is 
marked  by  such  names  as  SALDANHA  BAY,  CAPE  AGUL- 
HAS,  ALGOA  BAY,  and  CAPE  DELGADO,  which  we  find 
scattered  along  the  southern  coasts  of  Africa.  The 
name  of  the  Cape  itself  reveals  the  spirit  of  hopeful 
enterprise  which  enabled  the  Portuguese  to  achieve  so 
much.  Bartholomew  Diaz,  baffled  by  tempests,  was 
unable,  on  his  first  expedition,  to  weather  the  cape  which 
he  had  discovered,  and  he,  therefore,  named  it  CABO  TOR- 
MENTOSO — the  Cape  of  Storms — a  name  which  John, 
the  sanguine  and  enterprising  king,  changed  to  the  CABO 
DE  BONA  ESPERANZA,  arguing  the  GOOD  HOPE  which 
existed  of  the  speedy  discovery  of  the  long-wished-for 
route  to  the  realms  of  "  Ormus  and  of  Ind."  ^ 

The  Eastern  route  found  by  the  Portuguese  was  soon 
followed  by  the  Dutch.  The  names  of  the  MAURITIUS 
and  the  ORANGE  RIVER  were  bestowed  by  them  at  the 
time  when,  under  the  Stadtholder  Maurice,  Prince  of 
Orange,  they  were  heroically  striving  against  the  colossal 
power  of  Spain.  This  death-struggle  for  freedom  did 
not  prevent  them  pursuing  their  discoveries  in  the 
Eastern  seas :  and  at  the  lowest  point  of  their  fortunes, 
when  all  seemed  likely  to  be  lost,  it  was  soberly  proposed 
to  cut  the  dykes  and  leave  the  Spaniards  the  task  of 
once  more  reclaiming  Holland  from  the  waves,  and  for 
themselves  to  embark  their  families  and  their  wealth,  and 
seek  in  BATAVIA,  a  new  eastern  home  for  the  Bata- 
vian  nation. 

From  their  colonies  of  Ceylon  and  Java,  the  Dutch 

*  Cooley,  History  of  Discovery,  vol.  i.  p.  374. 


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32  Names  of  Recent  Otigin, 

fitted  out  numerous  expeditions  to  explore  the  then 
unknown  Southern  Seas.  Carpenter,  a  Dutch  captain, 
was  the  first  to  discover  the  northern  portion  of  the 
Australian  continent  His  name  is  attached  to  the  Gulf 
of  CARPENTARIA;  and  the  "great  island"  in  the  gulf 
bears  the  Dutch  name  of  GROOTE  EYLANDT,  which  he 
gave  to  it  The  earliest  circumnavigation  of  the  new 
southern  continent  was  achieved  by  means  of  two  vessels 
of  discovery,  which  were  equipped  by  Antony  VAN 
DIEMEN,  the  Governor  of  Batavia,  and  entrusted  to  the 
command  of  Abel  Jansen  TASMAN.  new  ZEALAND  and 
NEW  HOLLAND,  the  chief  fruits  of  this  expedition,  had 
conferred  upon  them  the  names  of  two  of  the  United 
Provinces ;  and  on  the  discovery  of  a  third  large  island, 
an  attachment  as  romantic  as  a  Dutchman  may  be 
supposed  capable  of  feeling,  caused  the  rough  sailor,  if 
tradition  speaks  the  truth,  to  inscribe  upon  our  maps  the 
name  of  the  beautiful  daughter  of  the  Batavian  governor, 
Maria  Van  Diemen.^ 

We  may  here  briefly  enumerate  a  few  remaining  dis- 
coverers, whose  names  are  found  scattered  over  our  maps. 
DAMPIER's  Archipelago  and  wafer  Inlet  bear  the  names 
of  William  Dampier  and  Lionel  Wafer,  the  leaders  of  a 
band  of  West  Indian  buccaneers  Who  marched  across  the 
Isthmus  of  Darien  (each  man  provided  only  with  four 
cakes  of  bread,  a  fusil,  a  pistol,  and  a  hanger),  and  who, 
having  seized  a  Spanish  ship,  continued  for  a  long  time 
to  be  the  terror  of  the  Pacific.     Kerguellen  was  an 

^  In  consequence  of  an  ignorant  prejudice,  which  was  supposed  to  deter 
intending  colonists,  the  name  of  Van  Diemen*8  Land,  or  Demon^s  Land, 
as  it  was  called,  has,  after  the  lapse  of  two  centuries,  been  changed  to 
TASMANIA,  in  honour  of  the  sailor  who  preferred  the  fame  of  his  mistress  to 
his  own. 


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Tasman,  Bekring,  and  Vancouver.  33 

officer  in  the  French  service,  who,  in  the  reign  of  Louis 
XV.,  discovered  the  island  called  KERGUELLEN*S  LAND ; 
while  JAN  MEYEN,  a  Dutch  whaling  captain,  has  handed 
down  his  obscure  name  by  his  re-discovery  of  that  snow- 
clad  island  cone,  which  forms  such  a  striking  frontispiece 
to  Lord  DufTerin's  amusing  volume. 

Behring,  a  Dane  by  birth,  was  sent  by  Peter  the 
Great  to  explore  the  eastern  shores  of  Asia.  He  crossed 
Siberia,  and  having  constructed  a  small  vessel  on  the 
coast  of  Kamtschatka,  he  discovered  the  strait  which 
separates  Asia  from  America.  On  his  return  from  a 
second  expedition,  his  ship  was  wrecked,  and  the  hardy 
sailor,  surrounded  by  the  snows  and  ice  of  an  Arctic 
winter,  perished  miserably  of  cold,  hunger,  and  fatigue, 
on  an  island  which  bears  his  name. 

At  the  instance  of  the  British  Government,  Captain 
VANCOUVER  succeeded  in  surveying  9,000  miles  of  the 
unknown  western  coast-line  of  America.  His  name 
stands  side  by  side  with  those  of  Hudson,  Behring, 
Franklin,  and  Cook — ^the  martyrs  of  geographical  science; 
for  the  exposure  and  the  toil  which  he  underwent  proved 

Mr.  Bass,  a  naval  surgeon,  in  an  open  whale-boat 
manned  by  a  crew  of  six  men,  made  a  voyage  of  600 
miles,  which  resulted  in  the  discovery  of  BASS'S  STRAITS, 
which  separate  Van  Diemen's  Land  from  the  Australian 

The  discoveries  of  Captain  Cook  are  so  well  known, 
that  a  brief  reference  to  the  names  which  he  added  to 
our  maps  may  here  suffice.  He  was  despatched  to  ob- 
serve the  Transit  of  Venus  in  1769.  In  this  expedition 
he  discovered  the  SOCIETY  ISLANDS,  so  named  from 
the  Royal  Society,  at  whose  instigation  the  expedition 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

34  Names  of  Recent  Origin. 

had  been  undertaken;  as  well  as  the  SANDWICH  ISLANDS, 
called  after  Lord  Sandwich,  the  First  Lord  of  the 
Admiralty,  who  had  consented  to  send  it  out.  In  his 
second  voyage,  Captain  Cook  explored  and  named  the 
coast  of  NEW  SOUTH  WALES,  the  NEW  HEBRIDES,  NEW 

We  must  not  forget  those  Arctic  explorers  who, 
within  the  last  half-century,  have  added  so  largely  to 
our  geographical  knowledge.   The  names  of  MACKENZIE, 

KANE,  perpetually  remind  those  who  examine  the  map 
of  the  Arctic  regions,  of  the  skill,  the  cours^e,  and  the 
endurance  of  the  brave  men  who  have,  at  last,  solved 
the  problem  of  three  hundred  years — **  the  only  thing  of 
the  world  yet  left  undone  by  which  a  notable  minde 
might  be  made  famous."*   Such  names  as  REPULSE  bay, 

to  the  memory  of  the  readers  of  Arctic  adventure  some 
of  the  most  thrilling  passages  in  those  narratives ;  and, 
at  the  same  time,  they  form  a  melancholy  record  of  the 
difficulties,  the  hardships,  the  disappointments,  and  the 
failures,  which  seemed  only  to  braven  the  resolution  and 
to  nerve  the  courage  of  men  whom  all  Englishmen,  are 
proud  to  be  able  to  call  their  fellow-countrymen. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  Sandwich 
Islands  and  the  Marquesas,  as  commemorating  the 
names  of  statesmen  who  have  been  instrumental  in 
furthering  the  progress  of  geographical  discovery.  Other 
names  of  this  class — ^prime-ministers,  eminent  statesmen, 
I  See  p.  i& 


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Names  of  Statesmen  and  Princes,  35 

lords  of  the  admiralty,  and  secretaries  of  the  navy — are 
to  be  found  in  great  profusion  in  the  regions  which  have 
most   recently  been  explored.     We   may  instance  the 

TON, and  SYDNEY.i  Port  PHILLIP,  BRISBANE,  the  River 
DARLING,  and  MACQUARIE  take  their  names  from 
governors  of  the  Australian  Colonies,  and  Lake  SIMCOE 
from  a  governor  of  Canada.  BOOTHIA  FELIX,  grinnell 
LAND,  smith's  SOUND,  and  jONES'  SOUND  commemorate 
merchant-princes  who  fitted  out  exploring  expeditions 
fxom  their  private  resources ;  while  the  names  of  KING 
KING     WILLIAM,     QUEEN     ADELAIDE,     VICTORIA,     and 

ALBERT  are  scattered  so  lavishly  over  our  maps,  as  to 
prove  a  serious  source  of  embarrassment  to  the  young 
student  of  geography;  while,  at  the  same  time,  their 
English  origin  testifies  to  the  energy  and  success  with 
which,  during  the  last  hundred  years,  every  comer  of 
the  globe  has  been  explored  by  Englishmen. 

1  Chatham  Island  does  not  belong  to  this  cla^ :  it  bean  the  name  oi 
the  brig  Chatham,  by  which  it  was  discovered.  Cf.  Mt.  er£BU$»  fury 
Beach,  &c. 

D  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

36  Mthnologual  Value  of  Local  Names. 



Local  names  are  the  beacon-lights  of  primeval  History — The  method  of 
research  illustrated  by  American  Names — Recent  progress  of  Ethnology — 
The  CdtSy  Anglo-Saxons,  and  Northmen — Retrocession  of  the  Sclaves-— 
Arabic  Names — Ethnology  of  mountain  districts — The  Alps, 

Ethnology  is  the  science  which  derives  the  greatest 
aid  from  geographical  etymolc^y.  The  names  which 
still  remain  upon  our  maps  are  able  to  supply  us  with 
traces  of  the  history  of  nations  that  have  left  us  no  other 
memorials.  Egypt  has  bequeathed  to  us  her  pyramids, 
her  temples,  and  her  tombs ;  Nineveh  her  palaces ;  Judsea 
her  people  and  her  sacred  books ;  Mexico  her  temple- 
mounds;  Arabia  her  science;  India  her  institutions; 
Greece  her  deathless  literature ;  and  Rome  has  left  us 
her  roads,  her  aqueducts,  her  laws,  and  the  languages 
which  still  live  on  the  lips  of  half  the  civilized  world. 
But  there  are  other  nations  which  once  played  a  pro- 
minent part  in  the  world's  history,  but  which  have  be- 
queathed  no  written  annals,  which  have  constructed  no 
monuments,  whose  language  is  dying  or  is  dead,  whose 
blood  is  becoming  mingled  with  that  of  other  races. 
The  knowledge  of  the  history  and  the  migrations  of 
such  tribes  must  be  recovered  from  the  study  of  the 
names  of  the  places  which   they  once  inhabited,  but 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Names  are  the  Beacon-lights  of  PHmeval  History,    37 

which  now  know  them  no  more — ^from  the  names  of  the 
hills  which  they  fortified,  of  the  rivers  by  which  they 
dwelt,  of  the  distant  mountains  upon  which  they  gazed. 
As  an  eloquent  writer  has  observed,  "Mountains  and 
rivers  still  murmur  the  voices  of  nations  long  denation- 
alized or  extirpated."^  Language  adheres  to  the  soil 
when  the  race  by  which  it  was  spoken  has  been  swept 
from  off  the  earth,  or  when  its  remnants  have  been 
driven  from  the  plains  which  they  once  peopled  into  the 
fastnesses  of  the  surrounding  mountains. 

It  is  mainly  from  the  study  of  local  names  that  we 
must  reconstruct  the  history  of  the  Sclaves,  the  Celts, 
and  the  Basques,  as  well  as  the  earlier  chronicles  of  the 
Scandinavian  and  Teutonic  races ;  while  from  the  same 
source  we  are  able  to  throw  great  light  upon  the  more 
or  less  obscure  records  of  the  conquests  and.coloniza- 
tions  of  the  PhcEnicians,  the  Greeks,  iK^.^^^pansr  and*"*"^ 
the  Arabs.  In  many  instances,  we  cAff^lmus  convert 
dubious  surmises  into  the  clearest  historical  certainties. 

The  nomenclature  of  America,  the  nature  of  which 
has  been  indicated  in  the  preceding  chapter,  may  serve 
to  explain  the  method  by  which  etymological  considera- 
tions become  available  in  ethnological  inquiries.  Here 
we  -have  a  simple  case,  where  we  possess  documentary 
evidence  as  to  the  facts  which  we  might  expect  to  be 
disclosed  by  etymological  investigations,  and  where  we 
can  ^thus  exhibit  the  method  of  research,  and  at  the 
same  time  test  the  value  of  the  results  to  which  it  leads. 

If  we  examine  a  map  of  America,  we  find  names 
derived  from  a  dozen  languages.  We  first  notice  a  few 
scattered  Indian  names,  such  as  the  POTOMAC,  the 
JIAPPAHANOCK,  or  NIAGARA.    These  names  are  sparsely 

1  Palgraye,  Normandy  and  England^  vqL  i.  p.  701. 


by  Google 

3?  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names, 

distributed  over  lai^e  areas,  some  of  them  filled  almost 
exclusively  with  English  names,  while  in  others,  the 
names  are  mostly  of  Spanish  or  P<Mtuguese  origin — ^the 
boundary  between  the  regions  of  the  English  and 
Spanish,  or  of  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  names  being 
easily  traceable.  In  Louisiana  and  Lower  Canada  we 
find  a  predominance  of  French  names,  many  of  them 
exhibiting  Normand  and  Breton  peculiarities.  In  New 
York  we  find,  here  and  there,  a  few  Dutch  names,  as 
well  as  patches  of  German  names  in  Michigan  and 
Brazil.  We  find  that  the  Indian,  Dutch,  and  French 
names  have  more  frequently  been  corrupted  than  those 
derived  cither  from  the  English  or  from  the  Spanish 
languages.  In  New  England  we  find  names  like  SALEM 
and  PROVIDENCE;  in  Virginia  we  find  such  names  as 
JAMES  River,  Cape  Charles,  and  Elizabeth  County. 
In  many  places  the  names  of  the  Old  World  are  re- 
peated :  we  find  a  NEW  ORLEANS,  a  NEW  BRUNSWICK, 
a  NEW  HAMPSHIRE,  and  the  like. 

If  we  were  entirely  destitute  of  any  historical  records 
of  the  actual  course  of  American  colonization,  it  is 
evident  that,  with  the  aid  of  the  map  alone,  we  might 
recover  many  most  important  facts,  and  put  together 
an  outline,  by  no  means  to  be  despised,  of  the  early 
history  of  the  continent ; — we  might  successfully  in* 
vestigate  the  retrocession  and  extinction  of  the  Indian 
tribes — ^we  might  discover  the  positions  in  which  the 
colonies  of  the  several  European  nations  were  planted 
— ^we  might  show,  from  the  character  of  the  names, 
how  the  gradually  increasing  supremacy  of  the  Anglo- 
American  stock  must  have  enabled  it  to  incorporate, 
and  overlay  with  a  layer  of  English  names,  the  colonies 
of  other,  nations,   such  as  the  Spanish  settlements  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

The  Method  of  Research,  39 

Florida  and  Texas,  the  Dutch  colony  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  New  York,  and  the  French  settlements  on  the 
St.  Lawrence  and  the  Mississippi.  We  might  even  go 
further,  and  attempt  to  discriminate  between  the  colonies 
founded  by  Puritans  and  by  Cavaliers ;  and  if  we  pos- 
sessed a  knowledge  of  English  and  French  history,  we 
might  assign  approximate  dates  for  the  original  founda- 
tion of  a  large  number  of  the  several  settlements.  In 
some  cases  we  might  be  able  to  form  probable  conjec- 
tures as  to  the  causes  and  methods  of  the  migration,  and 
the  condition  of  the  early  colonists.  Our  investigations 
would  be  much  facilitated  if  we  also  possessed  a  full 
knowledge  of  the /fw^w/ circumstances  of  the  country — 
if)  for  example.  We  knew  that  the  English  language  now 
forms  the  universal  medium  of  communication  through- 
out large  districts,  which,  nevertheless,  are  filled  with 
Spanish  or  French  names ;  or  if  we  learned  that  in  the 
State  of  New  York  the  Indian  and  Dutch  languages  are 
tio  longer  spoken,  while  many  old  families  bear  Dutch, 
but  none  of  them  Indian  surnames.  The  study  of  the 
local  names,  illustrated  by  the  knowledge  of  such  facts, 
would  enable  us  to  reconstmct,  in  great  part,  the  history 
of  the  country,  and  would  prove  that  succes^ve  bands 
of  immigrants  may  forget  their  mother-tongue,  and 
abandon  all  distinctive  national  peculiarities,  but  that 
the  names  which,  on  their  first  arrival)  they  bestowed 
upon  the  places  of  their  abode,  are  sure  to  remain  upon 
the  ma^  as  a  permanent  record  of  the  nature  and  extent 
of  the  original  colonizations. 

Centuries  hence,  when  Macaulay's  New  Zealander 
shall  have  succeeded  in  escaping  from  his  perilous 
position  on  the  broken  arch  of  London  Bridge,  and  has 
taken  up  his  stand  among  certain  fallen  columns  which 


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40  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names, 

mark  the  supposed  site  of  the  British  Museum,  there  to 
lament  the  destruction  of  the  literary  treasures  which 
might  have  enabled  him  to  investigate  the  early  history 
of  the  land  of  his  ancestors,  he  will  do  well  to  devote 
himself  to  a  comparison  of  the  local  names  of  New 
Zealand  with  those  of  the  United  States ;  and  he  will 
find  it  easy  to  prove  that  the  two  countries  must  have 
been  peopled  from  the  same  source,  and  under  circum- 
stances not  very  dissimilar,  and  he  might  succeed  in 
recovering,  from  a  comparison  and  analysis  of  English 
and  New  Zealand  names,  many  of  those  facts  which  he 
fancied  had  been  lost  for  ever. 

We  shall  hereafter  investigate  classes  of  names  which 
present  a  perfect  parallelism  to  those  in  America.  In 
the  case  of  Spain,  the  Celtic,  Phoenician,  Arabic,  and 
Spanish  names  answer  in  many  points  to  the  strata  of 
Indian,  Dutch,  French,  and  English  names  which  we 
find  superimposed  in  the  United  States ;  while  an 
isolated  name  like  Swedesboro*,  in  New  Jersey,  may  be 
compared  with  that  of  the  town  of  ROZAS,  which  stands 
upon  the  Gulf  of  RHODA — ^names  which  have  handed 
down  the  memory  of  the  ancient  Rhodian  colony  in 
North-eastern  Spain.  Again,  the  Scandinavian  names 
scattered  over  a  wide  area  throughout  England,  Ireland, 
Scotland,  France,  Flanders,  Iceland,  and  Greenland,  pre- 
sent a  parallel  to  the  names  in  the  English  colonies  of 
North  America,  Australia,  and  New  Zealand.^  The 
phenomena  of  the  Old  World  are  similar  to  those  pre» 

1  In  Norway,  as  in  England,  a  strict  law  of  primogeniture  has  dispersed 
the  cadets  of  a  fully -peopled  country  over  a  wide  geographical  area.  In  the 
guards  of  Norway  are  to  be  found  peasant  proprietors,  clad  in  homespun, 
who  are  the  lineal  representatives  of  the  elder  line  of  the  chief  royal  and  noble 
families  of  Western  Europe, — See  Lain^  Heimskringla,  vol.  l  p.  109. 


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A  Novum  Organum.  4X 

sented  in  the  New.  In  either  case,  from  similar  pheno- 
mena we  may  draw  similar  inferences. 

This  method  of  research — the  application  of  which  has 
been  exhibited  in  the  familiar  instance  of  the  United 
States,  where  the  results  attained  can  be  compared  with 
well-known  facts — ^has  of  late  years  been  repeatedly  ap- 
plied, and  often  with  great  success,  to  cases  in  which  local 
names  are  the  only  records  which  exist. 

Wilhelm  Von  Humboldt  was  one  of  the  pioneers  in  this 
new  science  of  etymological  ethnology.  On  the  maps  of 
Spain,  France,  and  Italy  he  has  marked  out,^  by  the 
evidence  of  names  alone,  the  precise  regions  which,  before 
the  period  of  the  Roman  conquest,  were  inhabited  by 
those  Euskarian  or  Iberic  races  who  are  now  represented 
by  the  Basques — the  mountaineers  of  the  Asturias  and 
the  Pyrenees.  He  has  also  shown  that  large  portions  of 
Spain  were  anciently  Celtic,  and  that  there  was  a  central 
zone  inhabited  by  a  mixed  population  of  Euskarians  and 

Archdeacon  Williams,'  in  like  manner,  has  indicated 
the  limits  of  the  Celtic  region  in  Northern  Italy,  and  has 
pointed  out  detached  Celtic  colonies  in  the  central  por- 
tion of  that  peninsula.  Mone,'  Diefenbach,*  Duncker,* 
Brandes,*^  and  other  industrious  explorers  have  followed 
the  wanderings  of  this  ancient  people  through  Switzerland, 
Germany,  and  France,  and  have  shown  that,  in  those 
countries,  the  Celtic  speech  still  lives  upon  the  map, 
though  it  has  vanished  from  the  glossary. 

1  Prufung  der  Untersuchungen  iiber  die  Urbeivohner  Hispanims. 

*  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh^  vol.  xiiL 
s  CelOsche  Forschungen  xur  Geschichte  Mitteleuropas. 

*  Celtica, 

*  Origines  Germanica, 

*  Das  Ethnographische  Verhaltniss  der  Kelten  und  Germanen, 


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42  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names, 

From  the  evidence  of  local  names  .alone>  Prichard^  has 
demonstrated  that  the  ancient  Belgae  were  of  Celtic,  and 
not  of  Teutonic  race,  as  had  previously  been  supposed. 
So  cogent  is  the  evidence  supplied  by  these  names,  that 
ethnologists  are  agreed  in  setting  aside  the  direct  testi- 
mony of  sych  a  good  authority  as  Caesar,  who  asserts  that 
the  Belgae  were  of  German  blood." 

In  our  own  country,  this  method  has  afforded  results 
of  peculiar  interest  and  value.  It  has  enabled  us  to 
detect  the  successive  tides  of  immigration  that  have 
ilowed  in ;  just  as  the  ripple-marked  slabs  of  sandstone 
record  the  tidal  flow  of  the  primeval  ocean,  so  wave  after 
>yave  of  population — Gaelic,  Cymric,  Roman,  Saxon, 
Anglian,  Norwegian,  Danish,  Norman,  Frisian,  and 
Flemish — ^has  left  its  mark  upon  the  once  shifting,  but 
now  indurated  sands  of  language. 

Baxter  and  Lhuyd,*  Chalmers,*  Whitaker,*  Skene,* 
Robertson,'  Gamett,*  Davies,*  Latham,*  and  other  writers 
have  investigated  the  Celtic  names  of  our  own  islands. 
Not  only  have  they  shown  that  the  whole  of  England 
was  once  Celtic,  but  they  have  made  it  probable  that  the 
Scottish  lowlands  were  peopled  by  tribes  belonging  to 
the  Welsh  and  not  to  the  Gaelic  stock,  thus  clearing  up 

^  Researches  inio  the  Physical  History  of  Mankind^  yol.  iii. 
'  Latham,  English  Language,  vol  L  p.  12. 

*  Ghssarium  AntiquiUUum  Britannicarum,  Appendix  by  Edward 

*  Caledonia, 

»  History  of  Manchester, 

*  History  of  the  Highlandert. 

^  Scotland  under  her  early  Kingi% 

8  Papers  in  the  Proceedings  and  Transactions  of  Philological  Society^  and 
in  the  Quarterly  Review, 

»  English  Language^  vol.  i.  pp.  363 — 367 ;  Ethnology  of  the  British 


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English  Ethnology.  43 

some  of  the  disputed  questions  as  to  the  affinities  and 
distribution  of  the  Picts  and  Scots. 

The  study  of  Anglo-Saxon  and  Scandinavian  names 
has  been  prosecuted  by  Leo/  Ingram,"  Kemble,'  Worsaae,* 
Ferguson,*  Borring,*  Depping,'  Palgrave,'  and  Lappen* 
berg.'  They  have  shown  how  we  may  draw  the  line 
between  the  Anglian  and  the  Saxon  kingdoms — ^how, 
from  the  study  of  the  names  of  the  villages  of  Lincoln- 
shire, of  Leicestershire,  of  Caithness,  of  Cumberland,  of 
Pembrokshire,  of  Iceland,  and  of  Normandy,  we  may 
learn  the  almost-forgotten  story  of  the  fierce  Vikings, 
who  left  the  fiords  of  Norway  and  the  vies  of  Denmark, 
to  plunder  and  to  conquer  the  coasts  and  kingdoms  of 
Western  Europe. 

By  the  use  of  the  same  method,  Buttmann,"  Bender,^^ 
and  Zeuss^^  have  shown  how  we  may  investigate  the  ob- 
scure relations  of  the  tribes  of  Eastern  Europe,  and  mark 
the  oscillations  of  the  boundaries  of  the  Sclaves  and  Ger- 
mans, and  even  detect  the  alternate  encroachments  and 
retrocessions  of  either  race.  Thus  in  Eastern  Bavaria, 
which  is  now  a  purely  German  district,  we  find  scattered 
Sclavonic  names,  more  especially  in  the  Valley  of  the 
Naab.^*    From  the  number  and  character  of  these  names, 

1  ReUiiudims  Singuiarum  Personarum* 
s  Appendix  to  Saxon  Chronidc 

*  Codix  DiplomatUus^  vol.  iii. ;  Saxons  in  England, 

<  Tlu  Danes  and  Norwegians.         '  The  Northtnen  in  Cumberland, 

*  Sttr  la  limite  Miridionale  de  la  Monarckie  Danoise. 
'  Histoire  des  Expeditions  Maritimes  des  Normands. 

*  England  and  Normandy.  '  Anglo-Norman  iLtngs, 
V  Vie  Deutschen  Ortsnamen. 

u  Die  Deutschen  und  die  Nachharstdmme. 

^  In  the  Aischthal,  the  presence  of  the  Wends  is  denoted  by  names  like 
Brodswinden,  Ratzenwinden,  Poppenwind,  Reinhardswind,  &c.  In  Wiir- 
tembeii^  we  find  Windischgriitz  and  Winnenden ;  in  Badei^  Windisohbuchi 


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44  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names. 

we  may  infer  that,  at  some  remote  period,^  the  Sclavo- 
nians  must  have  extended  themselves  westward  much 
beyond  the  present  frontier  of  Bohemia,'  even  as  far  as 
Darmstadt,  where  the  River  WESCHNITZ  marks  the  ex^ 
treme  western  limit  of  Sclavonic  occupancy.  For  several 
centuries,  however,  the  German  language  has  been  en- 
croaching towards  the  east ;  and  the  process  is  now  going 
on  with  accelerated  speed.  In  Bohemia,  where  almost 
every  local  name  is  Sclavonic,  and  where  five-and-twenty 
years  ago  few  of  the  elder  people  knew  any  language 
but  their  Bohemian  speech,  we  find  that  the  adults  are 
now  universally  able  to  speak  German ;  and  in  half  a 
century,  there  is  every  likelihood  that  the  Bohemian 
language  will  be  extinct." 

Farther  to  the  north  a  similar  process  has  also  taken 
place.  Proceeding  from  west  to  east,  the  River  BOMLITZ, 
near  Verden  in  Hanover,  is  the  first  Sclavonic  name  we 
meet  with.  In  Holstein,  Mecklenburg,  Luneburg,  and 
Saxony — ^in  East  and  West  Prussia — in  Brandenburg 
and  Pomerania — ^we   find   numerous  Sclavonic  names,^ 

in  Saxony,  Wendischhayn ;  in  Brunswick,  Wenden  and  Wendhausen ;  in 
Westphalia,  Windheim  and  Wenden. — Schafarik,  Slaw,  Alterth,  vol.  i 
p.  85 ;  Bender,,  Deutschen  Ortsnamen,  p.  31 ;  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen; 
Latham,  Nat,  of  Europe^  voL  ii.  pp.  321,  309. 

^  It  is  probable  that,  in  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries,  the  Sdaves  took 
possession  of  the  regions  left  vacant  by  the  inroads  of  the  Teutonic  nations 
toward  the  west  and  south  ;  while  in  the  seventh  and  eighth  centuries  the 
Germans  began  to  recover  the  lost  ground,  and  to  drive  ^e  Sdaves  to  the 
eastward.  - 

■  See  Latham,  English  Language^  vol.  i.  p.  106 ;  Nat.  of  Europe^  vol, 
ji.  p.  357;  vol.  i.  p.  4;  Germania^  p.  151 ;  Philological  Proceedings,  voL  iv. 
p.  187.  For  a  list  of  Sclavonic  names  in  the  Valley  of  the  Mayn,  see 
Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen^  pp.  649,  650. 

•  Ansted,  Trip  to  Hungary^  p.  79. 

^  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen  und  die  Nachharstamtne^  p.  676;  Bender, 
Ortsnamen^  p.  90. 


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Retrocession  of  the  Sclaves.  45 

such  as  POTSDAM,^  LEIPSIG,  LOBAU,  Of  KULM,  scattered 
over  an  area  which  is  now  purely  German.  These  names 
gradually  increase  in  frequency  as  we  proceed  eastward, 
till,  at  lengthy  in  Silesia,  we  find  that  the  local  names 
are  all  Sclavonic,  although  the  people  universally  speak 
German,  except  on  the  eastern  rim  of  the  Silesian  basin, 
where  the  ancient  speech  still  feebly  lingers.* 

It  will  be  manifest  that  this  distribution  of  Sclavonic 
names  will  greatly  guide  us  in  interpreting  the  obscure 
hi^orical  notices  which  relate  to  the  great  struggle  by 
which,  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries,  Mecklenburg, 
Pomerania,  Brandenburg,  Silesia,  Saxony,  and  part  of 
Courland  were  wrested  by  the  Germans  from  the 

The  names  in  Eastern  Europe  illustrate  the  maxim 
that  Ethnology  must  always  be  studied  with  due 
reference  to  Hydrography.  In  rude  times,  the  rivers 
form  the  great  highways.  The  Rhine,  the  Danube,  and 
the  Elbe  seem  to  have  regulated  the  directions  of  the 
early  movements  of  nations.  And  the  distribution  of 
Sclavonic  names  proves  that  the  Sclaves  must,  originally, 
have  descended  by  the  valleys  of  the  Elbe  and  the 
Mayn,  just  as  the  Germans  descended  by  the  valley  of 
the  Danube,  where  we  find  a  wedge  or  elbow  of  German 
names  protruding  eastward  into  the  Sclavonic  region. 
So,  again,  in  Hungary  we  find  that  the  central  plains 
are  occupied  by  the  Magyar  shepherds  from  the 
steppes   of   the  Volga,    while    the    original   Sclavonic 

I  Potsdam  is  a  Germanized  form  of  the  Sclavonic  Potsdupimi.  Forste- 
mann,  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  vol.  i  p.  15. 

*  The  phenomena,  in  fact,  are  analogous  to  those  which  are  exhibited  as 
we  proceed  from  Somersetshire,  through  Devonshire,  to  Cornwall. 

'  Ijitham,  Man  and  his  Migratums,  p.  165. 


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46  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names, 

population  has  been  driven  to  the  mountain  region 
on  either  side.^  Still  farther  to  the  east  we  find  the 
isolated  Saxon  colony  of  Siebenbiiigen  (Tfansylvania), 
where,  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  Sclavonic,  Magyar, 
and  Wallachian  names,  we  find  cities  called  Kronstadt, 
Hermannstadt,  Klaussenburg,  Elisabethstadt,  and  Miih- 
lenbach,  which  are  inhabited  by  a  population  that  has 
been  transferred  from  the  Lower  Rhine  to  the  Lower 
Danube.  For  seven  centuries  this  little  colony  has 
retained,  unchanged,  its  own  peculiar  laws,  language, 
institutions,  and  customs.  Siebenbiirgen,  in  fact, 
presents  a  w^ell-conserved  museum  of  mediaeval  pecu- 
liarities— a  living  picture  of  Ancient  Germany,  just  as 
in  Iceland  we  find  the  language  and  customs  of  our 
Scandinavian  ancestors  still  subsisting,  without  any 
material  change.' 

We  find  similar  phenomena  in  the  west  and  south. 
Franche  Comt6,  Burgundy,  and  Lombardy  contain 
many  di^;uised  German  names — evidences  of  ancient 
conquests  by  Germanic  tribes,  which  have  now  lost 
their  ancient  speech,  and  have  completely  merged  their 
nationality  in  that  of  the  conquered  races.'  In  Alsace, 
which  has  now  become  thoroughly  French  in  feeling  and 
in  language,  the  German  names  of  the  villages  have 
suffered  no  corruption  during  the  short  period  which  has 
elapsed  since  the  conquest  under  Louis  XIV. 

1  The  Sclavonic  inroad  into  Greece  is  well  marked  by  local  names,  snch 
as  WALIGOST,  which  extend  even  into  the  Peloponnesus. — Zeuss,  DU  Deut- 
schen,  p.  634;  Amdt,  Europ,  Spr,  p.  105;  Schafairik,  Slawischi  Alter- 
thiimery  voL  it  p.  226 ;  Keferstein,  Ktlf.  AlUrth,  vol  iL  p.  436. 

>  Ansted,  Trip  to  Hungary  and  Transylvania^  pp.  30,  31. 

*  See  Latham's  Germania  of  Tacitus^  Epilegomena,  pp.  xxzix.  and  Iv. ; 
Nationalities  0/ Europe,  vol.  ii.  p.  283 ;  Lewis,  On  the  Romance  LanguagUy 
p.  18. 


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.  Ethnology  of  Mountain  Districts,  47 

'  The  Arabic  names  which  we  find  in  Asia,  in  Africa,  in 
Spain,  in  Sicily,  in  Southern  Italy,  in  Provence,  and  even 
in  some  valleys  of  the  Alps,  tell  us  of  the  triumphs  of 
the  Crescent  from  the  Indus  to  the  Loire.  In  some 
instances,  these  names  even  disclose  the  manner  in  which 
the  Mahometan  hosts  were  recruited  for  the  conquest  of 
Europe  from  the  valley  of  the  Euphrates  and  the  borders 
of  the  Sahara ;  and  we  can  trace  the  settlement  of  these 
far-travelled  conquerors  in  special  valleys  of  Spain  or 

In  mountainous  regions,  the  etymological  method 
of  ethnological  research  is  of  special  value,  and  yields 
ce^ults  more  definite  than  elsewhere.  Among  the 
mountains  the  botanist  and  the  ethnologist  meet  with 
analogous  phenomena.  The  lowland  flora  of  the  glacial 
Q>och  has  retreated  to  the  Grampians,  the  Carpathians, 
the  Alps,  and  the  Pyrenees ;  ^  and  in  like  manner  we 
find  that  the  hills  contain  the  ethnological  sweepings  of 
the  plains.  Mountain  fastnesses  have  always  formed  a 
providential  refuge  for  conquered  tribes.  The  narrow 
valleys  which  penetrate  into  the  great  chains  are  well 
^apted  to  preserve  for  a  time  the  isolation  of  unrelated 
tribes  of  refugees,  to  hinder  the  intermixture  of  race,  and 
thus  preserve  from  extermination  or  absorption  those, 
who  should  afterwards,  at  the  right  time,  blend  gradually 
with  the  conquerors  of  the  plains,  and  supplement  their 
moral  and  intellectual  deficiencies.^ 

Instances  of  this  peculiar  ethnological  character  of 
mountain  districts  will  occur  to  every  one.  The 
Bengalees,  though  they  are  in  geographical  contact 
with  the  hill  tribes  of  India,  are  yet,  in  blood,  further 

I  See  Darwin,  On  the  Origin  of  Species^  pp.  365 — 369, 

*  Goldwin  Smith,  IHsh  History  and  Irish  Character^  p.  14. 


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48  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names. 

removed  from  them  than  from  ourselves.  Strabo  informs 
us  that  in  his  day  no  less  than  seventy  langfuages  were 
spoken  in  the  Caucasus,  and  the  number  of  distinct 
dialects  is  probably,  at  the  present  time,  quite  as  large. 
Here,  in  close  juxtaposition,  we  find  archaic  forms  of 
various  Georgian,  Mongolian,  Persian,  Semitic,  and 
Tatarian  languages,  as  well  as  anomalous  forms  of 
speech  which  bear  no  affinity  to  any  known  tongfue  of 
Asia  or  of  Europe.^ 

In  the  Pyrenees  we  find  the  descendants  of  the 
Euskarians,  who  have  been  driven  from  the  lowlands 
of  France  and  Spain.  The  fastnesses  of  Wales  and 
of  the  Scotch  Highlands  have  enabled  the  Celts  of 
our  own  island  to  maintain  their  ancient  speech  and  a 
separate  existence.  An  inspection  of  the  map  of  the 
British  Isles  will  show  that  The  Peak  of  Derbyshire 
and  the  mountains  of  Cumberland  retain  a  greater 
number  of  Celtic  names  than  the  adjacent  districts; 
and  the  hills  of  Devonshire  have  served  as  a  barrier 
to  protect  the  Celts  of  Cornwall  from  the  Anglo-Saxon 

But  Switzerland  is  the  most  notable  instance  of  the 
ethnological  interest  attaching  to  a  mountainous  district. 
In  a  country  only  twice  the  size  of  Wales,  the  local 
names^  are  derived  from  half  a  dozen  separate  languages, 
three  or  four  of  which  are  still  spoken  by  the  people, 
while  in  some  districts  almost  every  village  preserves  its 

^  Lyell,  Antiquity  of  Man^  p.  460;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures^  p.  52  ;  Knobd, 
Vblkertafdt  p.  14 ;  Pott,  Ungleichheit  d.  tnenschlicher  Rassen^  p.  238,  apud 
Renan,  Orig,  du  Langagg,  p.  176;  Latham,  Nationalitia  of  Europe^  voL  i. 
p.  294. 

'  An  admirable  monograph  on  the  local  names  in  Canton  Zurich,  by 
Dr.  Meyer,  will  be  found  in  the  Mittheilungen  der  Antiq,  Gesellschaft  in 
Zurich^  voL  vi.  pt  i. 


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Switzerland.  49 

separate  dialect.^  Thus,  in  the  Cantons  of  Neufch&tel, 
Vaud,  Geneva,  and  in  the  western  part  of  the  Vaiais, 
French  is  the  prevailing  language.  In  the  northern  and 
central  cantons,  which  were  divided  among  Burgundian, 
Alemannic,  and  Suevic  tribes,  various  high  German 
dialects  are  spoken  ;*  while  in  Canton  Ticino,  and  in 
portions  of  the  Grisons,  Italian  is  the  only  language 
understood.  The  Romansch  language,  spoken  in  the 
upper  valley  of  the  Rhine,  is  a  debased  Latin,  with  a  few 
Celtic,  German,  and,  possibly,  some  Iberic  and  Etruscan 
elements.^  In  the  Upper  Engadine  we  find  the 
Ladino,  another  Latin  dialect,*  distinct  from  the  Ro- 
mansch ;  while  throughout  the  whole  of  Switzerland, 
numerous  Celtic  names*  show  traces  of  a  still  earlier 
wave  of  population,  of  which  no  othef  evidence  remains. 
Not  only  has  the  region  of  the  Alps  been  the  immemorial 
abode  of  Celts,  but  there  also  we  find  indications  of 

1  PUmta,  Romansch  Language,  p.  144;  AdduDg,  Mithridates,  vol.  ii. 
p.  602 ;  Lewis,  Romance  Languages,  p.  46.  Stalder,  Du  Landes-spracfun 
der  Sckweizj  pp.  273 — ^418,  gives  specimens  of  thirty-five  dialects  of  German, 
sixteen  of  French,  five  of  Romansch,  and  eight  of  Italian,  which  are  spoken 
in  the  several  Swiss  cantons. 

'  German  Switzerland  is  mainly  Alemannic,  French  Switzerland  is  mainly 
Bnrgundian.  In  Berne,  however,  as  well  as'  in  portions  of  Freiburg, 
Latzem,  and  Argau,  the  Burgundians  have  retained  their  German  speech. 
Grimm,  Gesch.  d,  Deui,  Spr.  p.  703. 

'  For  instance,  in  the  dialect  of  Groeden.     Niebuhr,  Hist,  Rome,  vol.  i. 
p.  113.     A  list  of  Romansch  words  which  are  possibly  Etruscan,  will  be 
found  in  Tschudi,  HauptscklUssd,  pp.  289^  290.    See  also  Steub's  works. 
*  See  Lechner,  Piz  Languard,  p.  28. 
An  analysis  of  the  names  in  Canton  Zurich  shows  the  following 
proportions : — 

e      9  cities.  (3f  000  homesteads. 

Celtic  {  100  important  rivers,  moun-         Alemannic  |     100  hamlets. 
\  tarns,  and  villages.  (      20  villages. 

The  other  names  are  of  modem  German  origin. — Meyer,  Ortsnamen, 
p.  75. 


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50  Ethnological  Value  of  Local  Names. 

fragments  of  intrusive  races — the  meteoric  stones  of 
Ethnology.  Thus,  in  the  Valley  of  Evolena,  there  are 
traces  of  the  former  presence  of  a  race  of  doubtful  origin 
— possibly  Huns  or  Alans,  who  long  retained  their  heath- 
enism.^ In  some  valleys  of  the  Orisons  there  are  names 
which  suggest  colonies  from  Southern  Italy;  for  example, 
LAVIN,  which  is  apparently  a  reproduction  of  Lavinium, 
and  ARDETZ,  of  Ardea.*  Mommsen,  a  high  authority, 
believes  the  Rhoetians  of  the  Orisons  and  the  Tyrol  to 
be  the  descendants  of  an  ancient  Etruscan  stock  ;^  while 
other  valleys  in  the  Valais  and  the  Orisons  astound  us 
by  the  phenomenon  of  Arabic  names,  for  whose  presence 
we  shall  presently  endeavour  to  account 

On  the  Italian  side  of  the  Alps  we  find  valleys  filled 
with  Sclavonic  names,  besides  many  isolated  villages  of 
Teutonic  colonists,*  who  still  keep  themselves  distinct 

1  Forbes,  Alp,  p.  289 ;  Diefenbach,  Celtica^  L  p.  238. 

■  Witte,  Alpinisches  und  Transalpinisches,  p.  124 ;  Planta,  Ramansch 
Langmge,  p.  134. 

*  The  village-names  of  Tilisuna,  Blisadona,  Trins,  Vels,  Tschars,  Natums, 
Velthurns,  Schluderns,  Villanders,  Gufidaun,  Altrans,  Sistrans,  Axams, 
and  othera,  bear  a  remarkable  resemblance  to  those  Etruscan  names  with 
which  we  are  acquainted.  Compare  also  the  names  Tusis  and  Tuscany, 
Rhoetia  and  Rasenna.  This  subject  is  discussed  at  great  length  in  two 
works  of  Ludwig  Steub,  Ueber  die  Urbewohmr  RdHms,  und  ihren  Mttsam- 
menhang  mit  dm  Etruskem,  and  Zur  Rdlischen  Eihnologie.  Cf.  Tschudi, 
Hauptschliissd  tu  verschiedenm  AlUrthunumy  p.  290 ;  Adelung,  Afithri' 
dates,  vol.  il  p.  598 ;  Mommsen,  Hist.  Rotm,  vol.  L  p.  108 ;  Inhabitants 
of  Italy,  p.  56;  Newman,  Regal  Rome,  p.  10 1;  Note  by  Latham  in 
Prichard's  Eastern  Origin  of  Celtic  Nations,  pp.  87—90 ;  Niebuhr,  Hist, 
Rome,  vol  L  p.  113,  and  voL  ii.  p.  525;  Dennis,  Etruria,  voL  L  pp. 
xxxiv.  xlv.  ;  Pott,  Indo-Germ.  Spr,  p.  25 ;  Planta,  Romansck  Language^ 
p.  132. 

^  Thus  in  the  valley  of  the  Tagliamento,  north  of  Venice,  We  find  the 
Sclavonic  village-names,  gniva,  stolvizza,  and  others,  and  the  mountains 
POSGOST,  STOLAC,  and  ZLEBAC.  2^eus8,  Die  Deutsclun,  p.  617  ;  Tjit^ftm^ 
Nat.  of  Europe,  vol  il  p.  283;  Biondelli,  Studii  lAnguistici,  p.  55. 


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German  Colonies  South  of  the  Alps.  51 

from  their  Italian  neighbours,  and  who  speak  a  German 
dialect  more  or  less  corrupt.  The  German-speaking 
villages  are  often  surrounded  by  a  penumbra  of  German 
local  names,  which  prove  that  the  little  settlement  must 
formerly  have  occupied  a  more  extensive  area  than  at 
present'  It  is  difficult  to  say  whether  these  intrusive 
populations  did,  at  some  remote  period,  cross  the  passes 
and  take  possession  of  the  unoccupied  Italian  valleys,  or 
whether  they  are  fragments  thrown  off  at  the  time  of 
either  the  Bui^undian  or  the  Lombardic  invasions,  and 
which  the  isolation  of  the  mountain-valleys  has  pre- 
vented from  becoming  Italianized.  In  the  case  of  the 
valleys  of  Macugnaga,  Gressonay,  Alagna,  Sermenta, 
Pommat,  and  Sappada,  we  may,  perhaps,  incline  to  the 
former  supposition;  while  with  regard  to  the  Sette 
Comuni,  near  Vicenza,  and  the  Tredici  Comuni,  near 
Verona,  which  still  retain  their  Lombard-German  speech, 
the  latter  hypothesis  may  be  the  more  probable." 

1  In  some  valleys  the  German  language  has  become  entirely  extinct.  In 
Omavasco,  north  of  the  Lago  Maggiore,  this  has  taken  place  within  the 
memory  of  persons  now  living.  Latham,  Nat,  of  Eur,  vol.  ii.  p.  283. 
The  npper  part  of  the  Val  d'Ayas  is  called  Canton  des  Allemands,  though 
no  German  is  now  spoken  there. — See  Schott,  Die  Deutscken  am  Monte 

«  See  Forbes,  Alps,  p.  330;  Tour  of  Mont  Blanc,  p.  266  ;  King,  Italian 
Valleys^  p.  449;  Latham,  Nationalities  of  Europe,  vol.  ii.  p.  282  ;  Germania^ 
p.  xl. ;  Lewis,  Romance  Languages,  p.  97 ;  Bionddli,  Studii  Linguistici^ 
pp.  47 — ^54 ;  Gilbert  and  Churchill,  Dolomite  Mountains,  p.  379  ;  Steub, 
Zur  Rdtischen  EthnoL  pp.  56 — 65.  On  the  valleys  of  Macugnaga,  &c.  see 
two  capital  monographs  by  Schott,  Die  Deutscken  am  Monte  Rosa,  and  Die 
Deutscken  Colonien  in  Piedmont,  The  best  account  of  the  Sette  and 
Tredici  Comuni  is  by  Schmeller,  Ueber  die  sogenannten  Cimhem  aufden 
Venediscken  Alpen,  Till  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  they  formed 
an  independent  republic.  Schmeller,  p.  563.  They  speak  a  Platt-deutsch 
dialect,  and  call  themselves  Cimbri.  A  peasant,  if  asked,  will  tell  you,  '*  Ich 
pin  an  Cimbro."  Schmeller,  p.  565.  Eustace,  Classical  Tour,  voL  i.  p. 
142,  and  Crichton,  Scandinavia,  vol.  i.  p.  69,  accept  the  local  tradition 

K  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

5  2  Ethnological  Valtie  of  Local  Names. 

We  shall  proceed  to  fill  up  some  portions  of  the  out- 
line which  has  just  been  traced,  and  endeavour  to 
decipher  from  the  map  of  Europd  the  history  of  the  con- 
quests and  immigrations  of  some  of  the  chief  races  that 
have  succeeded  one  another  upon  the  stage. 

which  makes  them  the  remains  of  the  Cimbrian  horde  which  was  over- 
thrown by  Marins  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Verona.  See  Notes  and 
Queries^  vol.  i.  p.  176 ;  Biondelli,  Studii  Linguistici,  p.  53 ;  Amdt,  Eur, 
Spr,  p.  105.  J.  K.  [enrick?],  in  Journal  of  Education,  vol.  vi  p.  353, 
thinks  they  are  the  remains  of  German  mercenaries. 


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Ethnic  Names  are  of  Obscure  Origin.  S3 



Ethnic  Names  are  of  obscure  origin — Name  of  BritcUn^Many  nations  hear 
duplicate  names-- Deutsche  and  Germans — "  Barbarians  ** —  IVelsh — Gaels 
— Aryans — Names  of  conquering  Tribes — Ancient  Ethnic  Names  con- 
served in  those  of  modern  cities — Ethnic  Names  from  rulers — From  geo" 
graphiccU  position — Europe — Asia  —  Africa  —  Ethnographic  Names — 
"  Warriors'*—" Mountaineers'*— "Lowlanderr''—*' Foresters"— " Coast- 
landers''— Greehs. 

The  names  borne  by  nations  and  countries  are  natu- 
rally of  prime  importance  in  all  ethnological  investi- 
gations. They  are  not  lightly  changed,  they  are  often 
cherished  for  ages  as  a  most  precious  patrimony,  and 
therefore  they  stretch  back  far  into  the  dim  Past, 
thus  affording  a  clue  which  may  enable  us  to  discover 
the  obscure  beginnings  of  separate  national  existence. 
But,  unfortunately,  few  departments  of  etymology  are 
beset  with  more  difficulties,  or  are  subject  to  greater 
uncertainties.  Some  of  those  ethnic  names  which  have 
gained  a  wide  application  had  at  first  a  very  restricted 
meaning,  as  in  the  case  of  ITALY  or  ASIA ;  ^  others,  like 
that  of  the  Romans,  may  have  arisen  from  special  local 
circumstances,  of  which  we  can  have  only  a  conjectural 

1  See  pp.  77,  87,  infra  ;  and  Newman,  E^al  Rome^  p.  6. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

54  The  Nantes  of  Nations. 

or  accidental  knowledge ;  ^  others,  again,  as  in  the  case 
of  LORRAINE,^  may  be  due  to  causes  which,  if  history- 
be  silent,  the  utmost  etymological  ingenuity  is  powerless 
to  recover.  It  is  only  here  and  there,  as  in  the  case  of 
ORIENTAL,  or  the  ARGENTINE  REPUBLIC,*^  that  we  find 
countries  bearing  names  which  have  originated  within 
the  historic  era,  and  the  meaning  of  which  is  obvious. 
But  the  greater  number  of  ethnic  names  are  of  great 
antiquity,  and  their  elucidation  has  often  to  be  sought 
in  languages  with  which  we  possess  only  a  fragmentary 
acquaintance.  Frequently,  indeed,  it  is  very  difficult — 
sometimes  impossible — ^to  discover  even  the  language 
from  which  any  given  ethnic  name  has  been  derived. 

It  is  not  needful  to  travel  far  for  an  illustration  of  the 
mode  in  which  this  difficulty  presents  itself — ^the  name 
of  our  own  country  will  supply  us  with  an  instance. 
The  BRITISH  people,  the  inhabitants  of  GREAT  BRITAIN, 
are,  we  know,  mainly  of  Teutonic  blood,  and  they  speak 
one  of  the  Teutonic  languages.  None  of  these,  how- 
ever, affords  any  assistance  in  the  explanation  of  the 
name.  We  conclude,  therefore,  that  the  Teutonic  colo- 
nists must  have  adopted  an  ethnic  appellation  belonging 
to  the  former  inhabitants  of  the  country.  But  the 
Celtic  aborigines  do  not  seem  to  have  called  themselves 

1  The  name  of  Roma  is  periuips  from  the  Groma^  or  four  cross-roads 
at  the  Forum,  which  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  city.  See  Donaldson, 
VarronianuSf  pp.  60,  270.  Other  plausible  conjectures  will  be  found  in 
Curtius,  Grundiuge,  vol.  iL  p.  261  ;  Mommsen,  Hist,  of  Honu,  vol  i. 
p.  44 ;  and  Pott,  Etym,  Farsch»  vol.  ii.  p.  2S4. 

■  See  p.  74,  infra. 

>  Ecuador  is  the  republic  of  the  "  Equator ; "  the  Banda  Oriental  occupies 
the  **  eastern  bank,"  and  the  Argentine  Republic  the  western  bank  of  the 
Rio  dc  la  Plata,  or  River  of  the  "  Silver." 


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.    Name  of  Britain.  55 

by  the  name  of  Britons,  nor  can  any  complete  and  satis- 
factory explanation  of  the  name  be  discovered  in  any  of 
the  Celtic  dialects.  We  turn  next  to  the  classic  lan- 
guages, for  we  find,  if  we  trace  the  literary  history  of 
the  name,  that  its  earliest  occurrence  is  in  the  pages  of 
Greek,  and  afterwards  of  Latin  writers.  The  word, 
however,  is  utterly  foreign  both  to  the  Greek  and  to 
the  Latin  speech.  Finally,  having  vainly  searched 
through  all  the  languages  spoken  by  the  diverse  races 
which,  from  time  to  time,  have  found  a  hon\e  upon  these 
shores — Shaving  exhausted  all  the  resources  of  Indo- 
European  philology  without  the  discovery  of  any 
available  Aryan  root,  we  turn,  in  despair,  to  the  one 
remaining  ancient  language  of  western  Europe.  We 
then  discover  how  great  is  the  real  historical  significance 
of  our  inquiry,  for  the  result  shows  that  the  first  chapter 
of  the  history  of  our  island  is  in  reality  written  in  its 
name — ^we  find  that  this  name  is  derived  from  that 
family  of  languages  of  which  the  Lapp  and  the  Basque 
are  the  sole  living  representatives ;  and  hence,  we  rea- 
sonably infer  that  the  earliest  knowledge  of  the  island, 
which  was  possessed  by  any  of  the  civilized  inhabitants 
of  Europe,  must  have  been  derived  from  the  Iberic 
mariners  of  Spain,^  who  either  in  their  own  ships,  or  in 
those  of  their  Punic  masters,  coasted  along  to  Brittany, 
and  thence  crossed  to  Britain,  at  some  dim  pre-historic 
period.  The  name  Bx-itan-'i^,  contains,  it  would  seem, 
the  Euskarian  suffix  etan,  which  is  used  to  signify  a 
district  or  country.*    We  find  this  suffix  in  the  names  of 

1  Niebnhr,  JJist.  Rome^  vol.  ii.  p.  522 ;  Arnold,  Hist,  Rome^  vol.  u 
p.  489. 

*  This  is  the  explanation  usually  given,  but  it  would  be  more  correct  to 
saj  that  etan  is  the  plural  of  an^  the  suffixed  locative  preposition,  or  sign  of 
the  locative  case.    See  Boudard,  Numaiis,  Ibhr,  pp.  94,  93 ;  and  a  tract  by 


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$6  The  Names  of  Nations. 

many  of  the  districts  known  to,  or  occupied  by  the 
Iberic  race.  It  occurs  in  Ko^-itanAsL,  or  Aquitaine,  in 
Lus-z/^^-ia,  the  ancient  name  of  Portugal,  in  Maur- 
etan-vdiy  the  '*  country  of  the  Moors,"  as  well  as  in  the 
names  of  very  many  of  the  tribes  of  ancient  Spain, 
such  as  the  Qtxr-etanAy  Aus-etan-i,  "Lal-etan-i,  Cos-etan-i, 
Yesc-itan-i,  Lac-^/^«-i,  Carp-etanA,  Ov-etan-iy  Bast-//a»-i, 
TwrA-etan-i,  Suess-^/a«-i,  Ed-etan-i,  and  others. 

This  illustration  not  only  indicates  the  value  of  the 
results  which  may  accrue  from  the  investigation  of  ethnic 
names,  but  it  will  also  serve  to  show  how  difficult  it  may 
often  be  to  determine  even  the  language  from  which  the 
explanation  must  be  sought. 

In  attempting  to  lay  down  general  principles  to  guide 
us  in  our  investigations,  we  have  in  the  first  place  to  deal 
with  the  remarkable  phenomenon — an  instance  of  which 
has  just  presented  itself — that  the  greater  number  of 
ethnic  names  are  only  to  be  explained  from  languages 
which  are  not  spoken  by  the  people  to  whom  the  name 
applies.  Most  nations  have,  in  fact,  two,  or  even  a 
greater  number  of  appellations.^  One  name,  by  which 
the  nation  calls  itself,  is  used  only  within  the  limits  of 
the  country  itself;  the  other,  or  cosmopolitan  name,  is 
that  by  which  it  is  known  to  neighbouring  tribes. 

the  same  writer  Sur  un  suffixe  Ibhun^  in  the  Revue  ArcfUologiqtUy  xi. 
pp.  562 — 567 ;  Adelung's  MithridateSf  vol.  ii.  p.  26.  The  first  syllable,  bro, 
briy  or  brii,  is  possibly  Iberic,  or  more  probably  it  may  be  a  Celtic  glosa 
(Brezonec,  brot  a  country,  which  appears  in  the  name  of  the  AUo^^-ges), 
to  which  the  Iberic  etan  was  appended.  Humboldt,  Priifung  der  Unier- 
suchungm^  pp.  62,  63,  143 ;  Prichard,  Researches^  voL  iil  p.  28  ;  Philoiog. 
TtansactionSf  vol.  i.  p.  176  j  Pott,  EtymoL  Forschung,  vol.  ii.  pp.  42,  582  ; 
Renan,  Lang,  Sitnit,  p.  203  ;  Smith,  Dictionary  of  Greek  and  Roman 
Geogr,  8.  v.  Britannicse  Insulae,  voL  i  p.  434.  Cf.  Diefenbach,  CelHca^  IL 
pp.  59 — 63;  De  Belloguet,  Ethnog,  vol.  i.  p.  251. 
I  See  Mahn,  Nam,  Preuss,  pp.  4,  8 ;  Verstegan,  Restitution^  p.  46. 


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Most  Nutions  bear  Duplicate  Names.  $7 

Thus,  the  people  of  England  call  themselves  the  En- 
glish, while  the  Welsh,  the  Bretons,  the  Gaels  of  Scotland, 
the  Irish,  and  the  Manxmen,  respectively,  call  us  Saeson, 
Saoz,  Sasunnaich,  and  Sagsonach.^  The  natives  of  Wales 
do  not  call  themselves  the  Welsh,  but  the  Cymry.  The 
people  to  the  east  of  the  Rhine  call  themselves  Deutsche, 
the  French  call  them  Allemands,  we  call  them  Germans, 
the  Sclavonians  call  them  Niemiec,  the  Magyars  call  them 
Schwabe,  the  Fins  call  them  Saksalainen,  the  Gipsies  call 
them  Ssasso.^  The  people  whom  we  call  the  Dutch  call 
themselves  Nederlanders,  while  the  Germans  call  them 
Hollanders.  The  Lapps  call  themselves  Sabme,  the  Fins 
call  themselves  Quains.  Those  whom  we  call  Bohemians 
call  themselves  Czechs.  The  Germans  call  the  Sclavo- 
nians, Wends,  but  no  Sclavonian  knows  himself  by  this 


The  origin  of  these  double  names  is  often  to  be  ex- 
plained by  means  of  a  very  simple  consideration.  Among 
kindred  tribes,  in  a  rude  state  of  ci\dIization,  the  concep- 
tion of  national  Unity  is  of  late  growth.  But  it  would 
be  natural  for  all  those  who  were  able  to  make  them- 
selves mutually  intelligible,  to  call  themselves  collectively 
"  The  Speakers,"  or  **  The  People,"  while  they  would  call 

^  See  Grimm,  GeschichU  der  Deut,  Sprache^  voL  il  p.  658 ;  SouTestre, 
JDemurs  Britons^  voL  i.  p.  219. 

s  This  name  affords  a  curious  piece  of  evidence  as  to  the  road  by  which 
the  gipsies  entered  Europe.  It  would  seem  that  the  first  German  people 
which  became  known  to  them  must  have  been  the  Saxon  colony  in  Tran- 
sylvania. See  Pott,  DU  Zigmner  in  Europa  und  Asietty  vol.  i.  p.  53. 
Another  indication  that  the  gipsies  immigrated  by  the  valley  of  the  Danube, 
is  the  name  Romani,  by  which  they  call  themselves.  This  is  the  enchorial 
appellation  of  the  Wallachians,  among  whom,  therefore,  it  would  appear 
that  the  gipsies  must  have  been  domiciled.  See,  however,  Pott,  Indo- 
Germ,  Sprach.  p.  42;  Adelung,  MithridateSy  vol.  i.  p.  237. 

s  Adelung,  MUhridates^  vol.  ii.  p.  655. 


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58  The  Natnes  of  Nations. 

those  neighbouring  races,  whose  language  they  could  not 
understand,  by  some  word  meaning  in  their  own  language 
"The  Jabberers,"  or  "The  Strangers." ^ 

A  very  large  number  of  ethnic  names  can  be  thus  ex- 

The  Sclavonians  call  themselves'  either  SLOWJANE, 
"  the  intelligible  mfen,"  or  else  SRB,  which  means  "  Kins- 
men," while  the  Germans  call  them  WENDS,  which  means 
"  Wanderers,"  or  "  Strangers." 

The  Basques  call  themselves  the  EUSCALDUNAC,' 
"Those  who  have  speech."  The  LELEGES  are  "The 
Speakers,"  *  the  SABiEANS  are  the  "  Men,"  and  the  name 
of  SHEBA  or  SEBA  is  referable  to  the  same  root*  All  the 
Sclavonic  nations  call  the  Germans  NIEMIEC,*  **the  dumb 

1  See  a  paper  by  J.  K.  [enrick],  On  the  Names  of  the  Ante-Hellenic 
Inhabitants  of  Greece^  inthe  Philolo^.  Museum,  vol.  i.  pp.  609 — 627;  Amdt, 
JEur,  S/r.  pp.  251,  303  ;  Strinnholm,  Wikin£[2iige,  p.  284 ;  Renan,  Origine 
du  Langage,  p.  iSo. 

•  Schafarik,  Slawische  Alterthiimer,  vol.  i.  p.  180;  vol.  ii  p.  42; 
Arndt,  Eur,  Spr,  p.  93;  Zeuss,  Deutschen,  p.  68;  Pott,  Etym,  Forsch, 
voL  ii.  p.  521;  Indo-Germ,  Spr.  p.  107;  Adelnng,  Directorio  fur  Sud- 
Sach,  Spr,  quoted  in  Mithridates,  voL  il  p.  612. 

'  From  euscara,  speech  ;  dunac,  those  who  have.  Mahn,  Namen  Preuss. 
p.  9 ;  Adelung,  Mithridates,  voL  iL  p.  12 ;  Humboldt,  Priifung,  p.  57. 

•  Philological  Museum,  vol.  i.  p.  616. 

■  The  Getes  or  Goths  are,  perhaps,  the  "kinsmen."  Pictet,  Orig, 
Indo-Eur.  pt  L  p.  84.  The  names  of  the  Achseans,  the  Sacse,  and  the 
Saxons  may  be  of  kindred  meaning.  See  Gladstone,  Homer,  vol  i  p.  558. 
Gltick  thmks  the Cymry  are  the  "people. "  Kelt,  Namen,  p.  26.  The  Samo- 
jedes  call  themselves  Chasowo,  the  "  men."  Muller,  Ugr.  Volks,  vol  i. 
p.  313  ;  Amdt,  Eur,  Spr,  pp.  247,  326. 

•  Strictly  speaking,  they  are  called  Niemiec  by  the  Poles,  Nemec  by  the 
Bohemians  and  Bulgarians,  Njemc  by  the  Lusatians,  and  Njemetz  by  the 
Russians.  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  DeuL  Spr,  p.  780;  Leo,  in  Kuhn*s  Zeiischrift^ 
vol  il  p.  258 ;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures,  p.  83 ;  Pott,  Etym,  Forsch,  voL  iL 
p.  $21;  Schafarik,  Slaw,  Alt,  vol.  i.  p.  443;  Zeuss,  Deutschen,  p.  68. 
The  Gipsies  call  the  Lithuanians,  Lalerri,  "  The  dumb."  Pott,  art.  Ind^ 
Germanischer  Sprackstamm,  in  Ersch  and  Gruber,  p.  44. 


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Deutsche — Allemands — Germans.  59 

men.^*  The  earliest  name  by  which  the  Germans  desig- 
nated themselves  seems  to  have  been  TUNGRI,^  "Those  who 
have  tongues,"  the  "Speakers."  This  name  was  succeeded 
by  the  term  DEUTSCHE,*  "the  People,"  "the  Nation,"  a 
name  which  still  holds  its  ground.  We  have  borrowed 
this  national  appellation  of  the  Germans,  but  curiously 
enough  we  have  limited  its  use  to  that  portion  of  the 
Teutonic  race  on  which  the  Germans  themselves  have 
bestowed  another  name.' 

But  while  the  Germans  call  themselves  "  The  People," 
the  name  given  to  them  by  the  French  means  "The 
Foreigners."  The  French  word  ALLEMAND  is  modern- 
ized from  the  name  of  the  Alemanni,  the  ancient  frontier 
tribe  between  Germania  and  Gaul.  The  Alemanni  seem 
to  have  been  a  mixed  race — partly  Celtic,  partly  Teu- 
tonic, in  blood.    The  name  is  itself  Teutonic,  and  pro- 

^  Tacitus,  Germaniay  cap.  2 :  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  Dettt,  Spr,  p.  788 ; 
Donaldson,  EngUsh  Ethnog,  p.  38;  Mahn,  Namen  Preuss,  p.  9.  The 
QUADI  are  the  speakers.  Cf.  the  Sanskrit,  wady  to  speak,  and  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  cwediy  and  Welsh  ckwed^  speech.  So  the  jazyges  derived  their  name 
from  the  Sclavonic  word/eiM(,  the  tongue. 

'  The  form  in  which  this  name  first  appears  suggested  to  Von  Hammer 
the  possibility  that  it  niight  have  been  fonned  by  the  conjunction  of  the 
definite  article  and  the  root  of  the  German  vror^Leuiey  people— the  Roman 
laii.  This  Pott  rightly  pronounces  to  be  ''  vollig  unhaltbar,"  Eiym.  Forsch, 
voL  il  p.  518.  Dr.  Donaldson  derives  the  name  of  the  Letts,  Lithuanians, 
and  even  of  the  Latins  from  the  same  root  Donaldson,  Varronianus^ 
p.  62.  See,  however,  p.  85,  infra.  On  the  etymology  of  the  word  Deutsche, 
see  Grimm,  Gesch,  derDmL  Spr,  pp.  789,  seq. ;  Leo,  in  Kuhn's  Zatschrift^ 
▼oL  iL  pp.  255 — 257 :  Leo,  Vorlesungen,  vol.  i  p.  192 ;  Leo,  Rectitudinesy 
p.  137 ;  Diefenbach,  VergleUh,  Wbrterb,  vol.  il  pp.  705 — 708  ;  Zeuss,  Die 
Deutsckitty  pp.  63,  64 ;  Latham,  English  Language^  vol  i.  pp.  289—297  ; 
Miiller,  Marken^  pp.  218 — 230;  Pott,  Eiym,  Forsch,  vol  ii.  p.  521 ;  Indfh 
Germ,  Spr,  p.  95  ;  Bergmann,  Les  Giies,  pp.  74,  75. 

*  It  seems  to  have  been  only  in  the  seventeenth  century  that  the  applica- 
tion of  the  word  dutch  was  restricted  to  the  Low  Germans.  See  Arch- 
bishop Trench,  Glossary ^  p.  65. 


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6o  The  Names  of  Natiofis. 

bably  means  "  Other  Men  "  or  "  Foreigners/'  and  thus, 
curiously  enough,  the  French  name  for  the  whole  German 
people  has  been  derived  from  a  tribe  whose  very  name 
indicates  that  its  claims  to  Teutonic  blood  were  disowned 
by  the  rest  of  the  German  Tribes.^ 

The  English  name  for  the  same  nation  has  been 
adopted  from  the  Latin  term,  GERMANIA.  It  must  have 
been  from  the  Celts  of  Gaul  that  the  Romans  obtained 
this  word,  which  seems  foreign  to  all  the  Teutonic  lan- 
gfuages.  The  etymology  has  been  fiercely  battled  over ; 
the  most  reasonable  derivation  is,  perhaps,  that  suggested 
by  Professor  Leo,  from  the  Gaelic  gaimtean,  one  who 
cries  out,*  and  the  name  either  alludes  to  the  fierce  war- 
cry  of  the  Teutonic  hordes,  or  more  probably  it  expresses 
the  wonder  with  which  the  Celts  of  Gaul  listened  to  the 
unintelligible  clash  of  the  harsh  German  gutturals. 

The  Russians  call  the  contiguous  Ugrian  tribes  by 
the  name  TSCHUDES,  a  Slavonic  word  which  means 

>  The  al  in  Alemanni  is  probably,  the  a/  in  oTms  and  v^/satia,  or  the  el 
in  //se  and  ^/sass,  not  the  al  in  all.  Thus  the  Alemanni  are  the  "  other 
men,"  not  the  "all  men"  or  "mixed  men,"  as  is  usually  supposed. 
Compare  the  a/  in  Allobroges.  Latham,  Germania^  Epileg.  p.  liii.  ;  Pott, 
Etymolog,  Forsch,  vol.  iL  pp.  523—526;  Zeuss,  'Die  Deutschen^  p.  318; 
Forstemann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  132 ;  Menage,  Origines^  pp.  27,  31 ;  Diefen- 
bach,  CelHca^  i.  p.  17;  Orig,  Eur.  p.  224;  Gliick,  Kelt,  Namen^  p.  26; 
Smith,  Diet,  of  Geography ^  art.  Germania ;  Latham,  Nationalities  of  Europe^ 
vol.  iL  p.  322;  Leo,  Vorlesungen^  vol  i.  p.  245;  Miiller,  Afor>6wf,  pp.  213, 
216;  Bos  worth,  Origin^  p.  120. 

•  See  Leo,  in  Haupt*s  Zeitschrift^  vol.  v,  p.  5x4 ;  Smith,  Diction.  ofGeogr^ 
vol  i.  p.  993 ;  Grimm,  Gesch.  der  Deui,  Spr.  pp.  785—788 ;  Gladstone, 
Horner^  vol  i.  p.  554 ;  Latham,  English  Language^  vol.  i.  pp.  286 — 289 ; 
Bosworth,  Origin^  p.  12;  Bergmann,  Gites,  pp.  76—79;  Mahn,  Nam. 
Preuss,  p.  I;  Forbiger,  Alt,  Geogr.  vol.  iii.  pp.  3x4,  315;  Keferstein, 
Kelt.  Alt,  vol.  i,  pp.  xxiL,  293;  vol.  ii.  p.  366;  Radlof,  Neue  Untersuch, 
pp.  241 — 255 ;  Amdt,  Eur.  Spr.  p.  1 14.  Dr.  Latham  refeis  the  word 
German  to  Uie  Turkish  Kerman^  a  castle  1  Nat,  of  Europe^  vol.  ii. 
p.  215. 


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Barbarians.  6i 

"Strangers"  or  "Barbarians."^  The  PHILISTINES  are, 
probably,  the  "  Strangers  "  *  and  if  this  be  the  true  mean- 
ing of  the  name,  it  strengthens  the  supposition  that  this 
warlike  people  arrived  in  Palestine  by  sea,  probably  from 
Crete,*  during  the  anarchic  period  which  succeeded  to  the 
Israelitish  conquest  under  Joshua,  The  names  of  the 
African  and  Asiatic  KAFFIRS,  of  the  PERIZZITES,  of  the 
lONlANS,*  and  of  the  FLEMINGS  are  also  nearly  identical 
in  meaning  with  those  of  the  Philistines,  Allemands,  and 
Tschudes.*  The  word  Barbarian  was  applied  by  the 
Egyptians,  and  afterwards  by  the  Greeks  and  Romans, 
to  all  who  did  not  speak  their  own  language.*  The 
root  barbar  may  be  traced  to  the  Sanskrit  varvara,  "  a 
foreigner,"  or  **  one  who  speaks  confusedly,"  and,  accord- 
ing to  the  opinion  of  the  best  scholars,  it  is  undoubtedly 
onomatopoeian.^    So  also  in  the  case  of  the  HOTT-EN- 

1  Prichard,  Researches^  voL  UL  p.  273  ;  Miiller,  Marken  des  VaterL  vol.  i. 
p.  219 ;  Latham,  Nat.  of  Europe^  vol.  i.  p.  l6i ;  Amdt,  Eur,  Spr,  p.  323. 

*  Knobel,  Vblkertafd^  p.  218;  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Palest,  p.  256; 
Movers,  Phonizien^  in  Ersch  und  Gruber,  p.  327. 

*  I  am  inclined  to  regard  this  emigration  from  Crete  as  a  result  of  the 
Dorian  conquest  of  that  island.  The  two  events  seem  to  have  been  syn- 
chronous, or  nearly  so.  Compare  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  422,  with  MiiUer's 
Dorians^  vol,  i.  p.  494;  Hoeck,  Kreta^  vol.  ii.  pp.  16,  368,  417,  seq,  ; 
Stanley,  Jewish  Church,  p.  287  ;  Movers,  Die  Phonixier,  part  L  pp.  4,  27  ; 
and  part  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  254;  Renan,  Lat^,  SimU,  p.  54 ;  Ewald,  Volk,  Isr. 
voL  i.  p.  292. 

<  See  p.  87,  infra, 

*  Pott,  EtynioL  Forschungen,  voL  IL  p.  527  ;  Renan,  Langues  Shniiiques, 
pt  i.  pp.  30,  no;  Miiller,  Marken^  voL  i.  pp.  159,  210;  Knobel,  Volker- 
ta/el,  pp.  169,  177  ;  Movers,  Phonizier,  vol.  ii.  pt.  L  p.  12 ;  Phbnisaen,  in 
Ersch  und  Gruber,  p.  328.  Flemd,  the  root  of  Fleming,  means  fugitive. 
De  Smet,  Noms,  p.  la 

*  Holzapfel,  in  Hofer's  Zeitschrift^  voL  iv.  p.  240;  Kenrick,  Ancient 
Egypt,  vol.  ii.  p.  248. 

^  Pictet,  Origines IndO'EuropSennes,  pt.  i.  pp.  57,  55  ;  Curtius,  GrundzUge 
der  Griech,  Etym.  vol.  L  p.  255 ;  Weber,  Indische  Shiaen,  p.  9 ;  Renan, 


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62  The  Names  of  Nations. 

TOTS  we  find  a  name  which  is  supposed  to  have  been 
given  by  the  Dutch  in  imitation  of  the  characteristic  click 
of  the  Hottentot  language,  which  sounds  like  a  repetition 
of  the  sounds  hot  and  toty 

Few  Ethnic  names  are  more  interesting  than  that  of 
the  WELSH.  The  root  enters  into  a  very  large  number  of 
the  Ethnic  names  of  Europe,  and  is,  perhaps,  ultimately 
onomatopoeian.  It  has  been  referred  to  the  Sanskrit 
mlicky  which  denotes  "a  person  who  talks  indistinctly," — 
"a  jabberer." 2  The  root  appears  in  German,  in  the 
form  U)al,  which  means  anything  that  is  "  Foreign "  or 
"strange."  Hence  we  obtain  the  German  words  trailer* 
a  stranger  or  pilgrim,  and  toaOen  to  wander,  or  to  move 
about.  A  walnut  is  the  "  foreign  nut,"  and  in  Grerman  a 
turkey  is  called  SBaldc^e  ^a^n,  "  the  foreign  fowl,"  and  a 
French  bean  is  aBdftc^e  bo^ne,  the  "  foreign  bean."  All 
nations  of  Teutonic  blood  have  called  the  bordering 

Langues  Shniliques,  pt.  i.  p.  35  ;  Orig,  du  Lang.  p.  178 ;  Lassen,  Ind,  Alt. 
vol.  i.  p.  855  ;  Miiller,  Marken^  p.  185 ;  Philohg.  Museum,  voL  i.  p.  611  ; 
Max  Miiller,  in  Kuhn*s  ZeUschrift,  vol.  v.  pp.  141,  142. 

^  Farrar,  Origin  of  Langucigey  p.  76.  Compare  the  onomatopoeian  name 
of  the  ZAMZUMMIN,  the  Aborigines  of  Palestine.  Renan,  Lang*  Shn. 
p.  35;  Orig.  duLang,  p.  1 17. 

•  The  Sanskrit  m  often  becomes  w  in  Gothic ;  thus,  from  mleU,  to  fade, 
we  have  vlacian,  to  flag,  wclktn,  to  wither,  and  the  name  of  the  soft  moUosk 
called  a  whelk.  According  to  this  phonetic  law,  from  the  Sanskrit  mlick 
we  obtain  the  German  wlack,  walachj  and  Wialch.  See  an  Essay  on  Walk^n 
und  Deutsche,  by  Professor  Leo,  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrifi,  voL  ii.  pp.  252 — 255  ; 
Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Euro,  pt  i.  p.  57  ;  Renan,  Lang,  Shnit,  part  I  p.  3S  ; 
Orig,  du  Lang.  pp.  178,  179;  Lassen,  Ind.  Alt,  voi.  L  p.  855;  Leo, 
Vorlesungen,  vol.  i.  p.  43. 

•  The  word  waller,  a  pilgrim,  no  longer  survives  in  English  except  as  a 
surname ;  but  we  retain  the  derivative,  wallet,  a  pilgrim^s  equipage.  It  may 
be  noted  ihtX  perigrinare  and  pilgrim  are  filially  connected  in  the  same  way 
as  wallen  and  waller.  With  wallen,  to  wander,  are  connected  the  words 
to  walk,  and  to  valu  or  waltz,  Diefenbach,  Vergl.  Worterb,  vol.  i.  pp. 
189,  181. 


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WelsJL  63 

tribes  by  the  name  of  SdMc^e,  that  is,  Welshmen,  or 
"foreigners."  We  trace  this  name  around  the  whole 
circuit  of  the  region  of  Teutonic  occupancy.  SBartc^Ianb, 
the  German  name  of  Italy,  has  occasioned  certain  incom- 
prehensible historical  statements  relating  to  Wales,  in  a 
recent  translation  of  a  German  work  on  mediaeval  history. 
The  Bernese  Oberlander  calls  the  French-speaking  dis- 
trict to  the  south  of  him,  by  the  name  of  Canton  WALLlS, 
or  Wales,  wallenstadt  and  the  wallensee  are  on 
the  frontier  of  the  Romansch  district  of  the  Chur-walcAen, 
or  men  of  the  Grisons.^  The  Sclaves  and  Germans  called 
the  Bulgarians  Wlochi  or  Wolochi,*  and  the  district  which 
they  occupied  WALLACHIA ;  and  the  Celts  of  Flanders, 
and  of  the  Isle  of  WALCHEREN,  were  called  WALLOONS  * 
by  their  Teutonic  neighbours.  North-western  France  is 
called  VALLAND  in  the  Sagas,*  and  in  the  Saxon 
Chronicle  WEALAND  denotes  the  Celtic  district  of  Armo- 
rica-  The  Anglo-Saxons  called  their  Celtic  neighbours 
the  WELSH,  and  the  country  by  the  name  of  WALES.* 
Cornwall  was  formerly  written  Comwales,  the  country 
inhabited  by  the  Welsh  of  the  Horn.  The  chroniclers 
uniformly  speak  of  North-Wales  and  Corn-Wales.  In 
the  charters  of  the  Scoto-Saxon  kings  the  Celtic  Picts  of 
Strath  Clyde  are  called  Walenses. 

^  They  are  called  Walisenses  in  the  Chronicles.    Schott,  Deui.  Col.  p.  206. 

'  Compare  the  Polish  Wlochy  an  Italian,  and  the  Slowenian  Vlahy  a  Wal- 
lachian.  From  the  same  Sanskrit  root  we  have  the  name  of  the  beloochs 
or  Wdsh  of  India.  Pott,  Indo-Germ.  Spr,  p.  48;  Adelung,  MUhridates^ 
ToL  ii.  p.  641 ;  Leo,  in  Kuhn^s  Zeitsckrifi^  vol.  iL  p.  255. 

s  Tho  name  of  the  Belgae,  a  Cymric  tribe,  seems  to  have  been  given  them 
by  the  Gaels,  whom  they  displaced.  Cf.  the  Erse,  Fir-bolg^  ''intruding 

^  Laing,  ffdmskringla,  vol.  L  p.  293. 

*  Strictly  speaking,  Wales  is  a  corruption  of  IVealhas^  the  plural  of 
vfeaihy  a  Welshman  or  foreigner. 


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64  The  Names  of  Nations. 

Entangled  with  this  root  wal^  we  have  the  root  gat. 
The  Teutonic  w  and  the  Celtic  and  Romance  g  are 
convertible  letters.  Thus  the  French  Gualtier  and 
Guillaume  are  the  same  as  the  English  Walter  and 
William.  So  also  guerre  and  war,  garde  and  warde, 
guise  and  wise,  guile  and  wile,  gaif  and  waif,  gaude 
and  woad,  gaufre  and  wafer,  garenne  and  warren, 
gault  and  weald,  guarantee  and  warranty,  are  severally 
the  French  and  English  forms  of  the  same  words.^ 
By  a  similar  change  the  root  wal  is  transformed  to  gal. 
The  Prince  of  Wales  is  called  in  French  "  le  Prince  de 
Galles."  Wales  is  the  "  pays  de  Galles,"  and  Cornwall 
is  Cornuailles,  a  name  which  was  also  given  to  the 
opposite  peninsula  of  Brittany.  CALAIS  was  anciently 
written  indifferently  Galeys  or  Waleys  ;  and  the  name, 
as  will  be  shown  elsewhere,  most  appropriately  indi- 
cates the  existence  of  the  remnant  of  a  Celtic  people 
surrounded  by  a  cordon  of  Teutonic  settlers. 

This  convertibility  of  the  roots  gal  and  wal  is  a  source 
of  much  confusion  and  difficulty ;  for  it  appears  probable 
ihsitgal  may  also  be  an  independent  Celtic  root,^  entirely 
unconnected  with  the  Teutonic  wal ;  for  while  the  Welsh 
of  Wales  or  Italy  never  called  themselves  by  this  name, 
it  appears  to  have  been  used  as  a  national  appellation 

1  Cf.  Philolog.  Proceed,  vol.  i  p.  io8 ;  Knapp,  English  Roots,  p.  8 ; 
Verstegan,  Restitutum,  pp.  i66^  363 ;  Max  Mtiller,  Lectures^  2nd  series, 
p.  265. 

s  No  satisfactory  explanation  from  Celtic  sources  has,  I  believe,  been 
offered.  Possibly  it  may  mean  the  "west."  See  Mone,  Cdtisclu  For- 
sckungen,  p.  326.  Pott  derives  it  from  gtodi,  the  "cultivated  country." 
£tym.  Forsch,  vol.  il  p.  531.  Zeuss  thinks  it  means  the  "warriors."  Die 
Deutschefty  p.  65.  Dr.  Meyer  prefers  the  cognate  signification  of  "clans- 
men." Report^  Brit.  Assoc,  for  1847,  P-  30^  5  Bunsen,  PAH.  of  Univ.  Hist. 
vol.  1.  p.  145.     CELT  is  of  course  only  the  Greek  form  oigad  ox  gallus. 


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Gaels.  6$ 

by  the  GAELS  of  CVi/edonia^  and  the  GAULS  of  Galliz, 
GalvfdiY,  Done^tf/,  Galloyf3.y,  and  hxgyle  are  all  Gaelic 
districts ;  and  GOELLO  is  one  of  the  most  thoroughly- 
Celtic  portions  of  Brittany.  The  inhabitants  of  Gal\\c\z, 
and  Portu^^/  possess  more  Celtic  blood  than  those 
who  inhabit  any  other  portion  of  the  Peninsula.  The 
Austrian  province  of  Galitz  or  Ga/idB,  is  now  Sclavonic, 
and  the  name,  as  well  as  that  of  Wallachia,  is  probably 
to  be  referred  to  the  German  root  wal,  foreign ;  though 
it  is  far  from  impossible  that  one  or  both  of  these  names 
may  indicate  settlements  of  the  fragments  of  the  Gaelic 
horde  which  in  the  third  century  before  Christ  pillaged 
Rome  and  Delphi,  and  finally,  crossing  into  Asia,  settled 
in  and  gave  a  name  to  that  district  of  Ga/atia,  whose 
inhabitants,  even  in  the  time  of  St.  Paul,  retained  so 
many  characteristic  features  of  their  Celtic  origin.^ 

So  interlaced  are  these  primeval  roots  that  it  is  almost 
hopeless  to  attempt  to  disentangle  them.^ 

1  This  word  possibly  contains  the  root  ^o^/.  If  so,  the  Caledonians 
would  be  the  Gaels  of  the  duns  or  hills.  The  usual  etymology  is  from 
caHdooirUj  the  ''men  of  the  woods."  See^Diefenbach,  Celtica^  ii.  part  i.  p.  14 ; 
CambrO'Briton^  voL  L  pp.  48,  373 ;  vol.  iii  pp.  397,  399  ;  Thierry,  HisL 
Gaui,  vol.  i.  pp.  xxix.  xxxv ;  Chalmers,  Caledonia^  vol.  I  p.  200. 

*  GALATA,  near  Constantinople,  is  regarded  by  Diefenbach  as  a  vestige 
of  the  passage  of  the  Galatian  horde.  Cdtica^  ii.  part  i.  p.  7.  It  seems 
more  probable  that  this  name  is  Semitic,  and  should  be  classed  with  KELAT 
in  Beloochistan,  alcala  in  Spain,  and  calata  in  Sicily.  See  Chapter  VI. 

>  On  the  roots  gal  and  wal,  see  Zeuss,  Die  Deuischen  und  die  Nach' 
harstdmme^  pp.  66,  576;  Diefenbach,  Cdiica,  ii.  part  ii.  pp.  127,  128; 
Diefenbach,  Vergieieh,  Worterb.  vol  L  pp.  180,  181 ;  Guest,  on  Gentile 
Namei^  in  Philolog.  Proc.  voL  i.  p.  105  ;  MUller,  Die  Marken  des  VaterL 
voL  L  pp.  194 — 203 ;  Prichard,  Eastern  Origin  of  the  Celtic  Nations^  pp. 
*  104—  1 10 ;  Latham,  English  Language^  vol.  L  p.  cv ;  Latham,  Gennania^ 
pp.  83,  98 ;  Nat.  of  Europe^  vol.  ii  pp.  192,  387 ;  Conybeare  and  Howson, 
Life  of  St.  Pauly  vol  i.  p.  284;  Arnold,  Hist,  of  Rome^  vol.  i.  p.  520  ; 
Yonge,  Christian  Names ^  voL  ii.  p.  9 ;  Chamock,  Local  Etymol.  p.  291  ; 
Basil  Jones,  in  Archctologia  Cambrensisy  3rd  series,  voL  iv.  pp.  127 — 132 ; 



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66  The  Names  of  Nations. 

Another  root  which  is  very  frequently  found  in  the 
names  of  nations  is  ar.  This  ancient  word,  which  enters 
very  extensively  into  the  vocabularies  of  all  the  Indo- 
Germanic  races,  seems  primarily  to  have  referred  to  the 
occupation  of  agriculture.  The  verb  used  to  express  the 
operation  of  ploughing  is  in  Greek  op(ia>,  in  Latin  arOf 
in  Gothic  /^rjan,  in  Polish  (?rac,  in  old  High  German 
a/an,  in  Irish  a:raim,  and  in  Old  English  ear.  Thus  we 
read  in  our  version  of  the  Bible,  "  The  oxen  .  .  .  that 
ear  the  ground  shall  eat  clean  provender."  ^  A  plough  is 
aporpov  in  Greek,  ^zfatrum  in  Latin,  ^rdr  in  Norse,  and 
araid  in  Welsh ;  and  the  English  harrow  was  originally  a 
rude  instrument  of  the  same  kind.  The  Greek  Apovpc^ 
the  Latin  ^^vum,  and  the  Polish  (?racz'mean  a  field, 
or  ariblt  ground,  yiroma  was  the  an>matic  smell  of 
freshly  ploughed  land ;  while  apro^  and  harvest  reward 
the  ploughman's  labour.  The  Sanscrit  /r4,  the  Greek 
Ipa,  the  Gothic  airthaL,  and  their  English  representative, 
earth,  is  that  which  is  eared  or  ploughed.^ 

Lord  Lindsay,  Progression  by  Antagonism^  p.  62 ;  Rawlinson,  Herodotus^ 
voL  iii.  p.  190;  Verst^ran,  Restitution^  pp.  46,  166,  167;  Pott,  Etvm, 
Forsch,  vol  ii.  p.  529 ;  Indo-Germ.  Spr.  p.  91  ;  Saturday  Revitw^  April 
nth,  1863  ;  Amdt,  Eur,  Spr.  p.  253 ;  Schafarik,  Slaw,  Alt,  vol.  i.  p.  377  ; 
Bp.  Thirlwall,  in  Philolog.  Trans,  for  1860-1,  pp.  199—203  ;  and  Holzapfd, 
in  Hofer*s  Zeitschrift,  vol.  iv.  p.  240,  who  quotes  a  work  which  I  have  not 
been  able  to  procure— Maasmann,  Deutsck  und  Wdsch,  Miinchen,  1843. 
Niebuhr,  in  his  Lectures  on  Ethnology  and  Geography^  vol.  iL  p.  308,  holds 
the  untenable  opinion  that  the  Cdtic  national  appellation  is  the  rxwt  of 
the  German  ««/,  and  that  the  Germans  took  the  name  of  some  contiguons 
Gaelic  tribe  as  a  general  term  for  foreigner.     See  p.  62,  supra, 

1  Isaiah  xxx.  24.     So  the  two  great  operations  of  ploughing  and  reaping^ 
are  called  "earing  and  harvest,**    Gen.  xlv.  6  ;  Ex.  xxxiv.  21. 

'  Scores  of  related  words  might  be  collected  from  the  Romance,  Celtic, 
Sclavonic,  and  Gothic  languages.  Tilled  land  being  the  chief  kind  of  pro- 
perty, we  have  the  Gothic  arbi,  an  inhmtance.  Since  ploughing  was  the 
chief  eamisX.  occupation  practised  at  an  early  stage  of  dvilixation,  the  root 


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Aryans,  6j 

The  Sanskrit  word  arya  means  an  agriculturist,  a  pos- 
sessor of  landy^or  a  householder  generally ;  hence  it  came 
to  denote  any  one  belonging  to  the  dominant  race^ — 
the  aristocracy  of  landowners — ^as  distinguished  from 
the  subject  tribes ;  and  at  length  it  began  to  be  used  as 
an  ethnic  designation,  corresponding  to  some  extent  with 
the  word  bfutfc^,  as  used  by  the  Germans.* 

The  name  of  this  conquering  ARYAN  race,  which  has 
gone  forth  to  till  the  earth  and  to  subdue  it,  is  probably 
to  be  found  in  the  names  of  IRAN,*  HERAT,  ARAL, 
ARMENIA,  and,  perhaps,  of   ib-er-ia,  Ireland,  and 

comes  to  take  the  general  signification  of  any  kind  of  work.  Hence  the 
Greek  ifjop,  the  Latin  ars,  the  German  arbeit,  the  English  errand  ;  all  of 
which  deserve  Aimings  and  eame&t  money.  It  would  not  be  difficult  to  trace 
the  connexion  of  the  Greek  4p-tTfths,  rpt-ifp-iis  and  ^-fip-irriSf  the  Latin 
remns,  the  English  oar,  the  Sanskrit  di/itra,  a  ship,  as  well  as  of  urbs  and 
crbis.  On  the  meaning  and  ramifications  of  the  root  ar,  see  Diefenbach, 
VergUich,  Wbrterb,  vol.  L  pp.  65,  70;  Diefenbach,  Celtica,  i.  pp.  Ii— 13; 
Grimm,  G€sch.  der  Deut,  Spr,  vol.  i.  pp.  54,,  55,  68 ;  Kuhn,  Zur  altesU 
Gtsch,  pp.  12,  13  ;  Pictet,  Origines  Indo-Europ.  part  il  pp.  28 — ^31,  67, 
7Sf  78,  88,  123,  183—185 ;  Curtius,  Gfundxiige  der  Griech,  Etym,  vol.  i. 
pp.  306—308 ;  Prichard,  Rep,  Brit  Assoc,  for  1847,  p.  242 ;  Lassen,  Ind, 
Alt.  vol  L  pp.  5 — 8;  Pott,  U^er  alt-persische  Eigennamen  in  the  Zeitschrift 
dir  Morgenl,  Gesdlschaft,  vol.  xiii.  p.  374  ;  Church  of  England  Quarterly^ 
*M>-  73»  P-  139  ;  Mommsen,  Inhabitants  of  Italy ^  pp.  16,  17  ;  Renan,  Lang, 
Shnit.  p.  14 ;  Pott,  Indo-Germ,  Sprach.  p.  46 ;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures  on 
Science  of  Language,  pp.  237 — ^257  ;  Amdt,  Eur.  Spr.  p.  158  ;  Phil.  Tram, 
for  1857,  p.  55  ;  Edinburgh  Review,  voL  xdv.  pp.  315,  316 ;  Zeitschrift 
d*  Morgeni,  Gesdlschaft,  vol.  iil  p.  284. 

^  The  profession  of  arm&  being  engrossed  by  the  ruling  race  has  caused 
the  root,  if  indeed  it  be  the  same,  to  enter  into  a  number  of  military  terms 
— army,  armour,  arms,  harness,  hero,  *'A^r.  Curtius  and  Pictet,  however, 
think  these  words  are  of  independent  origin. 

*  Leo,  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  vol.  ii.  p.  257. 

*  In  the  cuneiform  inscriptions  the  Medes  and  Persians  claim  proudly 
to  be  Aryans,  and  Darius  styles  hunself  an  Aiya  of  the  Aryans,  The 
Oasetes  in  the  Caucasus  call  themselves  iron.  The  name  German  may 
perhaps  be  referred  to  this  root.  Compare  the  names  Ar-iovistus,  Ar-minius, 

F  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

68  The  Names  of  Nations. 

ERIN.  In  languages  which  belong  to  the  Teutonic 
branch  of  the  Aryan  stock,  we  find  the  root  in  the  form 
ware^  inhabitants.  Burgh^fs  are  those  who  inhabit 
towns,  and  a  skipp^  is  one  who  lives  in  a  ship,  as  may 
be  seen  by  tracing  the  words  back  to  the  Anglo-Saxon 
burhvarey  citizens,  and  the  old  Norse  skipveri,  a  sailor.* 
The  word  ware  enters  into  the  names  of  a  great  number 
of  German  tribes.  It  is  Latinized  into  the  forms  uari, 
oari,  and  dart;  and  the  w  is  sometimes  changed  into  a^, 
in  accordance  with  a  phonetic  law  which  has  been  already 
illustrated.  Among  the  peoples  of  Central  Europe  are 
found  the  Ing-uari-i,  the  Rip-uari-i,  the  Chsis-uari-i,  the 
CYizXt'tmriA,  the  Att-uariA,  the  Angri-z/an-i,  and  the 
Ansi-^^n-i.  The  name  of  the  Boio-^zfi-i  is  preserved  in 
the  modem  name  of  BA-VARI-A,  the  land  of  the  Boii. 
The  BULG-ARI-ANS  Were  the  men  from  the  Bolg,  or 
Volga,  on  the  banks  of  which  river  there  is  another,  or 
Great  Bulgaria.^  King  Alfred  speaks  of  the  Moravians 
under  the  name  ^A^xvaro,  the  dwellers  on  the  river 
Marus  or  Morava.*  Hun-^a:rr-a,  or  HUNGARY,  is  the 
land  formerly  peopled  by  the  Huns;  and   the  name 

1  On  the  root  ware,  see  IZeoss,  Die  Deutschen,  p.  367 ;  Herkunft  der 
Baiem^  pp.  5—^11  ;  Forstemanxi,  Ortsnamm^Y?'  ^^  ^97  \  Grimn),  Gesck, 
der  Deut.  Spr.  p.  781 ;  Mone,  Celt.  Forsch,  p.  245  ;  Muller,  Markem  des 
Vaterlandes^  vol.  L  p.  108 ;  Philological  Proceedings^  vol.  L  p.  10 ;  Scha- 
farik.  Slaw,  Alt,  vol.  i.  p.  367.  Compare  the  Sanskrit  vtra^  the  Latin  vir^ 
the  Celtic  jit/r  and  ^r,  the  Gothic  vairs^  and  the  Spanish  varon^  all  which 
denote  a  man.  From  the  low  Latin,  baro^  a  male,  comes  banm^  and 
perhaps  the  Scotch  bairn,  Pictet,  Or,  Indo-Euro.  part  ii.  p.  196  ;  Diez, 
Cram,  Rom.  Spr.  vol.  L  p.  26 ;  GlUck,  Kelt.  Namen^  p.  loa 

"  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  Deut.  Spr.  p.  781  ;  Miiller,  Marken^  vol.  i.  p.  19a. 
The  Prussian  land«v^r  is  the  levy  en  masse  of  the  whole  population,  and 
not  the  landguard^  as  is  commonly  suppoted. 

•  Adelung,  Mithridates,  vol.  iL  p.  641;  Prichard,  Researches^  voL  iv. 
p.  32. 

*  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen^  p.  639. 


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The  Suffixes  "  ware  "  and  "  setV  69' 

survives,  though  the  Huns  have  been  long  dispossessed 
by  Magyars  and  Sclavonians.  wor-CESTER  is  a  cor- 
ruption of  Hwic-«/a:fw-ceaster,  the  castle  of  the  inhabi- 
tants pf  the  country  of  the  Huiccii.  The  men  of  Kent 
were  the  Q^XiXrware;  and  though  this  term  is  obsolete, 
it  survives  in  the  name  of  their  chief  town,  ZzxiXrwara- 
byrig,  or  CANT-^r-BURY,  *'  the  burgh  of  the  men  of  the 
headland,"  while  the  ordinary  signature  of  the  primate, 
Q^xArtiar}  exhibits  the  Saxon  root  ware  in  a  prominent 
form.  CAR-ISBROOK,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  is  a  name 
closely  analogous  to  Canterbury.  Asser  writes  the  word 
Gwiti-^ar/^-burg,  "  the  burgh  of  the  men  of  Wight"  It 
will  easily  be  seen  how  the  omission  of  the  first  part  of 
the  name,  and  the  corruption  of  the  last  part,  have 
reduced  it  to  its  present  form. 

Another  of  these  widely  diffused  roots  is  scetan,  j^/tlers, 
or  inhabitants,  and  scete  or  setna^  the  seat  or  place  in- 

ALra/ia,  ALSACE,  or  ELSASS,  is  the  "  other  seat,"  the 
abode  of  the  German  settlors  west  of  the  Rhine,  a  dis- 
trict where,  as  we  have  seen,  the  names  of  places  are  still 
purely  German.  HOLSTEIN  is  a  corruption  of  the  dative 
case  of  Holt-sati,  the  "forest  abode."*  From  the  same 
root  we  get  Somerset  and  'Dorset.  It  would  appear  that 
the  /  in  Wil-/-shire  is  also  due  to  this  root,  since  the 
men  of  Wiltshire  are  called  in  the  Saxon  chronicle  Wil- 
saetan,  just  as  the  men  of  Somerset  and  Dorset  are  called 

1  That  is,  Episcopus  Cantuaiensis.  See  Latham,  Eng.  Lan,  vol.  i. 
p.  143 ;  Miiller,  Marken,  vol  L  p.  192 ;  Wright,  Wanderings^  p.  72 ; 
Guest,  in  Philolog.  Proceed,  vol.  i.  p.  10. 

^  Cf.  the  verbs  to  sit^  sUseny  sedere.  See  Leo,  RecHtudines^  p.  48.  On 
xflf,  see  Guest  on  Gentile  Names,  in  PkH.  Proc.  voL  i.  pp.  105,  107. 

'  Forstemann,  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrifty  vol.  i.  p.  10 ;  Ortsnameny  p.  105; 
Miiller,  Marken  des  VaUrL  voL  L  p.  121. 


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70  TJu  Names  of  Nations. 

Sumorsaetan  and  Dornsaetan.^  We  have  also  Pecsaetan, 
men  of  the  Peak  (Derbyshire) ;  Scrobsaetan,  the  men  of 
Shropshire  or  Scrubland ;  Ciltemsaetan,  the  men  of  the 
Chiltems  ;  and  Wocensaetan,  the  people  of  the  Wrekin 
or  hill-country  of  Exmoor.* 

Conquering  tribes,  numerically  insignificant,  when  com- 
pared with  the  other  elements  of  the  population,  have 
not  unfrequently  bestowed  their  names  upon  extensive 
regions.  ENGLAND,  for  instance,  takes  its  name  from 
the  Angles,  who  only  colonized  a  small  portion  of  the 
country.  In  the  case  of  SCOTLAND,  we  may  believe  that 
the  Angles,  the  Norwegians,  and  the  Cymric  Celts 
severally  constituted  a  larger  element  in  the  population 
than  the  Scots,  yet  this  conquering  Irish  sept,  which  ap- 
pears to  have  actually  colonized  only  a  portion  of  Argyle, 
has  succeeded  in  bestowing  its  name  upon  the  whole 
country.  FRANCE  takes  its  name  from  the  Franks,  a 
small  German  tribe'  which  effected  a  very  imperfect 
colonization  of  a  portion  of  central  France  :  the  whole  of 
Picardy,  Normandy,  Brittany,  Burgundy,  Languedoc, 
Guienne,  and  Gascony  being  excluded  from  their  in- 

I  Kemble,  Saxons  in  England^  vol.  i.  p.  78;  Seucon  Chron,  A.D.  800 
and  878. 

'  Kemble,  Saxons^  vol.  i.  p.  83. 

'  The  mixed  multitude  of  Greeks,  Italians,  Maltese,  English,  Germans, 
French,  and  other  western  Europeans  who  are  found  in  the  streets  of  Cairo 
and  other  eastern  cities,  all  go  by  the  name  of  Franks  to  this  day :  parturiunt 
mures,  et  nascitur  mons.  The  cause  of  the  supremacy  of  the  Frank  name 
in  the  Levant  is  probably  due  to  the  prominent  position  taken  at  the  time 
of  the  crusades  by  Godfrey  of  Boulogne,  and  the  Franks  of  Northern 
France.  See  Purchas,  His  Pilgrimes^  vol.  l  p.  305;  Trench,  Study  of 
Wordsy  p.  72.  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  Deut  Spr,  p.  789,  attributes  this  diflFu- 
sion  of  the  Frank  name  to  the  repute  of  the  Carlovingian  empire.  Latham 
ascribes  it  to  the  exploits  of  Robert  Guiscard  and  his  Normans  I  Nat,  of 
Europe^  voL  ii.  p.  23, 


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Names  of  Conquering  Tribes,  yi 

fluence.  Even  so  late  as  the  time  of  Philippe  Auguste, 
the  term  FRANCE  did  not  comprehend  either  Aquitaine 
or  Languedoc^  Several  of  the  old  French  provinces — 
OF  FRANCE — ^preserve  the  names  of  the  German  tribes 
which  conquered  them.  The  eastern  division  of  the 
Frank  nation  has  left  its  name  in  the  Bavarian  province 
of  FRANKEN,  or  Franconia,  as  we  call  it.  We  find  the 
name  of  the  Suevi  preserved  in  SUABIA ;  of  the  Rugii  in 
the  Isle  of  RUGEN  ;*  of  the  Chatti  in  HESSE ;  of  the 
Saxons  in  saxony  ;  of  the  Lombards  in  lombardy  ;  of 
the  Huns  in  HUNGARY;  of  the  Atrebates  in  ARTOIS  ;  of 
the  Pictones  in  POITOU ;  of  the  Cymry  in  CUMBERLAND, 
CAMBRIA,  and  the  CUMBRAY  Islands  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Clyde  ;3  of  the  Goths  or  Jutes  in  CATALONIA,  JUTLAND, 
the  Isle  of  GOTHLAND,  and  the  Isle  of  wight  ;*  and 
that  of  the  Vandals  possibly  in  ANDAL-USIA.* 

The  Celtic  Boii,  who  left  their  ancient  "home"  in 
BOHEMIA^  (Boi-hem-ia,  or  Boi-heim)  to  Sclavonic  occu- 

1  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England^  voL  iL  p.  147.  The  "languages*' 
or  ''nations'*  into  which  the  Hospitallers  were  divided  (a.d.  1322)  were:  — 
Provence,  Auvergne,  France,  Italy,  Aragon,  England,  Germany,  and 

«  Knobel,  Volkertafel,  p.  38. 

»  Knobel,  Volkertafd^  p.  29 ;  Kennedy,  in  Philoiog.  Trans,  for  1855, 
p.  164.  To  this  list  we  may  perhaps  add  the  names  of  cambrai,  coimbra, 
CAMBRILLA,  and  QUIMPER.  AjTchdeacon  Williams  refers  montgomeri  in 
France,  and  the  mountain  refuge  of  Monte  Comero  (anciently  Cumerium 
Promontorium)  in  Italy,  to  the  same  people.  Edinburgh  Trans,  vol.  xiiL 
P-  526. 

*  In  the  laws  of  Edward  the  Confessor  the  men  of  the  Isle  of  Wight  are 
called  Guti,  i.e.  Jutes  or  Goths.  We  have  also  the  intermediate  forms 
Geat,  Gwit,  Wiht,  and  Wight  G  and  ^are  convertible.  See  p.  64.  On 
the  identity  of  the  names  Geat  and  Goth,  see  Grinmi,  Gesch,  der  DetU,  Spr, 

p.  439- 

•  See  p.  76,  infray  for  another  etymology. 

'  The  Boii  broke  into  Italy,  and  perhaps  gave  their  name  to  Bononia, 


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J2  The  Names  of  Nations. 

pants,  have  also  given  their  name  to  Bai-txn^  or  Bava- 
ria.^ So  the  Sclavonic  and  Hellenic  districts  under 
Moslem  rule  are  called  turkey,  from  the  Turkomans  or 
Turks,  who  constitute  only  a  small  governing  class  ;*  and 
it  is  singular  that  the  Philistines,  the  "  strangers  "  from 
Crete,  who  merely  occupied  a  narrow  strip  of  the  sea- 
coast,  should,  through  their  contact  with  the  western 
world,  have  given  their  name  to  the  whole  of  the  land  of 
PALESTINE,  in  which  they  never  succeeded  in  gaining 
any  lasting  supremacy.* 

The  names  of  ancient  tribes  are  also  very  frequently 
preserved  in  the  names  of  modern  cities.  The  process 
by  which  this  has  taken  place  is  exemplified  in  the  case 
of  the  Taurini,  whose  chief  city,  called  by  the  Romans 
Augusta  Taurinorum,  is  now  Torino,  or  TURIN ;  while 
the  capital  of  the  Parisii,  Lutetia  Parisiorum,  is  now 
PARIS ;  and  that  of  the  Treviri,  Augusta  Trevirorum,  has 
become  Trier  or  Treves.*    We  have  the  name  of  the 

now  BOLOGNA,  and  to  bovanium,  another  town  in  Italy.  It  has  been 
thought  that  bordeaux  and  bourbon  also  bear  the  name  of  the  BoiL 
See  Diefenbach,  Cdtka,  ii.  part  i.  pp.  261,  316 ;  Grimm,  Gesch.  der  Dmt, 
Spr,  vol.  L  pp.  166,  502 ;  Prichard,  Researches,  vol.  iii.  p.  89 ;  Prichard, 
Eeuiem  Origin  of  Celtic  Nations ,  pp.  133 — 136;  Tschudi,  Hauptschliissd^ 
p.  179;  Knobel,  Vblkertafei,  pp.  47,  48;  Mommsen,  Hist,  of  Romty  voL  i 
p.  338 ;  Latham,  Germania^  p.  92 ;  Latham,  Nationalities  of  Europe, 
vol  ii.  p.  326 ;  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen,  p.  641 ;  Liddell,  Hist,  Rome,  vol.  i. 
p.  165 ;  Schafarik,  Slaw,  Alt.  vol.  i.  p.  382. 

1  See  p.  68,  supra. 

'  The  word  Turk  had  a  still  wider  signification  in  the  sixteenth  and 
seventeenth  centuries,  when  it  was  used  to  denote  all  Mahomedans,  as  the 
word  Saracen  was  in  the  twelfth  century.  Trench,  Glossary,  p.  222. 
Compare  the  collect  for  Good  Friday—'*  All  Jews,  Turks,  infidels,  and 

*  Renan,  Langues  S^mitiques,  p.  57;  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Palestine, 
pp.  256,  257;  Jewish  Church,  p.  362. 

^  Of  course,  in  cases  of  this  kind  it  is  impossible  to  say  that  the  name  of 
the  city  is  not  more  ancient  than  the  name  of  the  tribe.     The  names  Parisi 


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Ethnic  Names  conserved  in  the  Names  of  Cities,     73 

Damnonii  in  DEVON,  and  a  portion  of  the  name  of  the 
Z>«rotriges  is  preserved  in  2?^rchester,  of  the  Huiccii  in 
fForcester,  of  the  Iceni  in  Iken  and  /cvfeborough,  of  the 
Selgovae  in  the  SoNf^y,  of  the  Bibroci  in  Brsy  hundred, 
near  Windsor,  of  the  Regni  in  Hegnewood  or  i?i«^- 
wood  in  Hants,  and  of  the  Cassii  of  Caesar  in  the 
hundred  of  Cashio,  Hertfordshire,  and  in  Cas/iwbury 
Park,  which  probably  occupies  the  site  of  the  chief  town 
of  the  tribe.  Many  of  these  names  have  a  certain  ethno- 
logical value,  inasmuch  as  they  enable  us  to  localize 
ancient  tribes;  and  therefore  a  list  of  such  probable 
identifications  is  subjoined  in  the  appendix.^ 

The  world-famous  name  of  imperial  Rome  has  been 
retained  by  various  insignificant  fragments  of  the  Roman 
empire.  The  Wallachians,  the  descendants  of  the  Roman 
colonists  on  the  Danube,  proudly  call  themselves  ROMANI, 
and  their  country  ROMANIA.  The  language  of  modern 
Greece  is  called  the  ROMAIC ;  that  of  Southern  France  is 
the  ROMANCE ;  and  that  of  the  Rhaetian  Alps  the  RO- 
MANSCH.  The  ROMAGNA  of  Italy  preserves  the  memory 
of  the  bastard  empire  which  had  its  seat  at  Ravenna ;  and 
the  name  of  the  Asiatic  pashalics  of  ROUM  and  ERZEROUM 
are  witnesses  to  the  fact  that  in  the  mountain  fastnesses 
of  Armenia  the  creed  and  the  traditions  of  the  Eastern 
Empire  of  Rome  continued  to  exist  long  after  the  sur- 
rounding provinces  had  fallen  under  the  dominion  of  the 
Turks ;  while  for  the  European  province  of  roumelia 
was  reserved  the  privilege  of  being  the  last  morsel  to  be 
swallowed  by  the  Moslem  Cyclops. 

or  Tanrini,  for  instance,  may  not  be  true  ethnic  names,  but  may  have  been 
derived  from  the  name  of  their  capital,  the  original  name  of  which  can  only 
be  dimly  discerned  through  its  Latin  garb.     See  Ansted  and  Latham, 
Chatmd  Islands^  p.  311. 
1  Appendix  A, 


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74  The  Names  of  Nations. 

Conversely  the  name  of  a  city  has  often  become  at- 
tached to  the  surrounding  region.  The  ROMAN  EMPIRE 
must  ever  remain  the  chief  instance  of  such  an  extension 
of  meaning.  This  has  also  been  the  case  with  the  king- 
dom of  CABOOL,  with  the  State  of  NEW  YORK,  with 
BERNE,  zOrich,  and  others  of  the  Swiss  cantons,  with 
several  German  States,  such  as  HANOVER,  BADEN, 
BRUNSWICK,  and  MECKLENBURG,  and  with  a  large  num- 
ber of  the  English  counties,  as  YORKSHIRE,  LANCASHIRE, 
and  SALOP. 

A  few  countries  have  taken  their  names  from  some 
ruler  of  renown.  LODOMIRIA,  which  is  the  English  form 
of  the  Sclavonic  Vlodomierz,  is  so  called  from  St.  Vladi- 
mar,  the  first  Christian  Tzar.^  The  two  Lothairs,  the 
son  and  the  grandson  of  Louis  le  D6bonnaire,  received, 
as  their  share  of  the  Carlovingian  inheritance,  a  kingdom 
which  comprised  Switzerland,  Alsace,  Franche  Comt6, 
Luxembourg,  Hainault,  Juliers,  Li^ge,  Cologne,  Treves, 
the  Netherlands,  Oldenburg,  and  Friezland.  This  terri- 
tory went  by  the  name  of  the  Regnum  Lotharii,  Lotha- 
ringia,  or  Lothier-regne  ;  but  by  the  incapacity  or 
misfortune  of  its  rulers  the  outlying  provinces  were 
gradually  lost,  so  that  in  the  course  of  centuries  the 
ample  "realm  of  Lothair"  has  dwindled  down  into 
the  contracted  limits  of  the  modern  province  of 

The  most  recent  instance  of  a  state  called  from  the 
name  of  its  founder  is  BOLIVIA ;  a  name  which  remains 
as  a  perpetual  reproach  to  the  Bolivians,  proclaiming  the 
discords  and  jealousies  which  drove  Bolivar,  the  liberator 

1  Actvss  the  Carpathians^  p.  206. 

■  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England^  vol.  L  p.  .363 ;  Yonge,  Christian 
NamcSf  voL  iL  p.  391. 


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Ethnic  Names  derived  from  Geographical  Position.     75 

and  dictator,  to  die  in  obscure  exile  on  the  banks  of  the 
Mississippi     Stet  notninis  umbra. 

The  name  by  which  we  know  CHINA  belongs,  in  all 
probability,  to  the  same  category.  It  was  during  the 
reign  of  the  dynasty  of  Thsin,  in  the  third  century  before 
Christ,  that  the  first  knowledge  of  the  Celestial  Empire 
was  conveyed  to  the  West  That  the  form  of  the  name 
should  be  China,  rather  than  Tsin  or  SINA,^  seems  to 
prove  that  our  first  acquaintance  with  the  Chinese  em- 
pire must  have  been  derived  from  the  nation  in  whose 
hands  was  the  commerce  with  the  far  East — the  Malays 
— ^who  pronounce  Tlisina  as  C7/ina.* 

The  names  of  America,  Tasmania,  Georgia,  Carolina, 
and  others  of  this  class  have  already  been  discussed.^ 

Another  class  of  names  of  countries  is  derived  from 
their  geographical  position.  Such  are  ECUADOR,  the  re- 
public under  the  Equator,  and  piedmont,  the  land  at 
the  foot  of  the  great  mountain  chain  of  Europe.  Names 
of  this  class  very  frequently  enable  us  to  discover  the  re- 
lative position  of  the  nation  by  which  the  name  has  been 
bestowed.  Thus  SUTHERLAND,  which  occupies  almost  the 
extreme  northern  extremity  of  our  island,  must  evidently 
have  obtained  its  name  from  a  people  inhabiting  regions 
still  further  to  the  North — the  Norwegian  settlers  in 
Orkney.  We  may  reasonably  attribute  to  the  Genoese 
and  Venetians  the  name  of  the  levant,*  for  to  the 
Italians  alone  would  the  eastern  shores  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean be  the  '*  land  of  the  sunrise."    In  like  manner  the 

1  The  ancient  fonn  SINA  indicates  transmission  through  the  Arabs. 
Stiinnhokn,  IVikingsuge,  p.  2S4. 

■  Hue,  China,  voL  L  p.  347 ;  Cooley,  History  of  Maritime  and  Inlatid 
Discovery,  voL  L  p.  120;  Fleming,  Travels,  p.  336. 

>  See  Chapter  II. 

^  Compare  the  use  of  the  word  Orient. 


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76  The  Nanus  of  Nations. 

Greeks  of  Constantinople,  who  watched  the  sun  rise  over 
the  mountains  of  Asia  Minor,  called  the  land  ANATOLIA 
(the  rising),  a  name  which  is  preserved  in  that  of  the 
Turkish  province  of  NATOLIA.  The  name  of  JEPAN  or 
Jehpun  is  evidently  of  Chinese,  and  not  of  native  origin, 
for  it  means  the  "source  of  day."^  The  AMALEKITES,* 
as  well  perhaps  as  the  SARACENS,'  are  the  "  Orientals ; " 
BACTRI A  comes  from  a  Persian  word  bakhtavy  the  east ;  * 
the  Portuguese  province  of  the  ALGARBE  is  "the  west;" 
and  some  scholars  are  of  opinion  that  the  name  of 
ANDALUSIA  is  also  from  an  Arabic  source,  and  that  it 
signifies  Hesperia,  or  the  "region  of  the  evening."* 

The  name  of  the  DEKKAN  is  a  Sanskrit  word,  which 
means  the  "  South."  The  etymology  of  this  word  gives 
us  a  curious  glimpse  into  the  daily  life  of  the  earliest 
Aryan  races.  The  Sanskrit  dakshina  (cf.  the  Latin 
dextera)  means  the  right  hand,  and  to  those  who  daily 
worshipped  the -rising  sun,  the  south  would,  of  course, 
be  the  dakkhina^  or  dekkarty  "that  which  is  to  the 

Hesychius  tells  us  that  EUROPE  means  xeipa  t§9 
Suo-eo)?,  the  land  of  the  setting  sun,  and  the  etymology 

1  Kenrick,   Pkanicia^  p.  8$ ;  Alcock,   Capital  of  the  Tycoon,  voL  ii. 
p.  88. 
■  Renan,  Lang.  Simit,  p.  109. 

•  Welsford,  English  Language,  p.  27. 

*  Ibid. 

*  See  Gibbon,  note,  chap.  51,  vol.  vi.  p.  429.  It  is  more  probable,  how- 
ever, that  Andalusia  is  Vandalusia,  the  country  of  the  Vandals.  See  p.  71, 
supra;  Keferstein,  Kelt.  Alt.  voL  ILp.  313;  Gayangos,  Moham.  Dynasties, 
voL  L  pp.  23,  322, 

•  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Eur.  vol.  il  p.  495 ;  Prichard,  Researches,  voL  iv. 
p.  93 ;  Brown,  Camatic  Chronology,  p.  83.  Lassen,  however,  Jnd.  Alt. 
vol  L  p.  46,  derives  the  name  from  the  Sanskrit  d^dn,  peasants.  £S  sham, 
the  local  name  of  Syria,  means  "  the  left." 


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Europe^-Asia.  jj 

h  supported  by  Kenrick^  and  Rawlinson,^  who  think 
that  we  have  in  this  case  a  Semitic  root  applied  by  the 
Phoenicians  to  the  countries  which  lay  to  the  west  of 
them.  Dean  Trench,  on  the  other  hand,  supports  the 
common  explanation  that  the  term  eiJp-aJTn;  is  descriptive 
of  the  "broad  face"  or  profile,  which  the  coast,  near 
Mount  Athos,  would  present  to  the  Asiatic  Greek.^ 

The  origin  of  the  name  of  ASIA  is  also  in  dispute. 
Pott*  refers  it  to  the  Sanskrit  ushas?  and  thinks  that  it 
means  the  "  land  of  the  dawn,"  and  is,  therefore,  to  be 
classed  with  such  names  as  Levant,  Anatolia,  and  Japan. 
On  the  other  hand,  much  may  be  said  in  favour  of  the 
view  that  the  word  Asia  was  originally  only  the  designa- 
tion of  the  marshy  plain  of  the  Cayster* — the  Asian 
plain  on  which  EPHESUS  (l^€o--o9)  was  built ;  and  the 
root  as  or  es  may,  perhaps,  be  referred  to  that  widely- 
diffused  word  for  water  which  enters  into  the  names  of 
so  many  rivers  and  marshes  throughout  the  Indo-Euro- 
pean region.^  As  the  dominion  and  the  importance  of 
the  city  of  Ephesus  increased,  the  name  of  this  Asian 
district  would  naturally  be  extended  to  the  surrounding 

1  Phftnicia^  p.  85. 

'  Herodotusy  voL  iii.  p.  40. 

*  English^  Past  and  Present^  p.  226.  Grimm  makes  the  application  of 
the  root  refer  rather  to  the  broad  fiice  of  the  earth,  than  to  the  broad  outline 
of  the  coast  Deut.  Myth,  p.  631.  It  is  curious  that  the  same  etymological 
connexion  which  appears  to  exist  between  the  c^pcMt,  Europe,  and  the 
mythological  Europa,  is  found  between  the  Norse  words  rinta^  the  earth, 
Rindr,  the  spouse  of  Odin,  and  rind^  cattle.  Deui.  Myth,  p.  230.  Cf. 
Kari  Miiller,  Mythologies  p.  133. 

^  Etymol,  Fofsch,  voL  ii.  p.  I0a 

*  Cf.  the  Greek  lfl»r. 

'  'Air£y  iw  \9ttiuyt,  KaBffrplov  i^i  fi4€$p€L     Homer,  Uiad,  b.  ii.  1.  461. 
See  Forbiger,  Att,  Geogr,  voL  ii  p.  38, 
7  See  Chapter  IX. 


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78  The  Names  of  Nations. 

region,  and  the  Romans  afterwards  transferred  to  the 
whole  country  east  of  the  iEgean  the  name  which  they 
found  attaching  to  that  Asiatic  province  with  which  they 
first  became  acquainted.* 

The  earliest  name  for  the  African  continent  was  LIBYA. 
The  root  is,  perhaps,  the  Greek  word  Idfiay  moisture — an 
etymology  which,  inappropriate  as  it  may  seem,  would 
indicate  the  fact  that  Africa  was  first  known  to  the 
Greeks  as  the  region  from  which  blew  the  Libyan  or 
"rain-bringing"  south-west  wind.* 

The  meaning  of  the  word  AFRICA,  the  Roman  name 
of  Libya,  is  very  doubtful.  The  name  seems  to  have 
originated,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Carthage,  and  is  pro- 
bably Punic,  at  all  events  Semitic.  It  has  been  con- 
jectured, with  some  show  of  probability,  that  it  is  derived 
from  the  ethnic  designation  of  some  tribe  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Carthage,  and  whose  name  signified  "The 
Wanderers,"*  in  the  same  way  that  the  NUMIDIANS  were 
the  vofidSe^ — Nomads,  or  wandering  shepherd  tribes,  an- 
cestors of  the  Berbers  and  Kabyles — and  as  the  Suevi 
or  Swabians,*  and  probably  also  the  Vandals  and  the 

1  The  name  of  Asia  Minor  seems  to  have  been  invented  by  Oiosins  in 
the  fifth  century,  when  a  wider  geographical  knowledge  required  the  name 
of  Asia  for  all  the  regions  to  the  east  of  the  Mediterranean.  See  Trench, 
Study  of  Words,  p.  96. 

*  Rawlinson,  Herodotus^  voL  iii.  p.  40. 

s  See  Movers,  Die  Phonitier^  pt.  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  402;  Rawlinson,  Herodotus^ 
vol.  iii.  p.  40  ;  and  Mommsen,  Hist.  Rome,  Ahrens,  in  Kuhn's  ZeUsehrifi, 
vol.  iii.  p.  171,  thinks  Africa  is  the  "south  land."  Cf.  Forstemann,  Ib^ 
vol.  L  p.  15. 

*  From  sehweben^  to  move.  See  Zeuss,  Die  Deutscken^  p.  57  ;  Miiller, 
Markeftf  vol.  i.  pp.  164 — 168.  Grimm  thinks  the  root  is  a  Sclavonic  word 
meaning  free.  Gesck,  der  DeuL  Spr,  p.  322.  Leo,  VorUmngen^  voL  L 
p.  96,  prefers  a  Sanskrit  root  meaning  '*  offerers,"  and  he  believes  that  the 
practice  of  human  sacrifice  lingered  long  in  the  tribe.  On  human  sacrifice 
among  the  Germans,  see  Milman,  Hist  Latin  Christianity^  vol.  i.  p.  244  ; 


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Africa.  79 

Wends,^  were  the  roving  border  tribes  of  ancient  Ger- 

A  few  names  of  races  are  descriptive  of  personal 
appearance,  or  physical  characteristics ;  and  they  there- 
fore possess  a  peculiar  value  in  the  eyes  of  ethnographers. 

The  EDOMITES  were  the  "  red"  men,'  the  MOORS*  and 
the  PHOENICIANS*  probably  the  "dark"  men,  and  of  still 
darker  hue  are  the  NEGROES  of  NEGROLAND,  and  the 
ETHIOPIANS,  or  "burnt-faced  men,"®  quos  India  torret 

Mone,  Gesch.  Heidenihums^  voL  ii.  pp.  20,  136;  Turner,  Angio-Saxons, 
▼oL  L  p.  222. 

^  The  root  of  these  two  names  appears  in  the  German  word  wandeln^  and 
its  English  equivalents,  to  wander  or  ^loend.  To  this  root  may  also  be 
attributed  the  name  of  Flanders  ;  as  well,  perhaps,  as  those  of  vindelicia, 
VINDOBONUM,  VENETIA,  and  Others.  See  Zeuss,  Du  Deuischen  und  die 
Niachbarsidmmey  p.  57 ;  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  Deut,  Spr,  pp.  322,  475,  476 ; 
lAtham,  Germania^  Epil^.  p.  xc. ;  Amdt,  Eur,  Spr,  p.  89. 

s  The  name  of  the  scots  has  been  deduced  from  an  Erse  word,  scuite^ 
meaning  "wanderers,*'  which  is  preserved  in  the  English  word  scout, 
Meyer,  Brii.  Assoc,  Reports  for  1847,  P-  S^S  \  Bunsen,  PhU,  of  Univ.  Hist, 
▼oL  i  p.  151 ;  Wilson,  Prehist,  Annals  o/Scotland^  p.  477;  Betham,  Gael, 
pp.  xi.  xii.  The  name  of  the  Scythians  may  possibly  be  allied  to  that  of 
the  Scots.  The  parthians  are  the  "wanderers'*  or  strangers.  Pott, 
Jnda-Germ,  Spr,  p.  52;  Bergmann,  Les  Gites,  pp.  24,  28.  On  Ethnic 
names  of  this  dass,  see  Bergmann,  Peuples  Primitifs  de  la  Race  de  Jafite, 
pp.  42,  45,  52,  S3,  quoted  by  Renan,  Lang,  Shtit,  p.  39. 

s  Knobel,  Volkertafd,  pp.  12,  135 ;  Renan,  Lang,  Simil,  p.  39. 

*  Movers,  Phonizier,  part  ii.  vol.  ii  p.  372. 

*  From  ^i>i|,  reddi^-brown.  See  Knobel,  Vblkertafely  pp.  12,  317 ; 
Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  p.  68 ;  Forbiger,  Alt,  Geogr,  voL  ii.  p.  659 ;  Momm- 
sen,  Nist,  Rome,  voL  iL  p.  I  Movers  inclines  to  the  opinion  that  Phoenicia 
is  the  "  land  of  palms."  Die  Phcnizier,  pt  il  vol.  i.  pp.  2—9.  Cf.  Stanley, 
Sinai  and  Pal,  p.  267. 

*  Al0fo^,  from  cd9«,  to  bum.  Cf.  H/Ao^',  the  swarthy-faced.  Curtius, 
Grundziige  Gr.  Etym,  vol.  i.  p.  215;  Donaldson,  New  Cratylus,  p.  138; 
Varronianus,  p.  30;  J.  K.  [enrick],  in  Phil,  Mus,  vol.  L  p.  353.  So  the 
native  name  of  Egypt,  Chdmi  (Ham),  means  black.  Kenrick,  Egypt  0/ 
Herodotus,  p.  22 ;  Knobel,  Vblkertafd,  pp.  13,  239,  240 ;  Renan,  Lang, 
Shnit,  p.  42 ;  Wilkinson,  Anc,  Egypt,  vol.  ii  p.  47 ;  Bunsen,  Report  on 
Ethnology  in  Brit.  Assoc,  Reports  for  1847,  p.  254.    The  name  Egypt 


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8q  The  Names  of  Nations, 

— ^and  we  may  compare  the  name  of  the  Du-gall  and 
Fin-gall,  the  "black"  and  "white"  strangers  from 
Scandinavia,  who  plundered  the  coasts  of  Scotland, 
with  that  of  the  "  Pale  faces,"  who  have  encroached  on 
the  hunting-grounds  of  the  "Red  men"  of  North 
America,  and  of  the  "  Blacks "  of  the  Australian  conti- 
nent. The  Gipsies  term  themselves  the  ZINCALI  or 
"black  men."  1 

Professor  Leo,  with  a  great  deal  of  learning,  traces 
the  name  of  the  GOTHS  or  GET^E  to  the  Sanskrit  word 
gatay  which  denoted  a  special  mode  of  dressing  the  hair 
in  the  form  of  a  half  moon,  which  was  practised  by  the 
devotees  of  Siva.*  The  same  writer  thinks  that  the 
BOII  are  the  "trim"  or  "neat"  men.* 

The  name  of  the  Britons  has  been  conjectured,  rightly 
or  wrongly,  to  be  from  the  Celtic  britht  paint  ;*  and  till 
rather  recent  times  Claudian  was  supposed  to  be  correct 
in  his  etymology  of  the  name  of  the  painted  Picts — nee 

denotes  the  country  which  the  Nile  overflows.  The  root  ai%  which  means 
*'  water,"  appears  in  the  name  of  the  iEgean  Sea.  Kenrick,  Ancuni  Egypt, 
voL  ii.  p.  Ii6 ;  Curtius,  Die  lonier  vor  dcr  lonischer  Wanderung,  p.  18. 
Mizraim,  the  Biblical  name,  means  "the  two"  banks,  or  more  probably 
*  *  the  two  "  districts  of  Upper  and  Lower  Egypt.  Knobel,  Volkertafdy  p.  273 ; 
Wilkinson,  Arte.  Egypt,  2d  series,  voL  i.  p.  261  ;  Forbiger,  Alt.  Gtogr. 
voL  ii.  p.  767.  So  INDIA  and  sinde  are  each  the  "land  of  the  river." 
Pictet,  Or.  Indo-Euro,  voL  i.  pp.  119,  144. 

1  Pott,  Zigeuner,  vol.  I  p.  27.  . 

«  Leo,  Vorlesungen,  voL  L  pp.  83 — 85  and  258.  Cf.  Buyers,  Northern 
India,  p.  449 ;  Bergmann,  Les  Cites,  pp.  43,  47.  So  the  Hastings  or 
Astingi,  the  noblest  race  of  the  Goths,  are  the  "men  with  well-ordered 
hair."    Leo,  Voriesungen,  vol.  i  p.  86. 

*  From  the  Gaelic  word  boigh,  pronounced  boi,  Leo,  Voriesungen,  voL  i. 
p.  247.  Thierry  makes  them  "  the  terrible."  Hist,  d.  GatUois^  vol.  i« 
p.  liv.     Cf.  Keferstein,  Kelt,  Alt,  voL  ii  p.  293. 

4  No  nation  would  have  called  themselves  by  such  a  name.  The  pecu- 
liarity might  have  struck  a  foreigner,  but  not  a  native.     See  p.  56,  note. 


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Ethnographic  Names,  8  r 

falso  nomine  Picti.  It  is,  however,  far  more  probable 
that  the  PICTS,  as  well  as  the  PICTONES  of  Gaul,  are  the 
**  fighters,"  the  name  being  traceable  to  the  Gaelic /^Wa, 
or  the  Welsh  peithy  a  **  fighting  man."  *  It  has  been 
thought  that  the  SCYTHIANS  *  are  either  the  '^shooters," 
or  the  "shield  men ;"  and  that  the  men  of  the  Balearic 
Isles  are  the  "slingers."*  The  TURKS  are  the  "men 
with  helmets,"*  and  the  TATARS  probably  derive  their 
name  from  a  Turanian  root,  meaning  primarily  to  stretch, 
and  hence  "  to  draw  the  bow,"  and  "  to  pitch  tents."  ^  The 
name  of  the  COSSACKS  is  also  Turanian,  and  means 
"  mounted  warriors."  « 

The  hatred  and  trembling  contempt  felt  by  the 
Hindoos  for  those  fierce,  lowborn  freebooters  who 
carved  so  many  kingdoms  out  of  the  falling  Mogul 
empire,  is  expressed  by  the  name  MAHRATTA,  which 
signifies  "pariahs"  or  "outcasts."    There  are  two  similar 

1  Compare  the  Latin  word/ajgTw.  Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Eur,  vol.  ii.  p.  208  j 
Meyer,  in  Brit,  Assoc.  Reports  iox  1847,  p.  305  ;  Wilson,  Prehistoric  Annals 
of  Scotland^  p.  470.  See,  however.  Pott,  Etym,  Forsch,  vol.  il  p.  531  ; 
Gladstone,  Horner^  p.  347. 

«  More  probably,  however,  the  name  Sjc^s  is  a  corraption  of  tschud, 
baxbarian  (see  p.  60) ;  a  name  which  the  Greek  colonists  on  the  Euxine 
hiaid  applied  by  their  Sclavonic  neighbours  to  the  barbarous  tribes  further 
to  the  north.  See  Schafarik,  Slaw.  Alterth.  vol.  i.  pp.  285,  286 ;  Amdt, 
Eur.  Spr.  pp.  138,  323. 

*  Movers,  Die  PhSnifuer^  pt  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  584 ;  Beigmann,  Les  Ghes^ 
pp.  31,  32;  Diefenbach,  Orig.  Eur.  p.  239;  Boudard,  Sur  POrigine  des 
Premiers  Habitants  des  lies  BaUares^  in  the  Revtu  ArchSologique,  xii 
pp.  248—250. 

*  Gabelentz,  in  the  Zeitschrift  d.  Morgml.  voL  il  p.  72. 

^  See  an  adfmirable  article  on  Comparative  Philology  in  the  Edinburgh 
Revuw,  vol.  xdv.  p.  308.  Amdt,  Eur.  Spr.  pp.  317,  326,  327,  derives  the 
name  of  the  Tatars  from  the  Chinese  Ta-ta^  a  barbarian.  This  would  pro- 
bably be  onomatopceian,  like  mlich^  and  varvara.     See  pp.  61,  62,  supra, 

*  T^hfliw^  Nationalities  of  Europey  vol.  L  p.  376. 


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82  The  Names  of  Nations. 

ethnic  names  in  India.  The  cannadi  are  "rubbish," 
and  the  tulava  are  "vile."^ 

With  regard  to  the  SAXONS,  the  old  etymology  of 
Verstegan,*  broached  two  hundred  years  ago,  has 
recently  been  revived  and  supported  by  competent 
scholars.  It  would  seem  that  the  name  did  not  refer 
to  any  particular  tribe,  but  was  the  designation  of  a 
military  confederation  composed  of  adventurers  from 
various  low-German  peoples,  who  were  all  distinguished 
by  their  use  of  the  seax^  a  short  knife-like  sword.*  Dr. 
Latham,  indeed,  is  of  opinion^  that  the  names  Angle 
and  Saxon  related  to  the  same  people — ^the  names, 
perhaps,  not  being  co-extensive ;  all  Angles  were 
probably  Saxons,  though  all  Saxons  were  not  Angles. 
Or  Angle  may  have  been  the  native  name,  and  Saxon 
that  bestowed  by  Fi:?tnks  or  Celts. 

It  has  been  supposed  that  the  FRANKS  werfe  dis- 
tinguished by  the  use  of  the  frame,  francay  or  framea, 
a  kind  of  javelin ;  and  the  Langobards  or  LOMBARDS, 
by  a  long  partxsaxi  or  haXberd?    These  etymologies  are 

1  Brown,  Carnatic  Chronology^  p.  84. 

'  Restitution  of  Decayed  Intdligence,  p.  24. 

s  Leo,  Vorleiungen,  vol.  i.  pp.  236  and  288.  The  seax  was  originally  a 
stone  knife,  or  celt,  the  name  being  derived  from  saihs,  a  stone.  Cf.  the 
Latin  saxum, 

*  Latham,  Eth,  Brit,  Is.  pp.  191—195 ;  Eng.  Lang,  vol.  L  pp.  162—165. 
Cf.  Amdt,  Eur,  Spr,  p.  25a  Grimm,  Gtsch,  der  Deui,  Spr,  pp.  228,  609, 
Donaldson,  English  Ethnography ^  p.  44,  and  Turner,  Anglo-Saxons,  voL  L 
p.  100,  connect  the  Saxons  with  the  Asiatic  Sacse.  Pictet  rejects  this. 
Orig,  IndO'Europ,  voL  L  p.  87 ;  Cf.  Bergmann,  Les  Cites^  p.  22. 

^  Similarly  the  name  of  the  angles  has  been  derived  from  angol,  a  hook, 
that  of  the  Germans  from  the  javelin  called  a^r,  and  those  of  the  heruli 
and  the  cherusci  from  the  Gothic  heru^  a  sword.  Kemble,  Saxons,  voL  L 
p.  41  ;  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  Deut,  Spr,  pp.  8i»  512  ;  Leo,  Vorlesungen,  voL  L 
p.  255  ;  Wackemagel,  in  Haupt's  T^Uschrift,  vol.  vi.  p.  16.  Cf.  Miiller, 
Marken,  pp.  176—180;  Latham,  Eng.  Lang,  voL  i.  p.  216;  Bosworth, 


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'  Mountaineers.  83 

plausible,  but  by  no  means  indisputable.  They  may, 
however,  be  supported  by  the  analogous  fact  in  the 
history  of  names  that  the  Red  men  of  North  America 
called  the  early  European  settlers  by  words  signifying 
*'  sword  men  '*  and  "  coat  men."  ^ 

The  name  of  DAUPHINY  is  unique.  Its  origin  is  to  be 
traced  to  the  Dolphin,  which  was  the  heraldic  bearing  of 
the  Counts  of  Albon,  the  feudal  lords  of  the  district 
The  name  of  this  cetacean,  if  traced  to  its  source, 
proves,  curiously  enough,  to  be  derived  from  a  local 
name.  The  chief  shrine  of  Apollo  was  at  Delphi,  and 
the  animal,  heKi^k,  was  sacred  to  the  Delphian  God.^ 

The  natural  features  of  the  country  have  supplied 
many  ethnic  names.  From  the  Greek  Tpaj(ys  we  obtain 
the  name  of  THRACE,*  the  rugged  country,  as  well  as  of 
TRACHONITIS,*  a  sort  of  basaltic  island  in  the  Syrian 
desert — a  scene  of  grand  rocky  desolation,  where  vast 
fissures,  and  lines  of  craggy  battlement  call  to  mind  the 
lunar  landscape,  as  viewed  through  a  powerful  telescope, 
rather  than  any  scene  on  the  surface  of  the  earth.*  PETRA 
takes  its  name  from  the  long  sandstone  parapets  which 
gird  theWady  Mousa ;  ALBION  is  the  "hilly  land"  of 
Scotland,*  and  ALBANIA  is  so  called  from  the  snowy 

Origin^  pp.  122 ;  and  Mone,  Gesch,  Heidmtk,  vol.  ii.  p.  124 ;  who  quotes 
Leo,  Othins  Verehrungy  a  work  which  I  have  not  been  able  to  procure. 
»  Roger  Williams,  Key  intff  the  Languages  of  N,  America^  p.  39. 

•  C.  O.  Midler,  Dorians,  vol.  i.  p.  325  ;  Manage,  Origines,  pp.  250, 
698 ;  Yonge,  Christian  Names,  voL  i.  p.  157  ;  see,  however,  Curtius,  Grund* 
Miige,  vol.  il  p.  65  ;  Kuhn,  Zeitschrift,  vol.  ii.  p.  129. 

«  Gladstone,  Homer,  voL  i.  pp.  158,  347,  382  ;  Grimm  thinks  the  root  is 
epatf^s  rather  than  rpax^s.     Gesch.  der  Deut,  Spr,  p.  195. 
«  Trachonitis  is  the  Greek  translation  of  Argob,  the  Hebrew  name. 

•  See  Stanley,  JtTvish  Church,  p.  213  ;  Graham,  in  Cambridge  Essays  {oi 
1858,  p.  145. 

•  Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Euro,  vol.  L  p.  70.  C£  Meyer,  in  Reports  of  Brit, 
Assoc,  for  1847,  p.  303. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

84  The  Names  of  Nations, 

range,  whose  peaks  are  seen,  from  the  Ionian  islands, 
glistening  brilliantly  in  the  evening  sun.  Cambria  and 
Cumberland  are  the  lands  of  the  Cymry — ^the  moun- 
taineers,^  and  the  CROATS  or  Chorwats,*  as  well  as  the 

KABYLES,'^  the  MALAYS,*  the  CHAUCI,*  the  ARCADIANS,* 
the  GREEKS,  the  DORIANS,^  the  THURINGIANS,  and  the 
TYROLESE  are  the  "  Highlanders,"  while  ATTICA  is  the 
"  Promontory." « 

The  CANAANITES  are  the  "  lowlanders,"  •  as  dis- 
tinguished  from  the  AVITES  and  the  AMORITES,  or 
"  dwellers  on  the  hills,"  and  from  the  HITTITES  and  the 
HiviTES,  who  were  respectively  the  "men  of  the 
valleys,"  and  the  "men  of  the  towns." ^^    The  POLES 

1  The  Cymry  are  probably  the  "  men  of  the  combes,"  or  mountaineeis. 
Mone,  Cdtische  Forsckut^en^  p.  329.  Cf.  Donaldson,  Varron,  p.  63; 
Wright,  Essays,  vol.  1.  p.  loi.  Gliick,  Kelt.  Nametty  p.  26,  thinks  they 
are  "  the  people."    Seep.  57,  supra, 

•  From  the  Sclavonic  word  gora^  a  mountain.  The  root  is  found  in  the 
name  of  Car-inthia,  and  also  of  the  Carpathians,  which  were  anciently  called 
Chorwat,  or  Chrbat  See  Adelung,  Mithridates,  vol.  ii.  p.  647 ;  Knobel, 
Volkeriafd,  p.  44 ;  Schafarik,  Slaw.  Alterth,  vol.  L  p.  49  ;  vol.  ii.  p.  305 ; 
Buttmann,  Ortsnatnetiy  p.  72  ;  Church  of  England  Quarterly.  No.  73, 
p.  144 ;  Bronisch,  in  Neues  Lausitzisches  Magazin,  vol.  xxxiL  p.  274. 

»  Brace,  Races,  p.  173. 

^  Malaja  means  a  mountain  in  the  Turanian  languages  of  India.  Lassen, 
Ind.  Alt.  vol.  i.  p.  57. 

•  Haupt,  in  Haupt's  Zeitschrift,  voL  iii.  p.  190. 

•  The  root  is  seen  in  the  Latin  arx,  and  the  Greek  tfjcpor.  See  Church 
of  England  Quarterly,  No.  73,  p.  147. 

7  The  same  root  is  found  in  the  Latin  /Mrris,  and  in  the  Tors  of  Devon- 
shire and  Derbyshire;  The  Tyrol,  however,  may  take  its  name  from  a 
castle  near  Meran.   ■ 

•  The  root  is  found  in  dimf  and  athos.     Phil.  Mus.  vol.  it  p.  366. 

•  Curtius,  Grundziige  der  Gr.  Ety.  voL  i.  p.  32 ;  Knobel,  Volkertafel, 
p.  309 ;  Renan,  Lang.  Shnit.  p.  182 ;  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Pal.  pp.  133,  267  ; 
Ewald,  Gesch.  d.  Volkes  Isr,  voL  i.  p.  281 ;  Movers,  Phihtisder,  pt  ii.  vol.i.  p.  6. 

*®  Movers,  Phonizier,  pt.  ii.  vol.  i.  p.  80 ;  Ewald,  Gesch.  d.  Volkes  Isr. 
vol.  i.  pp.  279—282 ;  Movers,  Art  PhonizUr,  in  Ersch  und  Gruber^ 
pp.  3i9»  327*  33» ;  Wilton,  NegA,  p.  159. 


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Lowlanders.  85 

or  Polacs  are  the  '*  men  of  the  plain,"  1  VOLHYNIA  is  the 
'Mevel  country,"  WESTPHALIA  the  great  **  western  field," « 
HOLLAND  is  the  "fen,"^  BATAVLA  (Bet-au),  the  "good 
land,"*  BRABANT  the  "ploughed  land,"*  and  EUBCEA  is 
the  "well  tilled." •  The  ARGIVES  lived  in  the  "  tilled"  plain 
of  Aigos,^  and  the  LATINS  are  the  men  of  the  "  broad 
plain"  of  Latium.®  The  KURDS  are  the  "  shepherds," 
the  SARMATIANS  are  the  "  men  of  the  steppe,"  *  and  the 
ARABS  as  well  as  the  BEDOUIN  ^^  are  the  "  men  of  the 
desert,"  as  contrasted  with  the  FELLAHS  or  FELLAHIN, 
the  "  men  of  the  cultivated  ground" 

The  BURGUNDIANS  were  the  dwellers  in  burghs  or 
fortified  towns."     The  TYRRHENIANS,  or  ETRUSCANS, 

1  Schafarik,  Slanv,  Alt,  vol.  i.  p.  49  ;  vol.  iL  p.  399 ;  Amdt,  Europ,  Spr, 

p.  249. 

'  Zeuss,  Die  Deutscken^  p.  390. 

•  From  ollarUy  marshy  ground.     Bosworth,  Origin^  p.  21. 

^  Bet,  the  first  part  of  this  name,  is  the  obsolete  positive  degree  of  better 
and  best.  The  second  syllable  au,  land,  is  seen  in  the  word  fall-ow,  the 
bad  or  faifmg  land.  Bosworth,  Origin^  p.  92  ;  Motley,  Dutch  Republic, 
ToL  i.  p.  4.     Cf.  Thierry,  Hist.  Gaul,  vol.  ii.  p.  43, 

B  Brabant,  anciently  Brdch-bant,  is  from  the  old  high  German  prAcha, 
ploughing.  Bant  means  a  district,  as  in  the  names  of  the  Subantes,  Tri- 
bantes,  and  Bucinobantes.  Griinm,  Gesch,  dcr  Deut,  Spr,  p.  593 ;  Forste- 
mann,  Ortsnamett,  p.  I02. 

•  Gladstone,  Homer,  p.  382. 

^  The  root  is  seen  in  Ijpyor.  Gladstone,  Homer,  pp.  3S4 — ^402 ;  Thirl- 
wall,  Greece,  vol.  i.  p.  38  ;  Cur  tins.  Die  lonier,  p.  17 ;  Movers,  Die 
PhUnizier,  pt.  L  p.  8.  The  pelasgians  are,  perhaps,  the  **men  of  the 
plain."  Gladstone,  Homer,  p.  214.  Other  conjectures  will  be  found  in 
Marsh,  Horce  Pdcugica,  p.  17  ;  Thirl  wall,  Greece,  voL  i  p.  45  ;  Donaldson* 
VarrofUanus,  p.  30 ;  New  Crat,  p.  138. 

8  Mommsen,  Hist,  of  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  36 ;  Forbiger,  Alt,  Geogr,  voL  iii. 
p.  649. 

•  From  sara^  a  desert  or  steppe,  and  mat^  a  tribe  or  race.  This  root  is 
lecB  in  the  names  of  the  Jaxa-matse,  Thisa-matse,  Aga-matse,  Chari-matse, 
and  other  Asiatic  tribes.     Schafarik,  Slaw,  Alterth,  vol.  L  p.  367. 

^^  From  arabah,  a  desert,  and  badiya,  a  desert 
"  Grimm,  Gesch,  der  Deut,  Spr,  p.  700. 


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86  The  Names  of  Natiofis. 

were  the  tower-builders.^  The  SPARTANS  were  the 
dwellers  in  Sparta,  the  town  of  "scattered  houses,"  more 
loosely  l)uilt  than  other  Grecian  cities,  because  uncon- 
'  fined  by  a  wall.*  The  RAMNES,  as  Mommsen  thinks,* 
were  the  "Foresters,"  a  meaning  which,  according  to 
Wilhelm  von  Humboldt,  attaches  to  the  name  of  the 
BASQUES,  the  BISCAYANS,  and  the  GASCONS.  The 
CALEDONIANS  are,  probably,  the  "  men  of  the  woods,"  * 
FIFE  is  the  "  forest,"  LYCIA*  and  CORSICA^  the  "  wooded." 
PONTUS  was  the  province  on  the  Black  "Sea." 
POMERANIA^  is  a  Sclavonic  term,  meaning  "by  the 
sea."  The  Celtic  names  of  the  MORINI,®  of  ARMORICA,* 
of  MORHIBAN,  of  MORAY  or  MURRAY,  and  of  GLAMOR- 

1  See  Knobel,  Volkertafei,  p.  90 ;  Donaldson,  New  Crat,  p.  133 ; 
Donaldson,  Varron,  p.  13. 

*  Pott,  Etymol(^h€  Spahne,  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift^  vol.  v.  p.  252. 

*  Hislory  of  Rome^  vol.  L  p.  44. 

*  See  p.  65,  supra, 

*  A  word  akin  to  lucus  must  have  once  existed  in  the  Greek  language. 
See  Gladstone's  Horner^  voL  i.  p.  186.  The  Lacedemonians  are  either 
the  dwellers  in  the  forest,  or,  more  probably,  the  dwellers  in  the  hollow  or 

*  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  579.  | 

'  Yrom  pOj  by,  and  tnore^  the  sea.  So  the  Pnisi,  or  PRUSSIANS,  are 
probably  the  Po-Rusi,  the  men  near  the  Rusi,  or  Russians,  or  perhaps  near 
the  Russe,  a  branch  of  the  river  Niemen.  See  Friedricb  the  Great,  Mem, 
Hist  Brand,  and  Voigt,  Gesch.  Preussens^  vol.  i.  p.  668,  quoted  by  Mahn, 
Nam,  PreussenSf  p.  3.  Compare  Donaldson,  Varron.  p.  70 ;  Pictet,  Oriff. 
IndO'Eur.  vol.  i.  p.  no;  Latham,  Ethnology  of  Brit.  Is.  p.  73;  Amdt, 
Eur.  Spr.  pp.  250,  293. 

>  And  of  the  Morgetes,  on  the  coast  of  Sicily,  according  to  Archdeacon 
Williams,  Essays,  p.  89. 

'  The  preposition  ar,  on,  by,  or  at,  is  that  found  in  the  names  of  Argyle, 
Aries,  Armagh,  ftc.  See  Adelung,  Mithridates,  vol.  ii.  p.  43,  44 ;  Davies, 
Cdtic  Researches,  p.  221;  Pott,  Etymol.  Forsch.  vol.  ii.  P..42  ;  Diefenbach, 
Cdtica,  i.  pp.  62,  80;  Orig.  Eur,  p.  231  ;  Gluck,  Kelt.  Namen,  pp.  31 — 
36 ;  Manage,  Origines,  pp.  61,  680 ;  Thierry,  Hist  d,  Gaul,  vol.  i.  pp. 
xxxix.,  5. 


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Greeks.  87 

GAN  or  Moi^ant,^  have  the  same  signification.  The 
Salian  Franks,  to  whom  is  attributed  the  Salic  law  of 
succession,  lived  by  the  salt  water  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Maas.^  Dr.  Donaldson  follows  Mr.  Kenrick  •  in  thinking 
that  the  lONlANS  are  the  "coast-men  :*  they  were  called 
also  the  AJywiX^fc,  or  the  "  Beachmen."*  The  ACHiEANS  • 
may  be  the  "  Seamen,"  and  the  ^EOLIANS  the  "  mixed 
men."^  The  HELLENES,  if  not  "hillmen,"  maybe  the 
"  warriors,"  whose  martial  prowess  caused  their  name  to 
be  extended  to  the  whole  of  the  people  whom  we  know 
by  the  name  of  GREEKS,  This  last  name  is  a  curious 
misnomer.  Just  as  the  name  of  Italy  originally  desig- 
nated only  the  extreme  southern  portion  of  the  Peninsula,® 

^  From  mifr,  the  sea,  and  ^nt,  side; 

•  Leo,  Vor/aufigm,  voL  i.  p.  257. 

■  Donaldson,  New  Crat,  pp.  134,  143  ;  Kenrick,  Egypt  of  Herodotus^  and 
a  paper  On  the  Early  Kings  of  Attica^  by  J.  K[enrick],  in  the  Philolog. 
Museum,  voL  iL  pp.  366,  367. 

•  From  ^ZoJF,  the  coast  More  probably  they  are  the  **  wanderers,"  from 
the  Sanskrit  root  jd,  which  we  find  in  the  names  of  Ion,  Hyperion,  and 
Amphion.  Coitias,  lonier^  pp.  7,  8;  Curtius,  Grundziige,  vol.  L  p.  37* 
Lassen  and  Pott  think  the  root  is  the  Sanskrit  juwan,  young.  This,  how- 
ever, seems  too  abstract     Knobel,  Vblkertafdy  p.  79. 

•  Gladstone,  Homer,  p.  382 ;  Thirlwall,  Hist  Greece,  vol.  i.  p.  43. 

'  Conjecturally  from  an  obsolete  Greek  root,  allied  to  the  Latin  aqua, 
and  fomid  in  the  names  of  the  Achelous  and  the  Acheron.  See  note  6, 
p.  79,  supra;  and  Church  of  England  Quarterly,  No.  73,  p.  155. 

7  Donaldson,  N^ew  Crat.  p.  142.  Adelung  thinks  that  the  names  of  the 
VENETI  and  of  the  wends  mean  shore-dwellers.  Mithridates,  vol.  ii.  pp. 
451  and  655  ;  Schafarik,  Slaw.  Alterth,  vol.  i.  pp.  159,  164.  See,  however, 
p.  79,  supra, 

»  In  Aristotle  the  word  Italy  denotes  only  a  portion  of  Calabria.  In  the 
time  of  Augustus  it  came  to  mean  the  whole  peninsula.  Niebuhr,  Hist. 
Rome^  voL  L  p.  17 ;  Liddell,  Hist  Rome,  vol.  up.  16 ;  Lewis,  Credibility 
Ram.  Hist.  voL  i  p.  272.  So  Tyre  seems  to  have  given  its  name  to  the 
whole  of  SYRIA,  and  the  names  of  Persian  and  parsee  are  traceable  to  the 
small  province  of  Fars,  or  Pars.  Gladstone,  Homer,  vol.  L  p.  549.  Com- 
pare the  case  of  Asia,  p.  77,  and  see  Kenrick,  Egypt  of  Herodotus,  p.  81 ; 
Buttmann,  Mythologus,  voL  ii  p.  172.     Italy  is,  perhaps,  the  "land  of 


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68  The  Nanus  of  Nations. 

so  the  name  of  GREECE  was  derived  from  a  small  and 
unimportant  Epirote  tribe  of  "mountaineers" — the 
Graeci,  who,  in  blood,  were  probably  not  Hellenes  at  all, 
but  lUyrians.  By  the  accident  of  geographical  proximity^ 
the  Romans  became  first  acquainted  with  this  tribe,  and 
applied  their  name  to  the  whole  of  Hellas;  and  the 
modern  world  has  adopted  this  unfortunate  blunder  from 
the  Romans,  and  stamped  it  with  the  approval  of  its 

cattle."  Curtius,  Grundzuge,  vol.  i  p.  177 ;  Forbiger,  Alt.  Geogr.  vol.  iiL 
p.  488 ;  Bunsen,  Phil,  of  Univ.  Hist.  vol.  i.  p.  103.  Niebuhr,  however, 
ridicules  this  etymology. 

^  See  Latham,  Germania,  p.  28  ;  Eng.  Lang.  vol.  i.  p.  166 ;  Mommsen, 
Hist,  of  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  141 ;  Thirlwall,  Hist.  Greece,  vol.  L  p.  39.  Com- 
pare the  case  of  Palestine,  p.  72,  and  of  the  Alemanni,  p.  59.  So  the 
gipsies  call  the  Germans,  Saxons  (see  p.  57),  and  the  Magyars  call  them» 
Schwabe,  the  Suabians  being  the  German  tribe  with  which  they  first 
became  acquainted. 


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The  Phomuians,  89 



PhysueU  character  of  Phanician  sties — Tyre — Sidon — Phenice — Phctnician 
colonies  in  Crete,  Cyprus,  Sardinia^  Corsica^  Italy ^  Sicily,  Malta,  Africa, 
Spain,  and  Britain. 

1  HE  Phoenicians  established  a  vast  colonial  empire. 
The  Mediterranean  coast-line  of  three  continents  was 
thickly  dotted  over  with  their  settlements,  which  ex- 
tended beyond  the  pillars  of  Hercules,  as  far  as  the 
River  Senegal^  to  the  south,  and  as  far  as  Britain  to 
the  north.  The  causes  of  this  development  of  colonial 
dominion  must  be  sought,  firstly,  in  the  over-population 
of  their  narrow  strip  of  Syrian  coast,  shut  in  between  the 
mountains  and  the  sea,  and,  secondly,  in  the  spirit  of 
mercantile  enterprise  with  which  the  whole  nation  was 
imbued."  *  As  in  the  case  of  the  Venetians,  the  Dutch, 
and  afterwards  still  more  notably  of  the  English,  the 
factories,  which  were  established  for  commercial  purposes 
alone,  rose  gradually  to  be  separate  centres  of  dominion.' 

^  As  evidenced  by  tlie  Phoenician  names  of  Rysadion  (Cape  Blanco), 
Soloeis  (Cape  Cantin),  Soloentia  (Cape  Bojador),  and  Bambotus  (the  river 
Senegal).  Movers,  Phbniuer^  part  ii  voL  ii  p.  534 ;  Renan,  Lang.  Shnit, 
p.  20a 

'  Movers^  Die  PAonixier,  part  iL  voL  ii.  p.  5. 

'  Renan,  Langttes  Shnitiques,  p.  44. 


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90  The  Phamiciani. 

To  protect  themselves  from  the  lawless  violence  of  the 
barbarous  tribes  with  whom  they  traded,  the  merchant 
princes  of  Tyre  found  themselves  unwillingly  compelled 
to  assume  sovereignty  over  the  surrpunding  districts. 
The  origin  of  the  colonial  empire  of  the  Tyrians  is 
curiously  indicated  by  a  physical  characteristic  which 
marks  the  sites  of  many  of  their  settlements.  These 
were  placed,  almost  invariably,  on  some  rocky  island 
near  the  coast,  or  on  some  promontory  connected  with 
the  mainland  by  a  low  isthmus.  A  position  of  this  kind 
would  usually  afford  the  advantage  of  a  natural  harbour, 
in  which  vessels  might  find  safe  anchorage,  while  the 
trading  settlement  would  be  secured  from  the  attacks  of 
the  barbarous  tribes  which  occupied  the  mainland.  Tyre 
itself  was  probably  at  first  only  a  trading  colony  sent 
forth  from  the  mother  city  at  the  entrance  of  the  Persian 
Gulf.  The  name  TZUR  ^  or  TYRE,  which  means  a  "  rock," 
characterises  the  natural  features  of  the  site — z,  rocky 
island  near  the  coast — ^well  suited  to  the  requirements 
of  a  band  of  mercantile  adventurers.  The  neighbouring 
city  of  Aradus  stood  also  upon  a  littoral  island.  SIDON 
occupies  a  somewhat  similar  position,  being  built  on  a 
low  reef  running  out  to  sea,  and  the  name,  which  denotes 
a  "  fishing-station,"  *  suggests  to  us  what  must  have  been 
the  aspect  of  the  place  in  those  prehistoric  times  when 
the  first  settlement  was  made.  Not  unfrequently  the 
names  of  the  Phoenician  settlements  thus  indicate  the 
circumstances  of  their  foundation.    Sometimes,  as  in  the 

^  Movers,  Phonizier^  part  ii.  voL  i.  p.  174;  Ersch  und  Gniber,  sect  iii. 
vol.  xxiv.  p.  436  ;  Stanley,  Sinai  and  PaL  pp.  270,  49S.  The  name  of 
SYRIA  is  probably  derived  from  that  of  Tzur,  its  chief  city.     lb,  p.  270. 

•  Movers,  Phoniziery  part  it  vol.  i.  pp.  34,  868.  Compare  the  name  of 
BETH-SAiDA,  the  *' house  of  fish.'' 


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Physical  Characteristics  of  Phoenician  Sites.        91 

case  of  Spain,  Malaga,  or  Pachynus,  the  names  refer  to 
the  nature  of  the  traffic  that  was  carried  on — more  fre- 
quently, as  in  the  case  of  Cadiz,  Hippo,  or  Lisbon,  we 
have  a  reference  to  the  fortifications  which  were  found 
necessary  to  protect  the  wealthy  but  isolated  factory. 

We  find  the  name  of  the  nation  repeated  in  Cape 
PHINEKE^  in  Lycia,  also  in  PHCENICE  in  Epirus,  a  place 
which  now  bears  the  name  of  Finiki,*  and  in  five  places 
called  PHCENICUS,  severally  in  Cythera,  in  Messenia,  in 
Marmarica,  in  Ionia,  and  in  Lycia*  Pliny  also  states  • 
that  the  island  of  Tenedos,  as  well  as  a  small  island  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Rhone,  was  called  PHCENICE.  The 
latter  may  probably  be  identified  with  one  of  the  Hieres 
islands,  which  would  satisfy  the  conditions  which  the 
Phoenicians  sought  in  their  trading  stations.  One  of  the 
Lipari  islands,  anciently  called  Phcenicodes,  now  goes  by 
the  name  of  FELICUDI. 

But  the  most  interesting  spot  on  which  the  Phoenicians 
have  left  their  name,  is  a  rocky  promontory  on  the 
southern  coast  of  Crete,  which  possesses  good  harbours 
on  either  side.  This  place  is  still  called  phceniki,  and 
has  been  identified  *  with  the  haven  of  Phoenice  men- 
tioned in  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles.  St.  Luke  says, 
«We  sailed  under  Crete  .  .  .  and  came  into  a  place 
which  is  called  the  Fair  Havens  .  .  .  and  because  the 
haven  was  not  commodious  to  winter  in,  the  more  part 
advised  to  depart  thence  also,  if  by  any  means  they 

\  Kenrick,  Photniciat  p.  87. 

<  Leake,  Northern  Greece^  vol.  i.  p.  66.  It  is  possible  that  some  of  these 
places  may  be  named  from  the  palm-trees  ^^^iw^^*  growing  on  them. 
Olshausen,  Phon,  Ortsnamen^  p.  335. 

•  Pliny,  Ifist.  Nat.  iil  ii,  and  v.  39. 

*  Conybeare  and  Howson,  Ufi  and  Epistles  of  St,  Paulf  vol.  ii.  pp. 
395—400 ;  Movers,  Phonmery  pt.  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  260W 


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92  The  PJicmkians. 

might  attain  to  Phenice,  which  is  an  haven  of  Crete,  and 
there  to  winter."  With  true  commercial  instinct  the 
Phoenicians  seem  to  have  selected  for  the  centre  of 
their  Cretan  trade  this  sea-washed  promontory,  with  its 
double  harbour,  now,  as  in  the  time  of  St  Paul,  the  best 
haven  along  the  southern  coast  of  the  island. 

Lebena,  another  harbour  on  the  Cretan  coast,  is  the 
"  Lion  promontory."  ^  There  is  a  Cretan  JORDAN  flowing 
from  a  Cretan  LEBANON.*  IDALIA  in  Cyprus,  now 
Dalin,  is  the  "sacred  grove."*  SAMOS  is  the  "lofty," 
and  the  name  of  SAMOTHRACE  contains  the  same  root* 
From  the  Phoenician  word  seluy  a  rock,  we  derive  the 
name  of  SELINUS,  now  Selenti,  in  Cilicia — a  town  which 
stands  on  a  steep  rock  almost  surrounded  by  the  sea.* 
TARSUS,  the  birthplace  of  St  Paul,  is  "the  strong."* 
LAMPSACUS,  now  Lamsaki,  near  Gallipoli,  is  the  **  pas- 
sage,"^ and  seems  to  have  been  the  ferry  across  the 

Sardinia  is  full  of  Phoenician  names.  CAGLIARI,  the 
chief  town,  was  a  Tynan  colony,  and  its  Phoenician  name 
Caralis,  or  Cararis,  has  suffered  little  change.  BOSA  still 
bears  its  ancient  Tyrian  name  unaltered.  MACOPSISA, 
now  Macomer,  is  the  "  town ; "  OTHOCA  seems  to  be  a 
corruption  of  Utica,  the  "  old  "  town,  and  NORA,  like  so 
many  other  Phoenician  settlements,  was  built  upon  a 
little  island  off  the  coast.^ 

*  Kenrick,  Phanicia^  p.  83 ;  Movers,  PkSniMier^  pt.  iL  vol.  iL  p.  26a 
'  Olshausen,  PhbnkiscJu  Ortsnanien^  p.  324. 

*  Bochart,  vol.  iiL  p.  356 ;  Engel,  Kypros,  vol.  L  p.  153,  apud  Smith, 
Diet  Geogr,  vol.  ii.  p.  13. 

*  Bochart,  voL  ill  p.  378 ;  Renan,  Lang,  SimiU  p.  44. 
'  Movers,  Ph'onizUr^  pL  iL  vol.  ii.  p.  174. 

'  Gesenius,  Monutmnta^  p.  427. 

7  Movers,  Phonizier^  pt  ii.  voL  iL  p.  296. 

*  Other  Phoenician  niunes  found  in  Sardinia,  are  Comus,  Carbia,  Ollnay 


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Sardinia — Corsica — Sicily — Malta.  93 

The  name  of  CORSICA,  according  to  Bochart,  means 
the  **  wooded."  ^  The  desolate  forest-clad  mountains  of 
this  island  seem,  however,  to  have  had  few  attractions 
for  the  Phoenician  merchants,  since  none  of  the  towns 
bear  names  which,  in  their  language,  are  significant.' 

At  Caere,  in  Italy,  there  was  a  Tynan  settlement, 
which  anciently  bore  the  Phoenician  name  of  AGYLLA, 
the  "round  town"^  and  in  lower  Italy  we  find  the 
Phoenician  names  of  Malaca,  Sybaris,  Crathis,  Tempsa, 
Medma,  and  Hippo.* 

Cape  PACHYNUS  in  Sicily,  was  the  "  station  "  for  the 
boats  engaged  in  the  tunny  fishery.*  Catana,  now 
CATANIA,  is  the  "little"  town.«  MAZARA,  which  still 
preserves  its  ancient  name,  is  the  "castle"^  and  the 
familiar  name  of  ETNA  is  a  corruption  of  attuna,  the 
**  furnace."  *  Many  other  ancient  names  attest  the  long 
duration  of  the  Phoenician  rule  in  this  island.* 

Diodorus  informs  us  that  the  Island  of  MALTA  was  a 
Phoenician  settlement ;  and  we  find  that  not  only  does 

Buccina,  Cunusi,  Charmis,  and  Sulchi.     Movers,  Phdnizier^  partii.  vol.  il 
pp.  558,  572,  576—578  ;  Bochart,  vol.  iil  p.  576. 

1  Bochart,  vol.  iiL  p.  579. 

«  Movers,  pL  ii.  vol.  il  p.  578. 

•  Mommsen,  Hist,  of  Rome^  vol.  i.  p.  136;  Okhausen,  Phdnkische 
Ortsnameny  p.  333.     Cf.  Gesenius,  Monum,  p.  419. 

•  Movers,  pt  il  vol.  ii.  p.  344. 
»  lb.  p.  325. 

•  lb.  p.  329. 

'  ^.  p.  332,  Gesenius,  p.  425. 

•  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  526.  The  name  cannot  be  derived  from  the  Greek 
fldlOw,  as  Pictet  shows.  It  may  possibly  be  Oscan,  according  to  Benfey,  in 
Hbfer*s  Zaischrift,  vol.  ii.  p.  117;  Curtius,  Grundziige^  vol.  i.  p.  215. 
Cfl  Church  of  England  Quarterly^  No.  73,  p.  147. 

•  e,g.  Arbela,  which  also  occurs  in  Palestine  ;  Thapsus,  the  '*  passage," 
Anesel,  the  "river  head,"  Amathe,  the  "castle,"  Adana,  Tabse,  Motuca, 
Mactorium,  Ameselum,  Bidis,  Cabala,  Injcon,  and  many  more.     Movers 
pp.  329,  339—342;  Gesenius,  pp.  419,  428. 


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94  The  Phcmicians. 

the  name  of  the  island  bear  out  this  assertion,^  but  at 
HAGIAR  CHEM — "the  stones  of  veneration" — ^we  have 
extensive  remains  of  a  Phoenician  Temple.  The  site 
was  explored  by  Sir  H.  F.  Bouverie  about  twenty  years 
ago,  when  the  outlines  of  the  seven  courts  of  the  temple 
were  traced,  and  the  statues  of  the  seven  presiding 
planetary  deities  were  disinterred.* 

The  Phoenician  capital  was,  probably,  near  the  south- 
eastern extremity  of  the  island.  Here  is  a  deep  bay,  on 
the  shores  of  which  stand  the  ruins  of  a  temple  of  Mel- 
earth,  the  **  city  king."  *  This  word  cartha,  a  city,  appears 
in  the  Old  Testament  in  the  names  of  twelve  places 
called  Kirjath,  as  well  as  in  that  of  CARTHAGE,  the  great 
Tyrian  Colony  in  Northern  Africa.* 

Carthage — Kart-hada,  or  Kartha  hadtha— the  "New 
Town  "  *  soon  eclipsed  in  splendour  and  importance  the 
older  settlement  of  UTICA,  "the  ancient";*  and  before 
long  she  began  to  rival  even  the  mother  city  of  Tyre, 
and  to  lay  the  foundations  of  a  colonial  empire  of  her 

Spain  seems  to  have  been  first  known  to  the  Phoeni- 

1  Mdita  means  a  ''place  of  refuge,"  Gesenius,  p.  92  ;  Bochart,  voL  iiL 
p.  500 ;  Movers,  in  Ersch  und  Graber,  §  iu.  voL  xxiv.  p.  349. 

■  Kenrick,  PAatnicia,p,  no;  Tallack,  JIfaiUt,  pp.  115 — 127;  Movers, 
PhonUier,  part  iu  vol.  ii.  p.  351. 

*  The  word  Melek,  a  king,  is  found  in  all  the  Semitic  languages.  It  is 
seen  in  the  names  of  Melchisedek,  Melchior,  Abdu-1-malek,  &c. 

^  It  appears  also  in  the  names  of  Cirta,  Ta-carata,  Cartili,  Cartenna, 
Caralis,  Carpi,  Carepula,  Mediccara,  Cura,  Curum,  Rusucurum,  Ascurum, 
Ausocurro,  Curubis,  Garra,  Medugarra,  Tagara,  Tagarata,  &c.  Gesenius, 
Scrip.  Ling.  Ph.  Mon.  p.  417  ;  Wilton,  Negeb,  p.  99.  A  suburb  ot 
Palermo  anciently  bore  the  name  of  Karthada.  Movers,  pt.  IL  voL  ii. 
p.  30. 

'  Movers,  p.  139 ;  Gesenius,  p.  421 ;  Bochart,  vol.  ill  p.  468. 

B  Bochart,  vol.  ill  p.  474 ;  Gesenius,  p.  429.  Movers  (p.  512)  doubts 
this  etymology. 


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Spain.  95 

cians  as  the  land  where  the  skins  of  martens^  were 
procured,  and  the  name  Hispania  or  Spain  appears  to  be 
derived  from  a  Phoenician  word  sapan,  or  span^  which 
denotes  the  abundance  of  these  animals.^  Many  of  the 
Phoenician  colonies  in  Spain  were  Tyrian  rather  than 
Carthaginian,  ESCALONA  is,  probably,  the  same  word 
as  Ascalon;  and  MAGUEDA  is,  perhaps,  identical  with 
Megiddo.  Asido,  now  MEDINA  SIDONIA,  was,  as  the 
name  denotes,  a  colony  of  the  Sidonians.' 

Cadiz,  as  we  learn  from  Velleius  Paterculus,  was 
founded  before  Utica,  and  consequently  long  before 
Carthage.  The  name  CADIZ  is  a  corruption  of  the 
ancient  name  Gadeira,  and  is  referable  to  the  Phoenician 
word  gadir,  an  inclosure.*  The  site  presents  the  features 
of  other  Tyrian  settlements — an  island  separated  by  a 
narrow  channel  from  the  main  land.  The  same  is  the 
case  at  Carthagena,  which  is  built  on  a  small  island  in  a 
sheltered  bay.  The  name  of  CARTHAGENA  is  a  corruption 
of  Carthago  Nova  or  new  Carthage  ;  and  we  may,  there- 
fore, assign  to  it  a  Carthaginian  rather  than  a  Tyrian 
origin.  Near  Gibraltar  there  is  another  town  named 
CARTEJA,  anciently  Carteia.*    The  name  of  MALAGA  is 

1  ToXn  Tofmfo'iai — smartens,  or  perhaps  rabbits — see  the  passages  from 
Herodotus,  iv.  192 ;  Strabo,  ill  2,  6  ;  SchoL  in  Aristoph.  Ran.  475  ; 
^lian,  V.  H.  xii.  4,  and  other  writers  which  are  quoted  by  Movers,  part  ii. 
Tol.  iL  p.  606.     Compare  Chamock,  Local  Etymology y  p.  254. 

*  Bochart,  vol.  iil  p.  631 ;  Niebuhr,  Lectures  on  Ethfiol.  and  Geograph. 
voL  ii.  p.  279. 

*  Movers,  part  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  641. 

4  Movers,  p.  621  ;  Gesenius,  p.  304 ;  Kenrick,  p.  126.  Compare  the 
names  of  the  iEgades  Islands  near  Sicily,  of  Geder  (Joshua  xii.  13); 
Gedera  (Josh.  xv.  36)  ;  Gedor  (Josh.  xv.  38) ;  and  Gadara,  the  city  of  the 
Gadarenes  (Josephus,  Jewish  War,  iv.  3 ;  Sl  Mark  v.  i).  See  Bochart, 
ToL  iiL  p.  608 ;  Movers,  pp.  139,  549. 

*  Perhaps  identical  with  Tartessus.      Duke  of  Buckingham,   Diary, 


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96  The  Phamieians, 

derived  from  the  Phoenician  word  malaca^  salt^  Hispalis, 
now  SEVILLA,  was  also  a  Carthaginian  colony,  and  the 
name  is  deducible  from  a  Phoenician  word  meaning  a 
"  plain."  *  The  TAGUS  is  the  river  of  fish.8  The  name 
of  Olisippo,  which  has  been  corrupted  into  LISBON, 
contains  the  word  hippo,  the  ''walled'*  town,  which 
occurs  so  frequently  in  Phoenician  names.  There  were 
three  cities  called  HIPPO  in  Africa,  one  of  them  cele- 
brated as  the  See  of  the  great  Augustine,  and  two  of  the 
same  name  in  Spain.* 

Tarraco,  now  TARRAGONA,  is  the  "palace."*  The 
name  of  CORDOVA,  anciently  Cortuba,  may  be  derived 
either  from  cotebUy  the  "olive  press,"  or  from  Kartha 
Baal,  the  "city  of  BaaL"«  BELON,  now  Belonia,  near 
Tarifa;'  as  well,  perhaps,  as  the  BALEARIC^  Isles, 
contain  the  name  of  Bel  or  Baal,  the  deity  whose  name 
enters   into  the  composition   of  so  many  Tyrian  and 

voL  L  p.  70 ;  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  615  ;  Olshausen,  Pkon,  Ortsnamen^  p. 
328  ;  Smith,  Dictionary,  vol.  i.  p.  528  ;  Movers,  pp.  632 — 635. 

1  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  616;  Movers,  p.  632.  Cf.  Gesenius,  p.  312; 
Prescott,  Ferd,  af id  Isabella,  vol.  iL  p.  13. 

>  Bochart,  p.  603 ;  Gesenius,  p.  423 ;  Movers,  p.  64.1. 

•  Ford,  Gatherings,  p.  28.  The  root  appears  in  the  name  of  the  god 

4  We  have  also  Orippo,  Belippo,  Baesippo,  Irippo,  and  LAcippo,  all  on 
the  Spanish  coast  Humboldt,  Priifung,  p.  64 ;  Movers,  Phon,  pt.  ii. 
vol.  ii.  pp.  144,  640;  Cf.  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  pp.  475,  627  ;  Gesenius,  Monum. 

p.  423. 

•  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  623. 

•  Bochart,  vol.  iii  p.  602. 
7  Movers,  p.  639. 

•  Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  634.  See,  however,  p.  81  supra,  Ehusus,  now 
ivigA,  means  the  "  pine  island,"  and  the  Greek  name  Pitusae  is  merely  a 
translation  of  the  earlier  Phoenician  appellation.  Movers,  Die  Phimisiep^ 
p.  545  ;  art.  Ph'onizien  in  Ersch  und  Gruber,  p.  349.  The  Balearic  Islands 
present  many  Phcenician  names,  such  as  Cinici,  Cunid  Bocchoram,  Jamna, 
Mago,  and  Sanifera.    Movers,  pp.  584,  585, 


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Britain,  97 

Carthaginian  names,  such  as  Hannibal,  Asdrubal, 
Maherbal,  Ethbaal^  Agbalos,  Jezebel,  Belshazzar,  and 
Baalbec.1  There  are  many  other  places  in  Spain  which 
seem  originally  to  have  been  Carthaginian  colonies,  since 
their  names  can  be  explained  from  Punic  sources. 
Such  are  Abdera,  now  ADRA;  Barcino,  now  BARCELONA;  ^ 
Ebora,  now  EVORA,  the  "ford";*  Arci,  now  ARKOS;  the 
River  Anas,  now  the  GUADIANA ;  TOLEDO,  and  others.* 

Whether  the  Carthaginians  reached  the  shores  of 
Britain  is  uncertain.  We  have  already  seen  that  the 
Euskarian  origin  of  the  name  makes  it  probable  that 
the  earliest  knowledge  of  the  island  was  obtained  from 
Iberic  traders ;  and  it  certainly  is  not  improbable  that 
the  Carthaginians  followed  in  the  track  discovered  by 
their  Spanish  subjects.  It  is  a  noteworthy  circumstance 
that  the  almost  unique  physical  characteristics  of  St. 
MichaeFs  Mount,  in  Cornwall,  conform  precisely  to  the 
account  given  by  Diodorus  Siculus  of  the  trading 
station  from  which  the  Phoenicians  obtained  their  tin. 
We  may  mention,  though  we  can  hardly  maintain  the 
supposition,  that  the  names  of  MARAZION,^  the  "  hill  by 

*  Kenrick,  Phcenicia^  pp.  129,  300;  Renan,  Langues  SSmitiques^  p.  44; 
Bochart,  vol.  iii.  p.  634. 

*  Movers,  p.  636.  v 

*  Jb,  p.  640.     Cf.  Gesenius,  p.  422. 

^  E,g,  Muigis,  Urci,  Certima,  Saborra,  Suel,  Salduba,  Ucia,  Castalo, 
and  Nebrissa.  Movers,  pp.  633 — 643.  Gesenius,  Scr.  Ling,  Ph.  Mon, 
voL  i.  pp.  340,  422. 

^  Marazion  seems  to  have  been  a  Jewish  settlement  at  a  later  time,  and 
it  is  possible  that  the  name  may  be  Hebrew,  rather  than  Phoenician.  It 
can,  however,  be  explained  from  Cornish  sources.  See  Halliwell,  Cornwall^ 
pp.  47 — 52 ;  Pryce,  Archaologia  Comu-Brit,  s.  v.  On  the  Phcenicians  in 
Cornwall,  see  Wilson,  PrehisL  Ann,  0/ Scotland^  p.  196  ;  Bochart,  vol.  iii. 
pp.  648 — 654  ;  Turner,  Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  i.  pp.  51 — 55  ;  Smith's  Cassite- 
rides;  and  a  tract  on  the  Phoenician  Tin  Trade,  recently  published  by 
Colonel  James. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

08  The  Phoenicians, 

the  sea/'  and  POLGARTH  (root  Kartha)  are  of  Phoenician 
origin,  and  are  records  of  the  first  intercourse  of  our 
savage  ancestors  with  the  civilized  world.^ 

1  On  Tynan  and  Carthaginian  names,  see  the  erudite  work  of  Bochart, 
Geographia  Sacra  pars  posterior^  Cha?taan^  seu  de  Coloniis  et  sermotu 
Fhanicum,  and  the  more  trustworthy  works  of  Movers,  Du  Phonizier,  and 
the  Article  Phbtuzien  in  Ersch  und  ember's  AUgemdne  EncyfuopadU^ 
sect.  iii.  vol.  xxiv.  See  also  Kenrick's  Phanicia;  and  the  valuable  treatise 
of  GeseniuSy  Scriptura  Linguaque  Phanicia  Monumetita.  Gesenius  dis- 
cusses the  etymologies  of  more  than  4CX>  names,  collected  from  modem 
maps,  the  ancient  itineraries,  coins,  inscriptions,  and  the  ancient  Geo- 
graphers, Ptolemy,  Strabo,  &c. 


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The  Arabs  in  Europe,  99 



734^  Empire  of  the  Cailiphs — Arabic  Names  in  Southern  Italy  and  SicUy — 

Tribes  by  which  the  conquest  of  Sicily  was  effected^Conquest  of  Spain — 

Tarifa  and  Gibraltar — Arabic  article — River-names  of  Spain — Arcdfs  in 

Southern  France— They  hold  the  passes  of  the  Alps^The  Monte  Moro  pass 

and  its  Arabic  Names — The  Muretto  pass  and  Fontresina. 

The  Arab  conquests  in  the  seventh  and  eighth  centuries 
form  one  of  the  most  remarkable  episodes  in  the  history 
of  the  world.  At  the  time  of  its  greatest  extension,  the 
empire  of  the  Cailiphs  extended  from  the  Indus  to  the 
Loire.  In  the  course  of  a  single  century  they  overran 
Persia,  Syria,  Egypt,  Northern  Africa,  Spain,  and  the 
south  of  France. 

We  find  Arabic  names  scattered  over  the  whole  of 
this  vast  region ;  and  it  will  be  an  interesting  and  pro- 
fitable task  to  investigate  these  linguistic  monuments  of 
Moslem  Empire,  confining  our  attention  more  especially 
to  those  districts  where  Christianity  has  long  resumed  its 

In  Southern  Italy  the  dominion  of  the  Arabs  lasted 
hardly  half  a  century,  and  consequently  we  cannot  expect 
to  find  many  Arabic  names.  Their  chief  conquests  lay  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  cities  of  Benevento  and  Bari, 

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lOO  The  Arabs  in  Europe, 

not  far  from  which  we  find  the  doubtful  Arabic  names  of 
ALIFE,  ALFIDENA,  and  the  river  ALMARO.^ 

In  Sicily,  where  the  Arab  colonization  was  more  ex- 
tensive, and  where  their  empire  was  more  enduring  than 
in  Italy,  we  naturally  find  more  abundant  and  less 
doubtful  traces  of  their  presence.  The  well-known  name 
of  MARSALA  means,  in  Arabic,  the  "  Port  of  God."  Gebel, 
the  Arabic  name  for  a  mountain,  is  still  retained  in  the 
patois  of  the  Sicilian  peasantry,  who  prefer  the  mongrel 
term  mongibello  to  the  ancient  Phoenician  name  of 
Etna.2  From  the  same  root  comes  the  name  of  the 
GIBELLINA — a  mountain  ridge  of  the  Province  of  Tra- 

It  would  appear  that  the  Arabs  kept  down  by  mili- 
tary rule  a  considerable  subject  population,  for  the  island 
is  covered  with  fortresses  of  their  erection.  The  position 
of  these  we  can  often  discover  by  means  of  the  Arabic 
word  kaVahy  or  kaVat^  a  castle  on  a  rock — a  root  which 
enters  into  the  names  of  many  Sicilian  towns,  such  as 
CALOTABALOTTA  (Kal'at-a-bellotta,  oak-tree  castle*), 
CALATAGIRONE,  or  Caltagirone  (Karat-a-Girun),  CALA- 
SCIBETTA  (Kal'at-a-xibetta),  CALATAFIMI  (KaFat-a-fieni), 
CALATAMISETTA  (castle  of  the  women),  CALATAVUTURA, 

^  See  Wenrich,  Rerum  ab  Arabibus  gesiantm  Commmtarii^  p.  140. 

*  Duff,  in  Oxford  Essays  for  1857,  p.  93;  Wenrich,  Rer,  ab  Ar,  gat, 
p.  309 ;  Pihan,  Ghssaire^  p.  136. 

'  This  word  is  not  confined  to  the  Semitic  languages.  We  have  the 
Persian  K&lat  or  KaldtaA,  a  "hill  castle,"  and  the  Sanskrit  Kalatra 
(t  Kataka)y  a  "fortress."     Pictet,  Orig.  Jndo-Eur.  vol.  ii.  p.  194. 

*  Gayangos,  Mohammedan  Dynasties^  vol.  i.  p.  450 ;  Wenrich,  p.  308. 

*  Compare  the  names  of  khelat,  the  capital  of  Beloochistan,  and  of 
GALATA,  a  walled  suburb  of  Constantinople.  YENIKALE  in  the  Crimea  is 
Yeni  Kal'ah,  the  "new  fortress"— a  name  half  Turkish,  and  half  Arabic. 


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Sicily.  loi 

There  are  also  in  this  island  many  Arabic  names  of 
villages  and  farms.^  The  word  menzily  a  *' station,"  or 
"hut,"  is  found  in  MISILMERI  (Menzil-Emtr),  and  in 
MEZZOJUSO  (Menzil-Yusuf).  The  most  common  of  these 
Arabic  prefixes  is  rahly  a  "  house,"  which  appears  in  the 
names  of  REGALMUTO  and  RE-SULTANA.  It  occurs  no 
less  than  one  hundred  and  seven  times,  while  Kal'at  is 
only  found  in  twenty  names,  and  Menzil  in  eighteen* 
We  have  raSy  a  cape,  in  the  names  of  RASICANZIR,  the 
cape  of  swine,  RASICALBO,  the  dog's  cape,  RASACARAMI, 
the  cape  of  vineyards,  and  RASICORNO,  or  Cape  Horn.* 
In  Palermo  the  two  chief  streets  bear  the  Arabic  names 
of  the  CASSARO,  or  "  Castle  Street,"  and  the  maccheda, 
or  "  New  Street,"*  and  we  find  many  other  Arabic  names 
scattered  here  and  there  over  the  island,  such  as  GODRA- 
NO,  the  "  marsh  "  ;  CHADRA,  and  CADARA,  the  "  green  "  ; 
RINO ;  and  a  few  personal  names,  such  as  ABDELALI  and 
ZYET.*  Altogether  there  are  in  Sicily  some  328  local 
names  of  Arabic  origin,  and  the  distribution  of  these  is 
remarkable,  as  showing  the  relative  amount  of  Arab  in- 
fluence in  different  portions  of  the  island.     In  the  Val  di 

1  As  Abela  says,  the  Arabs  have  left  in  Sicily  "  un  gran  novero  di  nomi 
di  citt^  di  terre,  e  di  luoghi  particolari."  Malta  Illustrata^  vol.  i.  p.  682. 
There  are  many  Arabic  words  in  the  Sicilian  patoisy  as  saliarCy  to  wonder, 
chamarru^  an  ass,  hannaca^  a  necklace.  The  few  Arabic  words  in  Italian, 
snch  as  alcova^  a  chamber,  ammiraglioy  an  admiral,  arsenale,  an  arsenal, 
and  the  vessels  called  carraca  ^XiAfeluca^  were  probably  introduced  through 
the  Spanish.  See  Bianchi-Giovini,  Dominazione  degli  A  rati  in  Italia, 
pp.  55,  56  J  Diez,  Cram,  Rom.  Spr.  vol.  I  pp.  59,  70;  Duff,  in  Oxford 
Essays  for  1857,  p.  91 ;  Wenrich,  pp.  309—312,  323. 

«  Amari,  Storia  dei  Musulmani,  vol.  ii.  p.  434. 

*  Bianchi-Giovini,  Dominazione  degli  Arabia  p.  56 ;  Wenrich,  p.  308 ; 
Amari,  Storia  dei  Musulmani,  vol.  ii.  p.  435. 

4  Bianchi-Giovini,  Domin,  d,  Arabia  p.  57. 

'  Amari,  Storia  dei  Mustdmani,  vol.  ii.  p.  435. " 


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I02  The  Arabs  in  Europe, 

Mazara  there  are  209  Arabic  names,  in  the  Val  di  Noto 
100,  and  the  Val  Demone  only  19.^ 

The  mediaeval  and  modern  names  of  Sicilian  villages 
supply  us  with  curious  information  as  to  the  countries  out 
of  which  was  gathered  the  motley  host  that  fought  under 
the  standard  of  the  Prophet.  In  Sicily  alone  we  find 
traces  of  tribes  from  Scinde,  Mesopotamia,  Egypt,  Syria, 
and  Spain.^  Thus,  a  fountain  near  Palermo,  now  called 
DENNISINNI,  was  anciently  Ain  es-Sindiy  the  fountain  of 
Scinde.  But  the  conquest  of  Sicily  seems  to  have  been 
effected,  for  the  most  part,  by  troops  levied  from  the 
neighbouring  continent  of  Africa.  There  are  more  than 
a  dozen  indisputable  names  of  Berber  tribes  to  be  found 
in  Sicily,  chiefly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Val  di 

In  the  islands  of  Sardinia  and  Corsica  the  Arab  rule 
was  brief,  and  we  find  no  Arabic  names,  except  AJACCIO, 
and,  perhaps,  ALGHERO  and  ORISTAN.  But  Malta  is  full 
of  Arabic  names.  The  word  mirsahy  a  port,  which  is  found 
in  the  name  of  Marsala,  in  Sicily,  appears  in  Malta  in 
the  names  of  numerous  bays  and  inlets,  such  as  MARSA 
FORNO.  The  ravines  commonly  go  by  the  name  of  vyed, 
or  wiedy  a  corruption  of  the  Arabic  word  wadt}  The 
hills  have  the  prefix  gebel^  the  fountains  aaytiy  the  wells 

A  Amari,  Storia  dei  Musulmanif  vol.  ii.  p.  435. 

'  The  local  names  of  Sicily,  as  illustrating  the  nationality  of  tfu  tribes  by 
which  the  conquest  was  effected,  have  been  investigated  by  Amari,  Storia 
dei  Musulmani  di  Sicilian  vol.  ii.  pp.  31 — 36, 

•  Amari,  Musulmani,  vol.  ii.  p.  35. 

^  An  exhaustive  enumeration  and  explanation  of  the  names  in  Malta  is  to 
be  found  in  a  work  called  Malta  Illustratay  Ouvero  descrizione  di  Malta  con 
sue  antickith^  ed  altre  notitie,  by  F.  Giovaniiancesco  Abela,  vol.  L  pp. 


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Malta.  103 

bir,  the  castles  cala^  the  houses  deyr,  the  caves  ghar,  the 
villages  raJial^  the  capes  ras.  From  the  map  of  the 
island  it  would  be  easy  to  collect  scores  of  such  names 
as  AAYN  rL  KEBIRA,  the  great  fountain;  aayn  TAIBA, 
the  good  fountain ;  GEBEL  OOMAr,  the  mountain  of 
Omar;  RAS  EL  TAFAL,  Chalk  Cape.  In  the  neigh- 
bouring isle  of  Gozo  we  find  the  Arabic  village-names 
of    NADUR,    ZEBBEY,    GARBO,    SANNAT,    and     XEUCHIA. 

Among  the  peasants  of  Malta  and  Gozo  a  corrupt 
Arabic  patois  still  holds  its  ground  against  the  Lingua 
Franca,  the  Italian,  and  the  English  which  threaten  to 
supplant  it^ 

Of  the  island  of  Pantellaria  the  Duke  of  Buckingham 
says,  "  the  language  spoken  is  a  bad  Italian,  mixed  up 
with  a  bastard  Arabic.  All  the  names  of  places,  head- 
lands, and  points,  are  pure  Arabic,  and  every  hill  is 
called  ghibel  something."  ^ 

In  no  part  of  Europe  do  we  find  such  abundant 
vestiges  of  the  Arab  conquest  as  in  Spain  and  Portugal. 
The  long  duration  of  the  Arab  rule — nearly  eight 
centuries  —  is  attested  by  the  immense  number  of 
Arabic  local  names,  as  compared  with  the  dozen  or 
half-dozen  that  we  find  in  Italy,  France,  or  Sardinia, 
whence  they  were  soon  expelled. 

1  See  Tallack's  Malta,  p.  246.  It  has  been  asserted  by  Michaelis,  Majus, 
and  other  writers,  that  the  Maltese  dialect  contains  many  Punic  words,  and 
contains  traces  of  Punic  grammar.  This  is  denied  by  Gesenius.  See  his 
Versuch  ilber  die  Maitesische  Spracke  zur  Beurthaiung  der  netUick  wieder- 
hoklUn  Behauptung  dass  sie  ein  Ueberrest  der  Altpunischen  sey.  He  allows 
that  there  are  many  Berber  or  Moorish  words  mingled  with  the  Arabic,  but 
none  clearly  to*  be  referred  to  the  time  of  the  Carthaginian  conquest  The 
same  conclusion,  substantially,  is  arrived  at  by  Kosegarten,  in  Hofei^s 
Zeitschrifty  voL  ii.  pp.  I,  30,  and  by  Renan,  Langties  SSmitiqtm,  pt.  i, 

p.  413. 

«  Private  Diary ^  vol.  ii.  p.  139, 


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104  ^^^  Arabs  in  Europe, 

The  very  names  of  the  first  invaders  are  conserved  in 
local  memorials.  In  September,  a.d.  710,  Tarif-Abu- 
Zar'ah,  a  Berber  freed-man,  effected  a  landing  at  a 
place  which  has  ever  since  been  called  after  him — 
TARIFA.  He  was  quickly  followed  by  Tarik-Ibn- 
Zeyad,^  a  liberated  Persian  slave,  who,  at  the  head  of 
a  body  of  light  horsemen,  advanced,  in  a  few  weeks, 
some  seven  hundred  miles  across  the  peninsula,  as  far  as 
the  Bay  of  Biscay.  This  bold  chieftain  landed  in  the 
Bay  of  Algeziras,*  and  he  has  left  his  name  pn  the 
neighbouring  rock  of  GIBRALTAR,  which  is  a  corruption 
of  the  Arabic  name  Gebel-al-Tarik,  the  "Mountain  of 

The  accompanying  sketch-map  will  serve  to  give  a 
rough  notion  of  the  distribution  of  the  Arabic  names 
upon  the  map  of  Spain.  Unfortunately,  owing  to  the 
smallness  of  the  scale,  it  has  been  impossible  to  indicate 
the  position  of  more  than  a  proportion  of  the  names. 

These  local  linguistic  monuments  make  it  easy  for  us 
to  distinguish  those  districts  where  the  Arab  population 
was  most  dense.  The  Arabic  names  are  seen  to  cluster 
thickly  round  Lisbon  and  Valentia ;  and  in  the  neigh- 

1  Mariana  and  Conde  assert  the  identity  of  these  two  chieftains,  but  the 
latest  and  best  authority  on  the  subject,  Reinaud,  in  his  Itwasuni  des 
SarazinSf  pp.  432,  433,  has  vindicated  the  accuracy  of  Gibbon,  and  has 
conclusively  shown  that  Tarif  and  Tarik  were  separate  personages.  See 
also  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  pp.  264—289,  318,  517;  Sayer,  Hist.  0/  Gibraltar, 
pp.  5,  6;  Murphy,  Mahomdan  Empire,  pp.  53 — 59;  Conde,  Dominacion, 
pp.  14,  15  ;  Pihan,  Ghssaire,  p.  137. 

*  Algeziras  means  **  the  island."  By  the  Arabic  chroniclers  it  is  called 
Jezurah  al-Khadhra,  "the  green  island."  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  pp.  317,  517 ; 
Prescott,  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  vol.  i.  p.  398 ;  Sayer,  Hist,  of  Gibraltar^ 
p.  8.  ALGIERS  is  a  corruption  of  the  same  name,  Al  Jezirah,  a  name  which 
has  also  been  given  to  Mesopotamia — the  peninsula  between  the  Tigris  and 
the  Euphrates. 


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Distribution  of  Arabic  Names. 


bourhood   of  Seville,   Malaga,   and  Granada,^  the  last 
strongholds  of  the  Moslem  kingdom,  they  are  also  very 


numerous;  but  as  we  approach  the  Pyrenees,  and  the 
mountains  of  Galicia  and  the  Asturias,  these  vestiges  of 

1  ContnuT"  to  what  might  have  been  supposed,  we  find  that  the  Arabic 
names  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Granada  are  relatively  less  numerous 
than  in  some  other  places,  as  the  neighbourhoods  of  Valencia  and  Seville. 
This  is  probably  due  to  the  forced  eviction  of  the  inhabitants  of  Granada 
under  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  and  the  wholesale  substitution  of  a  large 
Chxistian  population  ;  whereas  in  the  case  of  earlier  conquests,  the  Arab 
population,  being  allowed  to  remain  tiU  gradually  absorbed,  succeeded  in 
transmitting  the  greater  number  of  the  local  names. 


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io6  '  The  Arabs  in  Europe, 

Moslem  rule  entirely  disappear,  and  are  replaced  by- 
names derived  from  'the  Basque,  Celtic,  and  Spanish 

An  obvious  feature  which  characterizes  the  local 
nomenclature  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  is  the  prevalence 
of  the  Arabic  definite  article  al^  which  is  prefixed  to 
a  very  large  proportion  of  names,  such  as  Alicant, 
Albuera,  Almanza,  Alcala,  Almarez,  Almeida,  Alham- 
bra,  and  Algoa.  On  the  maps  of  the  Peninsula  pub- 
lished by  the  Useful  Knowledge  Society,  there  appear 
about  two  hundred  and  fifty  names  containing  this 
prefix.  Of  these  sixty-four  per  cent,  are  found  to  the 
south  of  the  Tagus,  and  only  thirty-six  per  cent,  to  the 
north  of  that  river. 

The  Spanish  river-names  beginning  with  Guad  are 
very  numerous.  In  Palestine  and  Arabia  this  word 
appears  in  the  form  wadt}  a  "ravine,"  and  hence  a 
"  river."  The  name  of  the  GUADALQUIVIR  is  a  cor- 
ruption of  Wadi-1-Kebtr,  the  great  river — a  name  which 
is  found  also  in  Arabia.  We  have  also  the  river-names 
GUADALCAZAR,  which  IS  Wadi-1-Kasr,  the  river  of  the 
palace ;  GUADALHORRA,  from  Wadi-1-ghar,  the  river  of 
the  cave;  GUADARRANKE,  from  Wadi-1-ramak,  the 
mare's  river;  GUADALQUITON,  from  Wadi-1-kitt,  the  cat 
river ;  GUADALAXARA,  from  Wadi-1-hajarah,  the  river  of 
the  stones;  GUAROMAN,  from  Wadi-r-roman,  the  river 
of  the  pomegranate-trees ;  GUADALAVIAR,  from  Wadi-1- 
abyadh,  the  white  river;  GUADALUPE,  the  river  of  the 
bay ;  GUALBACAR,  the  ox  river ;  GUADALIMAR,  the  red 
river;   guadarama,  the   sandy  river;   guadaladiar, 

*  This  word  appears  to  have  been  adopted  by  the  Greeks,  and  comipted 
into  the  form  taxri^.  Renan,  Lang,  SirnU,  pt.  i.  p.  205.  Cf.  Peyron, 
Lexicon  Copt.  p.  160. 


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Arabic  Names  in  Spain,  107 

the  river  of  houses ;  and  the  more  doubtful  names  of 
GUADAIRA,  the  river  of  mills;  guadalertin,  the 
muddy  river;  and  GUADALBANAR,  the  river  of  the 
battle-field.  We  have  also  the  GUADIANA  and  the 
GUADALETE,  which  embody  the  ancient  names  of  the 
Anas^  and  the  Lethe.^ 

The  name  of  MEDINA,  which  means  "city,"  appears 
not  only  in  Arabia*  and  Senegambia,  but  also  five 
times  in  Spain.*  The  word  kaFahy  a  castle,  which  we 
have  traced  in  Sicily  and  Malta,  is  found  in  calatayud, 
"Job's  castle,"^  in  Aragon;  calahorra,  the  ''fort  of 
stones," «  in  Old  Castile ;  and  CALATRAVA,  the  "  Castle 
of  Rabah,"  ^  in  New  Castile.  There  are  also  half  a  dozen 
places  called  ALCALA,  which  is  the  same  word  with  the 
definite  article  prefixed. 

Such  names  as  benavites,  beniajar,  benarraba, 


1  The  name  of  the  Anas  is  Phoenician  according  to  Bochart,  vol.  iii. 
p.  627,  but  it  is  capable  of  a  Celtic  etymon. 

*  We  find  also  the  rivers  Guadafion,  Guadehenar,  Guadajor,  Guadalbarro, 
GoadalbuUon,  Guadalcana,  Guadalerce,  Guadalertin,  Guadaleste,  Guadal- 
mallete,  Guadalmedina,  Guadalmelera,  Guaderriza,  Guedaxira,  Guadazamon, 
Gnadazelete,  Guadacenas,  Guadetefra,  Guadarmena,  Guadalfeo,  Guad- 
almez,  Guadalcalon,  and  others,  the  names  of  which  are  elucidated  with 
more  or  less  success  by  Gayangos,  Weston,  and  De  Sousa. 

*  Yathrib,  the  city  to  which  Mohammed  fled  from  Mecca,  bore  thence- 
forward the  name  of  Medtnet-ennabi,  the  dty  of  the  prophet  Caussin  de 
Perceval,  Histoire  des  Arabes^  voL  iii.  p.  21. 

^  Medinaceli,  Medina  Sidonia,  &c.  Pihan,  p.  200  ;  Prescott,  Ferd,  and 
/sab.  vol.  i.  p.  398. 

•  Built  by  the  chieftain  Ayub,  or  Job,  who  took  a  foremost  part  in  the 
conquest,  and  was  afterwards  Governor  of  Spain.  Conde,  Dominacion, 
pp.  30 — ^33 ;  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  p.  373;  Weston,  Remains  of  Arabic  in  the 
Spanish  and  Portuguese  Langtiages,  p.  143  ;  De  Sousa,  Vestigios  da  Lingua 
Arabica  em  Portugal ^  p.  4. 

•  Weston,  p.  145. 

^  Gayangos,  vol.  ii.  p.  356.     Cf.  Weston,  p.  146. 


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io8  Tfu  Arabs  in  Europe, 

may  embody  curious  information  as  to  the  names  of  the 
original  Arab  settlers,  for  the  first  syllable  of  such  names 
is  the  patronymic  Beni,  "  sons,"  and  the  remainder  is  a 
personal  or  tribal  appellation.^ 

But  the  great  mass  of  Hispano- Arabic  names  are 
descriptive  terms,  relating  to  the  artificial  or  natural 
features  of  the  country.  Such  are  the  names  ALBORGE, 
the  turret;  ALBUFEIRA,  the  lake;^  ALMEIDA,  the  table; 
ALCACOVA,  the  fortress  (a  common  name);  almanza, 
the  plain  ;  ^  ALPUXARRAS,  the  "  grassy"  mountains ;  * 
ALMENA,^  the  battlemented  tower ;  ALMAZEN,  the  store- 
house;* ALMADEN,^  the  mine;  ALHAMBRA,  the  red;* 
ALGARBE,  the  west ;  ®  ARRECIFE,  the  causeway  ;  ^^  alma- 
ZARA,  the  mill;^i  ALCAZAR,  the  palace;  ALDEA,  the 
village;  ALCANA,  the  exchange;"  ALCANTARA,  the 
bridge  ;^^   ALQUERIA,   or   ALCARRIA,   the   farm;^*    and 

^  On  the  inferences  to  be  drawn  from  Spanish  names  as  to  the  nation- 
alities of  the  Moslem  settlers,  see  Gayangos,  voL  i.  pp.  356 ;  vol.  ii  pp. 
20 — 29,  402,  403,  442.     On  the  prefix  Beni^  see  Wilton,  Negeb^  p.  14a 

•  A  corruption  of  Al-bukeyrah,     Gayangos,  vol.  i.  p.  374. 

«  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  p.  354 ;  vol.  ii.  p.  515 ;  Chamock,  Loc,  Etym,  p.  28. 

•  Prescott,  Ferd»  and  Isab.  p.  398. 

•  From  the  same  root  comes  the  word  minaret,     Weston,  p.  61. 

•  From  the  same  root  comes  the  word  magazine,  De  Sousa,  p.  45  ; 
Chamock,  Loc,  Etym,  p.  8 ;  Weston,  p.  60 ;  Engelmann,  Glossaire,  p.  52. 

'  The  greatest  quicksilver  mine  in  Europe.     Engelmann,  p.  47. 
"  De  Sousa,  p.  38 ;  Weston,  p.  54 ;  Pihan,  p.  31 ;  Murphy,  Mahometan 
Empire  in  Spain,  p.  19 1. 

•  De  Sousa,  p.  35  ;  Weston,  p.  53  ;  Pihan,  p.  29 ;  Conde,  Dominacion^ 
p.  671. 

'^^  Prescott,  Ferd.  and  Isab,  p.  398 ;  Engelmann,  p.  62. 

"  Gayangos,  vol.  ii.  p.  541. 

^  From  the  same  root  come  dogana  and  danane,    Pihan,  p.  113;  Weston, 

p.  45- 

*•  Pihan,  p.  24 ;  De  Sousa,  p.  22 ;  Gayangos,  voL  i.  pp.  61,  370 ; 
Weston,  p.  44. 

"  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  p.  353  ;  Conde,  p.  671  ;  Engelmann,  p.  23. 


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Arabic  Names  in  Spain,  109 

TRAFALGAR    {Taraf  al'ghar)y  the   promontory  of  the 

A  large  number  of  Hispano-Arabic  names  are  illus- 
trated in  Weston's  "  Remains  of  Arabic  in  the  Spanish 
and  Portuguese  languages,"  and  in  Pihan's  "Glossaire 
des  Mots  Fran^ais  tirds  de  TArabe,  du  Persan,  et  du 
Turc"  A  competent  and  exhaustive  investigation  of 
these  names  has,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  never  been 
attempted ;  and  it  would,  undoubtedly,  supply  materials 
of  great  value  to  the  historian  of  the  conquest.  The 
Arabic  names  in  Portugal  have  been  well  discussed  by 
Fr.  Joao  de  Sousa,  in  a  work  entitled,  "Vestigios  da 
Lingua  Arabica  em  Portugal."  ^ 

Flushed  by  the  ease  and  rapidity  of  their  Spanish 
conquest,  the  Arabs  crossed  the  Pyrenees,  and  spread 
their  locust  swarms  over  the  southern  and  central 
regions  of  France,  as  far  as  Tours.  In  the  neighbour- 
hood of  this  city,  in  the  year  732,  Charles  Martel  gained 
one  of  the  great  decisive  battles  which  have  changed  the 
current  of  the  world's  history,  and  the  almost  total 
destruction  of  the  Moslem  host  rescued  western 
Christianity  from  the  ruin  which  seemed  to  be  im- 
pending. After  this  event  the  fugitives  seem  to  have 
retired  into  Provence,  where  they  maintained  a  preca- 
rious sovereignty  for  some  thirty  years. 

In  the  Department  of  the  Basses  Pyr^n^es  we  find 
some  vestiges  of  these  refugees.      At  Oloron,  a  town 

1  See  p.  103,  supra  ;  and  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  p.  320. 

'  On  Spanish  words  of  Arabic  origin,  see  Diez,  Gram,  d,  Rom,  Spr, 
vol.  i.  pp.  70,  333 ;  Gayangos,  History  of  the  Mohammedan  Dynasties  in 
Spain,  vol.  ii.  pp.  xxxvi.  clxix.  dxx.  ;  and  vol.  i.  p.  487 ;  and  Engelmann, 
Glossaire  des  Mots  Espagnols  et  Portugais  dMvis  de  VArabe,  whose  lists 
contain  about  400  Spanish  and  Portuguese  words  derived  from  the  Arabic. 


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1 10  The  Arabs  in  Europe, 

not  far  from  Pau,  is  a  fountain  called  LA  HOUN  (airi) 
DEOUS  MOUROUS,  or  the  fountain  of  the  Moors;  and 
in  a  neighbouring  village,  which  bears  the  name  of 
MOUMOUR,  or  Mons  Mauri,  there  stands  a  ruined  tower 

called  LA  TOUR  DES  MAURES.^ 

FONTARABlE,  in  the  Department  of  the  Charente 
Infirieure,  marks  a  kind  of  oasis  in  the  sandy  desert  of 
the  Landes,  and,  like  Fontarabia  on  the  Bidassoa,  may- 
have  been  a  station  of  the  Arabs.* 

In  \}[i^  patois  of  south-eastern  France  there  are  several 
words  of  Arabic  origin,^  while  down  to  the  seventeenth 
century,  many  families  of  Languedoc,  descended  from 
these  Moors,  bore  the  name  of  "Marranes."  In 
Aiivergne  also  there  is  a  pariah  race  called  Marrons, 
whose  conversion  to  Christianity  has  given  the  French 
language  the  term  marrane^  "  a  renegade."  * 

After  an  interval  of  more  than  a  century,  the  Moorish 
pirates,  who  had  long  infested  the  coast  of  Provence, 
established  themselves  in  the  stronghold  of  Fraxinet, 
near  Frejus  (a.D.  889),  and  held  in  subjection  a  large 
part  of  Provence  and  Dauphiny.  The  FORl&T  des 
MAURES,  near  Frejus,  is  called  after  them;  and  the 
names  of  PUY  MAURE  and  MONT  MAURE,  near  Gap, 
of  the  COL  DE  MAURE,  near  Chiteau  Dauphin,  and 
of  the  whole  county  of  the  MAURIENNE,  in  Savoy, 
are  witnesses  of  the  rule  in  France^  of  these  Moorish 

1  Michel,  Hist  des  Races  Maudites^  vol.  ii.  p.  98. 

*  In  this  latter  case  much  may  be  said  in  favour  of  the  etymology  Fuente 
Rabia — Fons  Rabidus,  or  rapidus.  Salverte,  Essai  sur  Us  Noms^  voL  ii. 
p.  264. 

>  A  list  will  be  found  in  Astruc,  Hist  Nat,  de  Languedoc,  pp.  494 — 497. 

•  Michel,  R<ues  Maudites,  vol.  ii.  pp.  45,  96. 

"  On  the  subject  of  the  Moors  in  France,  see  Reihaud,  Invasion  des 


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Moors  in  France,  in 

In  the  tenth  century  the  Moors  still  held  the  Mau- 
rienne,  and  in  the  year  911,  by  a  convention  with  Count 
Hugo  of  Provence,  they  crossed  the  Cottian  Alps,  and 
took  possession  of  the  passes  of  the  Pennine  chain, 
which  they  guarded  for  Count  Hugo's  benefit,  while 
they  levied  black  mail  on  travellers  for  their  own.  In 
the  years  921  and  923,  and  again  in  929,  the  chroniclers 
record  that  English  pilgrims,  proceeding  to  Rome,  were 
attacked  by  Saracens  while  crossing  the  Alps.  The 
bishops  of  York,  Winchester,  Hereford,  and  Wells  were 
among  those  who  thus  suffered.^  In  the  year  973  St. 
Majolus,  Abbot  of  Cluny,  was  taken  prisoner  by  these 
marauders  at  Orsi^res,  on  the  pass  of  the  Great  St. 
Bernard,  and  he  could  only  obtain  his  freedom  by  the 
payment  of  a  ransom,  which  consisted  of  a  thousand 
pounds'  weight  of  the  church  plate  of  Cluny .^ 

Such  are  the  few  meagre  historical  facts  relating  to 
the  Arabs  in  the  Alps  which  we  are  able  to  glean  from 
mediaeval  chroniclers ;  fortunately,  it  is  possible  to 
supplement  our  knowledge  by  the  information  which 
has  been  conserved  in  local  names.  The  mountain  to 
the  east  of  the  hospice  on  the  Great  St.  Bernard  bears 
the  name  of  MONT  MORT,  which  there  is  reason  for  be- 
lieving to  be  a  corruption  of  Mont  Maure.     If  this  name 

Sarazins  en  France^  passim ;  Bouche,  Histoire  de  Provence^  vol.  i.  pp.  loi, 
204  ;  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England^  vol.  i.  p.  416 ;  Bianchi-Giovini, 
Dominatione  degli  Arabia  pp.  25,  26 ;  Gayangos,  vol.  i.  p.  228 ;  Wenrich, 
Rer,  ab  Arab,  gest,  pp.  123,  144 — 146;  Papon,  Histoirede  Pfovence^  vol.  ii. 
pp.  77,  146,  165. 

1  The  capture  of  S.  Elphege  is  related  by  Osbem,  Vit.  S.  Elpheg.  apud 
Thmpp,  Anglo-Saxon  Home^  p.  247.  Cf.  St.  John,  Four  Conquests  of 
England^  vol.  i.  p.  326. 

•  Reinaud,  Invasion  des  Sarazins  en  France,  p.  166;  Wenrich,  Rer.  Arab, 
p.  147. 


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1 1 2  The  A  tabs  in  Europe, 

stood  alone,  we  might  hardly  feel  ourselves  justified  in 
connecting  it  with  the  local  traditions  which  refer  to  the 
Arabs  in  the  Alps.  We  find,  however,  that  the  name 
MONTE  MORO,  the  "Moor's  Mountain,"  is  attached  to 
another  pass  which  was  much  frequented  in  early  times,^ 
before  the  great  roads  of  the  St.  Gothard,  the  Simplon, 
and  the  Spliigen  had  been  constructed.  Though  no 
direct  historical  evidence  of  the  fact  exists,  it  seems 
impossible  not  to  believe  that  this  pass  of  the  Monte 
Moro  must  have  been  held  by  these  "Saracens,"  or 

In  the  first  place,  we  find  that  a  strong  position,  which 
commands  the  passage  up  the  Val  Anzasca  on  the 
Italian  side  of  the  pass,  is  called  CALASCA — z.  name 
which  is  apparently  derived  from  the  Arabic  kaVah,  a 
castle,  which  occurs  in  the  Alcalas  and  Calatas  of  Spain 
and  Sicily.  The  peak  opposite  Calasca  is  called  Piz 
DEL  MORO.  On  the  other  side  of  the  valley  is  the  cima 
DEL  MORO,  beneath  which  lies  the  hamlet  of  MORGHEN. 
Crossing  the  Moro  pass,  the  first  hamlet  we  arrive  at 
is  placed  on  a  mountain  spur  or  terrace,  which  com- 
mands the  view  both  up  and  down  the  valley.  This 
place  is  called  almagel,  which,  on  the  hypothesis  of  an 
Arab  occupation,  would  be  a  most  appropriate  name, 
since  al  mahal  denotes  in  Arabic  "  the  station,"  or  "  the 
halting-place."  A  high  grassy  mound,  probably  the 
terminal  moraine  of  an  ancient  glacier,  is  called  the 
TELLIBODEN,  the  first  syllable  of  which  name  seems  to 

^  A  paved  Roman  road  exists  beneath  the  snows  of  the  Monte  Moro.  In 
the  i6th  and  17th  centuries  a  great  permanent  extension  of  the  Nev^  took 
place  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Monte  Rosa,  which  has  brought  the  summit 
of  the  Moro  above  the  summer  snow-line,  and  rendered  the  Moro  impassable 
for  mules.  Lyell,  Antiq,  o/Man,  p.  292 ;  Murray,  Handbook  for  Switser^ 
land,  p.  490. 


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The  Arabs  in  the  Alps,  113 

be  the  Arabic  word  tell^  a  round  hill.  The  neighbouring 
pasture  goes  by  the  name  of  the  matmark,  the  ancient 
form  of  which  was  Matmar,  or  the  "  Moor's  Meadow." 
Close  by  is  another  pasture  called  the  EYEN — a  name 
which  is  pronounced  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  the 
Arabic  ain,  a  "  fountain,"  or  "  source  of  waters  " — a  very 
apposite  description,  as  will  be  admitted  by  all  those 
Alpine  tourists  who,  before  the  recent  construction  of  a 
road,  have  splashed  across  it,  ankle  deep,  for  some 
hundred  yards. 

Passing  the  DISTEL  Alp — a  doubtful  Arabic  name — 
we  find  the  valley  completely  barred  by  an  enormous 
glacier.  This  is  called  the  alalein  Glacier,  and  the 
Arabic  interpretation  of  the  name,  Aid  *l  atn,  or  "Over 
the  source,"  gives  a  most  graphic  picture  of  the  preci- 
pitous wall  of  ice,  with  the  torrent  of  the  Visp  rushing 
from  the  vast  cavern  in  its  side. 

Opposite  Almagel,  and  a  little  to  the  n9rth  of  the 
Alalein  Glacier,  are  the  MISCHABEL  HORNER,  three 
peaks,  the  midmost  of  which,  the  Dom,  is  the  loftiest 
summit  in  Switzerland.^  The  latter  part  of  the  name 
Mi-schabel  is  pronounced  almost  exactly  in  the  same 
way  as  the  Arabic  gebel,  a  mountain.  The  genius  of  the 
Arabic  language  would,  however,  require  gebel  to  be  a 
prefix  rather  than  a  suffix,  but  it  is  quite  possible  that 
Mischabel  may  be  a  hybrid  formation,  akin  to  Mon- 
gibello  in  Sicily .^  Or  we  may  derive  the  name  from  the 
Arabic  word,  migbdl,  which  means,  according  to  Freytag, 
**  crassus,  ut  mons."  The  conquerors  of  the  East,  we 
may  well  believe,  brought  with  them  the  word  dome. 

^  Mont  Blanc  is  in  France — Monte  Rosa  partly  in  Italy. 
•  See  p.  lOO,  supra. 


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1 14  The  Arabs  in  Europe. 

which  Jerome  tells  us  was,  in  Palestine  and  Egypt,  the 
universal  designation  of  a  house  roof.^ 

The  northern  outlier  of  the  Mischabel  range  is  called 
the  BALFRAIN,  a  name  whose  Arabic  interpretation — 
"  the  peak  with  two  river  sources  " — describes  the  twin 
glaciers  which  hang  from  the  flanks  of  the  mountain,  and 
send  their  tributary  streams  to  join  the  Visp.- 

It  is  probable  that  the  etymologies  assigned  to  some 
of  these  names  may  be  fallacious,  but  the  cases  are  too 
numerous,  and  the  accordances  with  the  physical  features 
of  the  spot  are  too  precise,  to  allow  us  to  explain  them 
away  altogether  by  any  hypothesis  of  accidental  coinci- 
dence of  sound  ;  and,  therefore,  though  we  may  not  be 
able  to  find  any  historical  evidence  whatever  that  the 
Moro  was  one  of  those  passes  which  were  occupied  by 
Count  Hugo's  Moors,  yet  it  seems  impossible  not  to 
believe,  on  the  evidence  of  the  names  alone,  that  the  pre- 
sent inhabitants  of  the  Saas  Valley  are  descended  from 
the  marauders  from  the  Maurienne. ' 

The  third  of  the  passes  which  in  ancient  times  formed 
the  chief  communication  between  Italy  and  the  North, 
was  that  which  connects  the  Lake  of  Como  with  the 
Engadine.  This,  also,  it  would  seem,  was  occupied  by 
the  Arabs.  Near  the  summits  of  the  St  Bernard  and  of 
the  Moro  we  have  the  Mont  Mort  and  the  Piz  del  Moro  ; 
and  so,  near  the  summit  of  the  Maloja  and  MURETTO 
passes  we  have  the  Piz  muretto,  the  PIZ  mortiratsch, 
and  the  Piz  morter.  Descending  the  pass  on  the 
northern  side,  we  come  to  a  very  ancient  stone  bridge  of 
one  arch,  springing  from  rock  to  rock  across  a  narrow 

^  See  Ducange  sub  voc.     Vol.  ii.  p.  901. 

'  In  the  neighbourhood  we  find  the  names  Jazi,  Fee,  Saas,  Balen,  and 
others,  which  may  possibly  be  traceable  to  Arabic  roots. 


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Poniresina,  115 

chasm.  This  place  is  called  PONTRESINA,  which  seems 
to  be  a  corruption  of  Ponte  Saracina,  the  Saracens* 
bridge.  The  village  of  Pontresina  is  composed  of  solid 
stone  houses,  Spanish  rather  than  Swiss  in  their  appear- 
ance. Five  minutes'  walk  from  the  village,  we  come  to 
an  ancient  five-sided  stone  tower  called  SPANIOLA.  In 
documents  of  the  twelfth  and  fourteenth  centuries  we 
find  mention  of  families  inhabiting  this  valley  bearing 
the  names  De  Ponte  Sarisino,  Sarracino,  Sarazeno,  and 
the  like.  Saratz  is  still  a  very  common  surname  in  the 
district,  and  those  bearing  it  claim  descent  from  the 
Saracens,  and  possess  a  marked  oriental  type  of  feature.^ 
A  Herr  Saratz  is  now  president  of  the  Gotthaus  Bund, 
the  Eastern  division  of  the  Grisons. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Pontresina  there  are  several 
names  apparently  of  Arabic  origin,  such  as  SAMADEN, 
EIN,  and  the  Val  ain-AS.  The  river  which  flows  from 
the  Maloja  on  the  Italian  side  is  called  the  MAIRA. 
Near  the  Swiss  frontier  a  barrier  of  roches  moutonies 
blocks  up  this  valley  so  completely  that  it  has  been 
necessary  to  excavate  a  considerable  tunnel  through  the 
rock  to  admit  of  the  passage  of  the  road.  On  the  sum- 
mit of  this  admirable  defensive  position  stands  a  ruined 
castle,  which  goes  by  the  name  of  Castel  MURO,  and  an 
ancient  building  by  the  side  of  the  castle  exhibits  certain 
Saracenic  features  which  are  in  striking  contrast  with  the 
Italian  architecture  around.* 

I  Lechner,  Piz  Languard^  pp.  12,  13.  There  are  also  at  Bergamo 
families  called  Saratz. 

*  In  the  summer  of  1862  I  made  diligent  inquiries  of  the  peasantry  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Castel  Muro,  but  could  discover  no  traditions  of  Saracenic 
occupation  resembling  those  which  are  current  at  Pontresina. 

I   2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 16  The  Arabs  in  Europe. 

To  the  west  of  Pontresina  is  the  SCALETTA  pass, 
which  leads  to  the  valley  of  the  Upper  Rhine.  A  local 
tradition  affirms  that  the  Scaletta  owes  its  name  to  the 
bleaching  skeletons  of  a  band  of  marauding  Moors  from 
Pontresina,  who  were  defeated  by  the  men  of  Chur,  and 
whose  corpses  were  left  strewn  over  the  mountain  side 
where  they  fell  in  the  attempted  flight  across  the  pass. 
The  encounter  is  supposed  to  have  taken  place  at  the 
foot  of  the  pass,  on  the  western  side,  where  there  is  a 
pasture  which  still  goes  by  the  name  of  KRIEGSMATTEN, 
the  "  battle  field."  Whether  there  be  truth  in  this  tradi- 
tion or  not,^  it  testifies  to  the  popular  belief  in  the 
existence  of  a  Moorish  colony  in  the  valleys  of  the  Ber- 
nina,  and  it  harmonizes  well  with  the  curious  evidence 
supplied  by  the  still  existing  local  names.* 

^  More  probably  the  Scaletta  is  the  "  Staircase"  pass. 

'  On  the  subject  of  the  Moors  in  Switzerland,  see  Engelhardt,  Dcu  Monte 
Rosa  undMatterhom  Gebirg;  Lechner,  Piz  Languard,  pp.  12,  13;  Reioaud, 
Invasum  desSarazins;  Wenrich,  Rerumab  Arabibus gestarum  Commentarii ; 
Stanley,  Sinai  and  Palcstim,  p.  15. 


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England  is  tlu  land  of  inclosures.  117 



Englandis  the  land  of  inclosures^ — This  denoted  by  the  character  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  Names  which  end  in  ^'ton,''  ''yard^'  *' worth,'*  ''fold;'  *' hay,'' 
and  **bury" — Ham,  the  home — The  Patronymic  **ing" — Teutonic  clans 
— Saxcn  colony  near  Boulogne — Saxon  settlement  in  England  began  before 
the  departure  of  the  Romans — Early  Frisian  settlement  in  Yorkshire — Litus 
Saxonicum  near  Caen — German  Tillage-names  in  France  and  in  Italy — 
Patronymics  in  Westphalia,  Franconia,  and  Swabia — Seat  of  the  '^  Old- 

England  is  pre-eminently  the  land  of  hedges  and  in- 
closures. On  a  visit  to  the  Continent  almost  the  first 
thing  the  tourist  notices  is  the  absence  of  the  hedgerows 
of  England.  The  fields,  nay  even  the  farms,  are  bounded 
only  by  a  furrow.  The  bare  shoulders  of  the  hills  offend 
an  eye  familiar  with  the  picturesque  wooded  skyline  of 
English  landscape,  the  rectangular  strips  of  cultivation 
axe  intolerable,  and  the  interminable  monotony  of  the 
plains,  varied  only  by  the  straight  rows  of  formal  poplars 
■which  stretch  for  miles  and  miles  by  the  side  of  the 
chatiss^e,  is  inexpressibly  wearisome  to  those  who  have 
been  accustomed  to  quaint,  irregular  crofts,  and  tall, 
straggling  hedgerows,  twined  with  clematis  and  honey- 

"  Little  lines  of  sportive  wood  run  wild," 

overshadowed  here  and  there  by  gnarled  oaks  and  giant 


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1 1 8  Tlie  Anglo- Saxof IS, 

And  if  we  compare  the  local  names  in  England  with 
those  on  the  Continent,  we  shall  find  that  for  more  than 
a  thousand  years  England  has  been  distinctively  and 
pre-eminently  the  land  of  inclosures.  The  suffixes  which 
occur  most  frequently  in  Anglo-Saxon  names  denote  an 
inclosure  of  some  kind — something  hedged,  walled  in,  or 
protected.  An  examination  of  these  names  shows  us 
that  the  love  of  privacy,  and  the  seclusiveness  of  character 
which  is  so  often  laid  to  the  charge  of  Englishmen,  pre- 
vailed in  full  force  among  the  races  which  imposed  names 
upon  our  English  villages,^  Those  universally  recurring 
terminations  totif  ham?  worth,  stoke^  fold,  garth,  fark, 
burgh,  bury,  brough,  borrow,  all  convey  the  notion  of  in- 
closure or  protection.  The  prevalence  of  these  suffixes 
in  English  names  proves  also  how  intensely  the  nation 
was  imbued  with  the  principle  of  the  sacred  nature  of 
property,^  and  how  eager  every  man  was  to  possess  some 
spot  which  he  could  call  his  own,  and  guard  from  the 
intrusion  of  every  other  man.  Even  among  those  por- 
tions of  the  Teutonic  race  which  remained  on  the  Conti- 
nent, we  do  not  find  that  this  idea  of  private  right  has 
been  manifested  in  local  names  to  the  same  extent  as 
in  England.  The  feeling,  seems,  indeed,  to  have  been 
more  or  less  enchorial,  for  we  find  strong  indications  of 
it  even  in  the  pure  Celtic  names  of  Britain.     Probably 

1  This  characteristic  of  the  Teutonic  race  did  not  escape  the  acute  obser- 
vation of  Tacitus.  Colunt  discreti  ac  diversi,  ut  fons,  ut  campus,  ut  nemus 
placuit.  Vicos  locant,  non  in  nostrum  morem  conhexis  et  cohxrentibus 
aedificiis  :  suam  quisque  domum  spatio  circumdat     Germania,  §  i6. 

*  The  overwhelming  number  of  surnames  derived  from  these  local  suffixes 
is  witnessed  by  the  saw  preserved  by  Verstegan  : — 

In  Foord,  in  Ham,  in  Ley,  in  Tun, 
The  most  of  English  surnames  run. 

Restitution  of  Decayed  Intelligence,  p.  326. 

•  See  Leo,  Anglo-Saxon  Names,  p.  71. 


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The  Suffix '' ton.''  119 

more  than  one  half  of  the  Celtic  names  in  Wales  and 
Ireland  contain  the  roots  llaUy  kil  or  bally^  all  of  which 
originally  denoted  an  inclosure  of  some  kind.  The 
Teutonic  suffixes  which  do  not  denote  inclosures,  such  as 
gaUy  dorf^  kbeUy  fiausen,  stadty  and  steitiy  all  so  numerous 
in  Germany,  are  not  reproduced  in  England  to  anything 
like  the  same  extent  as  on  the  Continent.  *  It  would 
seem,  therefore,  that  the  love  of  inclosure  is  due  more 
or  less  to  the  Celts  who  were  gradually  absorbed  among 
the  Saxon  colonists. 

The  suffix  ton  constitutes  a  sort  of  test-word  by  which 
we  are  enabled  to  discriminate  the  Anglo-Saxon  settle- 
ments. It  is  the  most  common  termination  of  English 
local  names ;  and  although  it  is  a  true  Teutonic  word, 
yet  there  is  scarcely  a  single  instance  of  its  occurrence 
throughout  the  whole  of  Germany.^  It  appears  in  two 
small  Anglo-Saxon  settlements  on  the  French  coast,^ 
and  it  is  found  not  unfrequently  in  Sweden' — a  fact  which 
may  lead  to  the  establishment  of  a  connexion,  hitherto 
unsuspected,  between  the  Anglo-Saxon  colonists  of 
England  and  the  tribes  which  peopled  eastern  Scandi- 

The  primary  meaning  of  the  suffix  ton  is  to  be  sought 
in  the  Gothic  tains^  the  old  Norse  teimiy  and  the  Frisian 

1  We  have,  however,  Altona,  near  Hamburg,  and  Ost-  and  West-tonne 
in  Westphalia. 

'  E.g,  Colincthun,  Alencthun,  and  Todincthun.  See  pp.  133 ;  and 
Appendix  B. 

■  E.g.  Eskilstuna,  Sollentuna,  Wallentuna,  Sigtuna,  and  Frotuna.  See 
Bender,  Ortsnameriy  pp.  '54,  135 ;  Forstemann,  Altdeutsches  Namenbuch^ 
vol.  ii.  p.  141 4;  Pott,  Personen-Namen^  p.  76. 

*  Sweden  takes  its  name  from  the  Suiones  who  peopled  it.  The  Suiones 
are  probably  identical  with  the  Suevi  or  Swabians  who,  as  will  be  shoMm, 
contributed  largely  to  the  Teutonic  colonization  of  England. 

*  The  root  is  widely  diflused  through  the  Aryan  languages.     Compare 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 20  The  A  nglO'Saxons, 

tincy  all  of  which  mean  a  twig — a  radical  signification 
which  survives  in  the  phrase  **  the  tine  of  a  fork.**  We 
speak  also  of  the  tines  of  a  stag's  horns.  In  modern 
German  we  find  the  word  3<<un,  a  hedge,  and  in  Anglo- 
Saxon  we  have  the  verb  tynan,  to  hedge.  Hence  a  tun, 
or  ton,  was  a  place  surrounded  by  a  hedge,  or  rudely 
fortified  by  a  palisade.^  Originally  it  meant  only  a 
single  croft,  homestead,  or  farm,  and  the  word  retained 
this  restricted  meaning  in  the  time  of  Wicliffe.  He 
translates  Matt.  xxii.  5, "  But  thei  dispiseden,  and  wenten 
forth,  oon  into  his  toun  (07/3^9),  another  to  his  mar- 
chaundise."  This  usage  is  retained  in  Scotland,  where  a 
solitary  farmstead  still  goes  by  the  name  of  the  toun  ;  and 
in  Iceland,  where  the  homestead,  with  its  girding  wall, 
is  called  a  ti^n}  In  many  parts  of  England  the  rickyard 
is  called  the  hsirton  * — ^that  is,  the  inclosure  for  the  dear, 
or  crop  which  the  land  beara  There  are  lone  farm- 
houses in  Kent  called  Shottington,  Wingleton,  Godington, 
and  Appleton.  But  in  most  cases  the  isolated  ton  be- 
came the  nucleus  of  a  village,  and  the  village  grew  into 
a  town,  and,  last  stage  of  all,  the  word  TOWN  has  come 
to  denote,  not  the  one  small  croft  inclosed  from  the 

the  Sclavonic  tutftf  a  hedge,  and  even  the  Armenian  iun,  a  house.  See 
Diefenbach,  Verglekhatdes  Worterbuch,  vol.  ii.  pp.  653,  654 ;  Monkhoase, 
Etymologies y  P*  13  >  Kemble,  Codex  Diplom,  vol.  iii.  p.  xxxix. ;  Leo,  Angio- 
Saxon  Nantes,  pp.  31 — 37  ;  Mone,  Geschichte  Heidenlhums,  vol.  ii.  p.  95. 

^  The  phrase  ''hedging  and  tining/'  for  hedging  and  ditching,  was 
current  two  hundred  years  ago.  Verstegan,  Restitution^  p.  326.  Brush- 
wood, used  for  hedging,  is  called  tinetum  in  law  Latin.  Cowel,  Law 
Dictionary,  sub  voce  Tinet ;  Bailey,  Dictionary,  sub  voce  Tinetum. 

*  Dufferin,  Letters  from  High  Latitudes,  p.  46 ;  Dasent,  in  Oxford  Essays 
for  1858,  p.  203. 

'  In  Iceland  the  bartun.  There  are  some  sixty  villages  in  England 
called  Barton  or  Burton ;  these  must  have  originally  been  only  outlying 


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Names  which  denote  inclosures.  1 2 1 

forest  by  the  Saxon  settler,  but  the  dwelling-place  of  a 
vast  population,  twice  as  great  as  that  which  the  whole 
of  Saxon  England  could  boast,^ 

The  Anglo-Saxon  yard,  and  the  Norse  equivalent 
garthy  contain  nearly  the  same  idea  as  ton.  Both  denote 
some  place  girded  round,  or  guarded.  The  word  tains, 
a  twig,  stands  in  the  same  etymological  relation  to  ton 
as  the  old  English  word  yerde^  a  switch  or  rod,  does  to 
yard,  garth,  and  garden.  The  inclosure  is  named  from 
the  nature  of  the  surrounding  fence. 

The  same  may  be  said  respecting  stoke,  another 
common  suffix,  which  we  find  in  BASINGSTOKE  and 
ALVERSTOKE.  A  stoke  is  a  place  stockdAtA,  surrounded 
with  stocks  or  piles.  A  somewhat  similar  inclosure  is 
denoted  by  the  suffix  fold?  This  was  a  stall  or  place 
constructed  ol  felled  trees,  for  the  protection  of  cattle 
or  sheep. 

The  Anglo-Saxon  weorthig,  which  appears  in  English 
names  in  the  form  of  worth,  bears  a  meaning  nearly  the 
same  as  that  of  ton  or  garth.  It  denotes  a  place  warded, 
or  protected.*    It  was>  probably,  an  inclosed  homestead 

^  It  appears  from  Domesday  that  the  population  of  Saxon  England  was 
about  a  million  and  a  half.     Turner,  Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  iii.  p.  256. 

'  In  old  English  9^yerde  means  a  rod.  '*  Yet  under  the  yerde  was  the 
maide." — Chaucer,  Shipmannes  Talf,  A  yard  measure  is  a  wand  of  a  fixed 
length.  The  yards  of  a  ship  are  the  poles  on  which  the  sails  are  extended. 
Cf.  the  German  gerie,  and  the  Anglo-Saxon  gerd.  The  Goths  and  Franks 
seem  to  have  introduced  the  word  jardin  into  the  French,  Spanish,  and 
Italian  languages.  Of  cognate  origin  are  the  Albanian  gerdlne,  the  Servian 
grhdtna,  the  Russian  ^on»/  and^(a</,  and  the  Persian  gird,  a  dty  or  fortified 
town.  Diez,  Etymolog,  WiirUrb,  p.  173;  Diefenbach,  Verglachendes 
Wbrttrh.  vol.  ii.  p.  376 ;  Sparschuh,  BerichUgungen,  p.  53 ;  Pictet,  Orig, 
IndO'Europ,  part  ii.  p.  265. 

'  Anglo-Saxony2i/M/. 

^  From  the  Anglo-Saxon  warian,  to  ward  or  defend.  Kemble,  Codex 
Dipiom,  vol.  iii.  p.  xl^ ;  Leo,  Anglo-Saxon  Names,  p.  59.     A  weir,  which 


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122  The  Anglo-Saxons. 

for  the  churls,  subordinate  to  the  tun.  We  find  this 
suffix  in  the  names  of  BOSWORTH,  TAMWORTH,  KENIL- 
WORTH,  WALWORTH,  WANDSWORTH,  and  many  other 

A  haigh,  or  hay^  is  a  place  surrounded  by  a  hedge, 
and  appears,  to  have  been  usually  an  inclosure  for  the 
purposes  of  the  chase.  We  find  it  in  ROTHWELL 
HAIGH,  near  Leeds ;  HAVE  PARK,  at  Knaresborough ; 
and  HORSEHAY,  near  Colebrookdale.^  The  word  park, 
which  is  of  kindred  meaning,  seems  to  have  been 
adopted  by  the  Saxons  from  the  Celtic  parwgy  an 
inclosed  field.* 

Related  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  verb  beorgany  and  the 
German  bergen,  to  shelter  or  hide,'  are  the  suffixes  bury^ 

wards  off  the  waters  of  a  river,  is  from  the  same  root.  Wedgwood  derives 
worth  from  the  Welsh  gwyrdd,  green.  Philolog.  Proc.  vol.  iv.  p.  260.  But 
more  probably  both  gwyrdd  and  worth  are  sister  words,  coming  from  a 
common  Aryan  source.  Compare  the  Sanskrit  wi,  to  protect,  and  the 
Zend  vara^  a  place  hedged  round.    Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ.  part  ii.  p.  80. 

^  The  HAGUE  (correctly  's  Gravenhage,  the  count's  hedge)  was  origi- 
nally a  hunting-seat  of  the  Orange  princes.  Cf.  the  Dutch  hacLg^  an  in- 
closure ;  the  old  High  German  hag^  a  town ;  the  German  hagen^  to  hedge; 
the  French  haie^  a  hedge ;  and  the  English  ha-ha^  and  A<z7<^thom,  or  hedge- 
thorn.  Haia  is  a  term  often  used  in  Domesday.  The  source  seems  to  be 
the  Sanskrit  kakscha^  which  means  **  bush  "  and  also  a  **  fence."  See  Diez, 
Etym.  Worterb.  p.  656;  Leo,  Rectitudines^  p.  54;  Forstemann,  (htsnanun, 
p.  57 ;  Ellis,  Introduction  to  Domesday ^  p.  xxxvi.  The  suffixes  hagen  and 
hain  are  common  in  Hesse.    Vilmar,  Ortsnamen^  p.  269. 

*  The  word  park  is  common  to  all  the  Celtic  and  Romance  languages. 
See  Diez,  Etym,  Worterb.  p.  252;  Kemble,  Codex  Diplom,  vol.  iii.  p.  xxxv. ; 
Diefenbach,  Cdtica^  i.  p.  167 ;  and  Diefenbach,  Vergleickendes  IVorterbuch^ 
vol.  i.  p.  265,  where  the  etymological  affinities  oi  park  and  borough  are 

'  Compare  the  phrases  to  burrow  in  the  earth  ;  to  borrow,  i.e.  to  obtain 
goods  on  security  ;  to  bury,  i.e,  to  hide  in  the  earth;  the  bark  of  a  tree  is 
tliat  which  hides  or  covers  the  tnmk.  The  etymology  of  borough  may  be 
compared  with  that  of  the  Latin  oppidum^  the  work.  Mommsen,  Hist,  of 
Rome^  vol.  i.  p.  39.  , 


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TJte  Suffixes  "  bury  '*  and  "  ham:'  1 23 

borougky  burghy  brought  and  barrow.  Sometimes  these 
words  denote  the  funeral  mound  which  gave  shelter  to 
the  remains  of  the  dead,  but  more  frequently  they  mean 
the  walled  inclosure  which  afforded  refuge  to  the  living. 
Since  such  walled  places  were  often  on  the  crests  of 
hills,  the  word  came  to  mean  a  hill-fortress,  correspond- 
ing to  the  Celtic  dun,  Jn  Anglo-Saxon  a  distinction 
was  made  betweeil  beorky  which  answers  to  the  German 
bergy  a  hill,  and  buruhy  which  is  the  equivalent  of  the 
German  burgy  a  town.  This  distinctive  usage  is  lost  in 
modem  English.  The  word  Barrow}  however,  is  gene- 
rally confined  to  funeral  mounds.  Burghy  and  Brought 
are  Anglian  and  Norse,  as  are,  probably,  four-fifths  of 
the  boroughs^  while  bury  is  the  distinctively  Saxon 

The  suffix  hamy  which  is  very  frequent  in  English 
names,  appears  in  two  forms  in  Anglo-Saxon  docu- 
ments.    One  of  these,  hdm}*  signifies  an  inclosure,  that 

^  E.g.  Tnglebarrow. 

•  E.g,  Jedburgh,  Broughton,  Brough. 

'  E.g.  Peterborough,  Scarborough,  Marlborough. 

*•  This  widely  diffused  Aryan  root  appears  to  have  been  introduced  from 
the  Teutonic  into  the  Romance  languages.  To  it  we  may  refer  Burgos, 
Bergamo,  Cherbourg,  Luxembourg,  Perga,  Pergamos,  and  scores  of  other 
names  spread  over  Europe  and  Asia.  Gothic  baurgs^  Greek  ^pyot.  Mace* 
donian,  fi6pyos.  Even  the  Arabs  borrowed  burgy  a  fortress,  from  the  Goths. 
See  Diefenbach,  Vtrg.  Wort,  vol.  i.  pp.  262 — 265  ;  Diez,  Rom.  Gram.  vol.  i. 
p.  9 ;  Pictet,  Orig.  Inda-Eur.  vol.  ii.  p.  194 ;  Kemble,  Codex  Diplom. 
vol.  iii.  p.  xix.  ;  Hartshome,  Salopia  AntiqtMy  pp.  245 — 247 ;  Sparschuh, 
Bericht.  pp.  40,  52. 

*  This  is,  for  the  most  part,  the  source  of  the  Frisian  suffix  «w,  which 
fringes  the  coast-line  of  Hanover  and  Oldenburgh.  In  Brunswick  and 
Wolfenbiittel  we  find  Bomi^xn,  YIAum^  &c.  It  occurrs  in  Holstein  and  part 
of  Sleswic,  in  the  Danish  islands  Sylt  and  Fohr,  and  in  the  Frisian  colony 
in  Yorkshire.  See  p.  138,  infra.  Latham,  English.  Lang.  vol.  i.  pp. 
125 — 130 ;  Ethncl.  Brit.  Is.  p.  182.  The  suffix  um  is  sometimes  only  the 
sign  of  the  dative  plural. 


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1 24  The  A  ngloSaxons, 

which  hems  in  ^ — a  meaning  not  very  different  from  that 
of  ton  or  worth.  These  words  express  the  feeling  of 
reverence  for  private  right,  but  ham  involves  a  notion 
more  mystical,  more  holy.  It  expresses  the  sanctity  of 
the  family  bond ;  it  is  the  HOME,^  the  one  secret  (fle^rim) 
and  sacred  place.  In  the  Anglo-Saxon  charters  we 
frequently  find  this  suffix  united  with  the  names  of 
families — never  with  those  of  individuals.'  This  word, 
as  well  as  the  feeling  of  which  it  is  the  symbol,  was 
brought  across  the  ocean  by  the  Teutonic  colonists,  and 
it  is  the  sign  of  the  most  precious  of  all  the  gifts  for 
which  we  thank  them.  It  may  indeed  be  said,  without 
exaggeration,  that  the  universal  prevalence  throughout 
England  of  names  containing  this  word  HOME,  gives  us 
the  clue  to  the  real  strength  of  the  national  character  of 
the  Anglo-Saxons.  It  has  been  well  observed  that  it 
was  this  supreme  reverence  for  the  sanctities  of  domestic 
life  which  gave  to  the  Teutonic  nations  the  power  of 
breathing  a  new  life  into  the  dead  bones  of  Roman 

The  most  important  element  which  enters  into  Anglo- 
Saxon  names  yet  remains  to  be  considered.     This  is 

^  Several  Bedfordshire  villages,  as  Felmersham,  Biddenham,  and  Blun- 
ham,  which  are  almost  surrounded  by  the  serpentine  windings  of  the  Ouse, 
exhibit  this  suffix.     See  Monkhouse,  Etymologies^  pp.  8— li. 

'  Cf.  the  German  heim^  home,  which  enters  so  largely  into  the  names  of 
Southern  Germany.  What  a  world  of  inner  difference  there  is  between  the 
English  word  honUy  and  the  French  phrase  chez  nous, 

'  Leo,  Angh'Saxon  Nantes^  p.  37. 

*  Kemble,  Anglo-Saxons^  vol.  i.  p.  231  ;  Turner,  Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  i. 
p.  189.  On  the  suffixes  hdm  and  ham  see  Kemble,  Codex  Diplom,  voL  iiL 
pp.  xxvii.  xxviii.  ;  Leo,  Rectitudines,  pp.  30 — 33 ;  Diefenbach,  i^ergleick, 
IVbrterb,  vol.  iL  pp.  499 — 501  ;  Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Europ,  part  ii.  pp.  290, 
291.  With  hdm  compare  the  Gothic  haims^  the  Lithuanian  kaimas,  and 
the  Greek  km/ai;,  a  village.  The  ultimate  root  seems  to  be  the  Sanskrit  f/^ 
to  repose.     Cf.  icc«/ia<  and  Kot/xd^o. 


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The  patronymic  "  ing^  125 

the  •  syllable  ingy  It  occurs  in  the  names  of  a  multi- 
tude ^  of  English  villages  and  hamlets,  often  as  a  simple 
suiBx,  as  in  the  case  of  BARKING,  BRADING,  DORKING, 
frequently  we  find  that  it  forms  the  medial  syllable 
of  the  name,  as  in  the  case  of  BUCKINGHAM,  BIR- 

This  syllable  ing  was  the  usual  Anglo-Saxon 
patronymic.  Thus  we  read  in  the  Saxon  Chronicle 
(A.D.  547):— 

Ida  wses  Eopping, 
Eoppa  waes  Esing, 
Esa  waes  Inguing, 
Ingui,  Angenvnting. 

Ida  was  Eoppa's  son, 
Eoppa  was  Esa's  son, 
Esa  was  Ingwy's  son, 
Ingwy,  Angenwit's  son. 

*  On  the  root  ing  see  Forstemann,  Alt-deutsches  Nanunbuch,  vol.  ii.  p.  835 ; 
Forstemann,  Ortsnameriy  pp.  178,  204,  245;  Grimm,  Cesch,  d,  Deut.  Spr. 
P-  775 ;  Dent.  Gram,  vol.  ii.  pp.  349 — 352  ;  Kemble,  Saxons  in  England^ 
voL  i.  pp.  56 — 63,  and  445 — 480 ;  Kemble,  in  Philolog.  Proceedings^  vol.  iv. 
pp.  1 — 9;  Guest,  in  ib.  vol.  i.  p.  117;  Pott,  Persontn-Nanutty  pp.  169, 
247,  553 ;  Crichton,  Scandinavia^  vol.  i.  p.  160;  Zeuss,  Herkunft  der  Baiern, 
pp.  xiL  xxiiL  xxxv.  ;  Massmann,  in  Dorow's  Denkmaler  alter  Sprcuhe  und 
Kunsty  voL  i.  pp.  185 — 187 ;  Schott,  Deut.  CoL  p.  21 1 ;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures 
4m  Language^  2nd  Series,  p.  16 ;  Latham,  EthnoL  Brit,  Is,  p.  241,  seq. ; 
lAtham,  Eng,  Lang.  vol.  i.  p.  Ill  ;  Meyer,  Ortsnamen,  p.  139  ;  Bender, 
Ortrnamen,  pp.  103,  104 ;  Vilmar,  Ortsnamen^  pp.  264,  265  ;  Buttmann, 
Ortsnameny  p.  2 ;  Wright,  Celt,  Romany  and  Saxony  pp.  43S — ^441 ;  Edinburgh 
RezneWy  vol.  cxi.  pp.  374 — 376  ;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnographyy  p.  61. 

■  In  about  one-tenth  of  the  whole  number. 

s  Mr.  Kemble  has  compiled  a  list  of  1,329  English  names  which  contain 
this  root.  To  ascertain  the  completeness  of  the  enumeration,  the  Ordnance 
Maps  of  three  counties — Kent,  Sussex,  and  Essex — ^were  carefully  searched, 
and  it  was  discovered  that  Mr.  Kemble  had  overlooked  no  less  than  forty- 
seven  names  in  Kent,  thirty-eight  in  Sussex,  and  thirty-four  in  Essex.  If 
the  omissions  in  other  counties  are  in  the  same  ratio,  the  total  number  of 
these  names  would  be  about  2,200.  Lai^e  additions  might  also  be  made 
from  Domesday  Book.  The  Exon  and  Ely  Domesdays  alone  contain  thirty- 
six  names  not  given  by  Mr.  Kemble. 


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126  The  A  nglo'Saxons. 

In  fact  the  suffix  ing  in  the  names  of  persons  had  very 
much  the  same  significance  as  the  prefix  Ma»c  in  Scot- 
land, O*  in  Ireland,  Ap  in  Wales,  or  Beni  among  the 
Arabs.  A  whole  clan  or  tribe,  claiming  to  be  descended 
from  a  real  or  mythic  progenitor,  or  a  body  of  adven- 
turers attaching  themselves  to  the  standard  of  some 
chief,  were  thus  distinguished  by  a  common  patronymic 
or  clan  ^  name. 

The  family  bond,  which,  as  we  have  seen,  was  so 
deeply  reverenced  by  the  Anglo-Saxon  race,  was  the 
ruling  power  which  directed  the  Teutonic  colonization 
of  this  island.  The  Saxon  immigration  was,  doubtless, 
an  immigration  of  clans.  The  head  of  the  family  built 
or  bought  a  ship,  and  embarked  in  it  with  his  children, 
his  freedmen,  and  his  neighbours,  and  established  a 
family  colony  on  any  shore  to  which  the  winds  might 
carry  him.^  The  subsequent  Scandinavian  colonization 
was,  on  the  other  hand,  wholly  or  mainly  effected  by 
soldiers  of  fortune,  who  abandoned  domestic  ties  at 
home,  and,  after  a  few  years  of  piracy,  settled  down  with 
the  slave  women  whom  they  had  carried  off  from  the 
shores  of  France,  Spain,  or  Italy,  or  else  roughly  wooed 
the  daughters  of  the  soil  which  their  swords  had  con- 
quered.^ Thus  the  Scandinavian  adventurers  Grim,  Orm, 
Hacon,  or  Asgar,  left  their  names  at  GRIMSBY,  ORMSBY, 
HACONBY,  and  ASGARBY;  whereas  in  the  Saxon  dis- 
tricts of  the  Island  we  find  the  names,  not  of  individuals, 

^  It  may  be  observed  that  the  etymology  of  the  word  clan  proves  the 
patriarchal  nature  of  the  Scottish  clans.  It  is  derived  from  the  Gaelic 
c/uin,  children.  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ,  pt  ii.  p.  386 ;  Newman,  Regal 
Rorne^  p.  49- 

*  See  Thnipp,  Anglo-Saxon  Home,  p.  178. 

»  See  Thrupp,  Anglo-Saxon  Home,  p.  319 ;  St.  John,  Four  Con^uests^ 
vol.  i.  p.  306. 


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Family  settlements.  127 

but  of  clans.  It  is  these  family  settlements  which  are 
denoted  by  the  syllable  ing.  Hence  we  perceive  the  value 
of  this  word  as  an  instrument  of  historical  research. 
In  a  great  number  of  cases  ^  it  enables  us  to  assign  to 
each  of  the  chief  German  clans  its  precise  share  in 
the  colonization  of  the  several  portions  of  our  island. 

In  investigating  the  local  topography  of  England,  we 
constantly  meet  with  the  names  of  families  whose  deeds 
are  celebrated  in  the  mythic  or  legendary  history  of  the 
Teutonic  races.^  Thus  members  of  a  Frankish  clan — 
the  Myrgings,  or  Maurings,  of  whom  we  read  in  the 
"  Traveller's  Song,"  and  who,  at  a  later  time,  are  familiar 
to  us  as  the  Merovingian  dynasty  of  France — seem  to 
have  settled  in  England  at  MERRING  in  Nottingham- 
shire, and  at  MERRINGTON  in  Durham  and  Shropshire.^ 
The  family  of  the  Harlings,  whose  deeds  are  also 
chronicled  in  the  "  Traveller's  Song,"  are  met  with  at 
HARLING,  in  Norfolk  and  in  Kent,  and  at  HARLINGTON, 
in   Bedfordshire   and   Middlesex.     The    families  of  the 

1  The  syllable  ing  has  sometimes  a  topographic  rather  than  a  patronymic 
signification.  Thus,  in  the  Chronicle  and  the  Charters,  mention  is  made  of 
the  CentingB,  or  men  of  Kent,  the  Brytfordings,  or  men  of  Bradford,  and 
the  Bromleagtngs,  or  men  of  Bromley.  Sometimes,  as  Mr.  Kemble  and 
Dr.  Massmann  think,  the  sufhx  ing  has  simply  the  force  of  the  genitive 
singular.  Kemble,  in  Philolog.  Proc.  vol.  iv.  pp.  i — 9 ;  Massmann,  in 
I>orow*s  Denktndler^  vol.  i.  p.  1 86;  Forstemann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  178. 
Occasionally  it  denotes  a  meadow. 

*  The  same  patronymics  which  occur  in  local  names  were  borne  by 
persons  mentioned  in  ancient  German  charters  and  other  documents. 
Forstemann  collects  270  such  names  from  documents  of  the  eighth,  ninth, 
tenth,  and  eleventh  centuries.     Alt-Deutsches  Namenbuch,  vol.  i.  p.  782. 

*  Miillenhoff,  in  Haupt*8  Zeitschrift^  vol.  vi.  pp.  430 — 435  ;  Kemble, 
Saxons,  vol.  i.  p.  469 ;  Zeuss,  Herkunft  der  BaUm,  p.  xxxv. ;  Latham, 
English  Lang,  vol.  i.  p.  221.  See  Mone,  Geschichte  Heidenikums,  vol.  ii. 
p.  133,  for  the  Merovingian  traditions.  The  Meringas  are  also  jnentioned 
in  a  charter.     Cod.  DipL  No.  809. 


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128  The  A  nglo'  Saxons, 

Brentings,  the  Scylfings  ^  (a  Swabian  race),  the  Banings, 
the  Haelsings,  the  Hdcings,'*  and  the  Scaerings,  which 
are  all  mentioned  in  Beowulf  or  in  the  "Traveller's 
Song,"«  are  found  at  BRENTINGLEY,  SHILVINGTON, 
SHERRINGHAM  ;  and  the  Scyldings  * — ^a  Danish  family, 
to  which  Beowulf  himself  belonged — are  found  at 
SKELDING  in  Yorkshire.  In  the  Edda  and  in  Beowulf 
we  read  of  the  Waelsings,*  whom  we  find  settled  at 
WOLSINGHAM  in  Norfolk,  WOOLSINGHAM  in  Durham, 
and  WOLSINGHAM  in  Northumberland.  The  Thurings, 
a  Visigothic  clan,*  mentioned  by  Marcellinus,  Jomandes, 
and  Sidonius  ApoUonaris,  are  found  at  THORINGTON  in 
Suffolk  and  THORRINGTON  in  Essex.  The  Silings,  a 
Vandal  tribe,  mentioned  by  Ptolemy,  are  found  at 
SELLING  in  Kent.  The  Icelings,  the  noblest  family  of 
Mercia,  are  found  at  ICKLINGHAM  in  Suffolk.  The 
Hastings,  the  noblest  race  of  the  Goths,  are  found  at 
HASTINGLEIGH  in  Kent,  and  HASTINGS  in  Sussex. 
The  Ardings,  the  royal  race  of  the  Vandals,  are  found  at 
ARDINGTON  in  Berkshire,  and  ARDINGLEY  in  Sussex  ; 
and  a  branch  of  the  royal  Visigothic  family  is  found  at 
BELTING  in  Kent  The  Irings,  the  royal  family  of  the 
Avars,^  are  found   at  ERRINGHAM  in   Sussex,  and  at 

^  MuUenhoff,  in  Haupt's  Zeitschrift,  vol.  vi.  p.  431. 

s  The  Hdcings  are  probably  the  same  as  the  Chauci  of  Tadtus — the 
interchange  of  h  to  ch  or  w  often  takes  place,  as  in  the  case  of  the  CkaMx 
and  /feaae.  The  Wokings  were  probably  the  same  as  the  H6cings. 
Grimm,  GescA.  der  Deut.  Spr,  p.  674. 

'  Kemble,  Saxons^  vol.  i.  pp.  59 — 63,  and  456 — 478. 

*  Miillenhoff,  in  Haupt*s  Zeitschrift^  vol.  vi  p.  431. 

'  The  Wadsings  were  probably  Franks.  Latham,  Eng.  Loftg,  vol.  i. 
p.  226. 

>  Miiller,  Marken^  p.  175 ;  I^atham,  Naiianalities,  vol.  ii.  p.  312. 

^  Piderit,  Ortsfiamen,  p.  311. 


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The  Teutonic  Clans.  129 

ERRINGTON  in  Yorkshire.  The  Varini,  who  are  placed 
by  Tacitus  in  juxtaposition  with  the  Angli,  are  found 
at  WARRINGTON  in  Lancashire  and  Bucks,  and  at 
WERRINGTON  in  Devon  and  Northamptonshire.  The 
Billings,  who  were  the  royal  race  of  the  Varini,^  seem, 
as  might  have  been  anticipated,  to  have  profited  exten- 
sively by  the  conquest  of  England,  for  we  find  their 
name  in   no   less  than  thirteen   places,   as  BILLINGE, 

HURST.  The  iEscings,  the  royal  race  of  Kent,  are  likewise 
found  in  thirteen*  places.  Some  families  seem  to  have 
spread  much  more  widely  than  others.  Of  many  only  an 
isolated  local  name  bears  witness,  some  are  confined  to  a 
single  county,  while  the  names  of  others,  as  the  iEscings 
and  the  Billings,  are  spread  far  and  wide  throughout  the 

Where  the  patronymic  stands  without  any  suffix,  as  in 
the  case  of  malling,  basing,  or  Hastings,  Mr.  Kemble 
thinks  that  we  have  the  original  settlement  of  the  clan, 
and  that  the  names  to  which  the  suffixes  ham  or  ton  are 

^  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings y  vol.  i.  p.  213.  In  the  earliest 
records,  however,  the  Billings  are  mythological  rather  than  historical. 
The  first  undoubtedly  historical  Billing  died  in  the  year  967.  The  root  bil 
signifies  gentleness..  Billich  is  Equity  personified.  Cf.  the  modem  German 
billigj  cheap.  The  name  Billingsgate  may  perhaps  be  thus  explained. 
Grimm,  Deut  Mythol.  p.  347. 

■  The  Cyllings  and  the  Wealings  are  found  in  twelve  places;  the 
Dodings,  the  Wittings,  and  the  Willings,  in  eleven ;  the  Ofings  in  ten ;  the 
Donings  and  the  SiUings  in  nme ;  the  Edings,  the  Ellings,  the  Hardings, 
and  the  Lings  in  eight;  the  Fearings,  the  Hemings,  the  Herrings,  the 
Holings,  the  Homings,  the  Newings,  the  Serings,  and  the  Wasings  in 
seven;  the  Cannings,  the  Cerrings,  the  Hastings,  the  Lullings,  the 
Hannings,  the  Stannings,  the  Teddings,  the  Tarings,  and  the  Withings,  in 
six;  the  Bennings,  the  Bings,  the  Bobbings,  the  Caedings,  the  Collings, 
the  Gillings,  and  the  Stellings,  in  five,  and  the  remaining  400  or  500 
patronymics  in  four  or  a  smaller  number  of  places. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 30  TJie  A  ngloSaxofts. 

applied  mark  the  filial  colonies  sent  out  from  this  parent 
settlement.  This  theory  is  not,  perhaps,  altogether 
carried  out  by  a  study  of  the  names,  but  it  certainly 
derives  considerable  support  from  the  way  in  which 
these  patronymics  are  distributed  throughout  the  Eng- 
lish counties.  By  a  reference  to  the  subjoined  table,  it 
will  be  seen  that  the  names  of  the  former  class  are 
chiefly  to  be  found  in  the  south-eastern  districts  of  the 
island,  where  the  earliest  Teutonic  settlements  were 
formed,  namely,  in  Kent,  Sussex,  Essex,  Middlesex, 
Norfolk,  Suffolk,  and  the  adjacent  counties,  and  that 
they  gradually  diminish  in  frequency  as  we  proceed 
towards  the  northern  and  western  counties.  Still  farther 
to  the  west,  as  in  Gloucestershire  and  Warwickshire,  the 
names  of  the  former  class  are  very  rare ;  those  of  the 
second  abound.  In  the  semi-Celtic  districts  of  Derby- 
shire, Devonshire,  and  Lancashire  names  of  either  class 
become  scarce,  while  in  Cumberland,  Westmoreland, 
Cornwall,  and  Monmouth  they  are  wholly  or  almost 
wholly  wanting.  On  Mr.  Kemble's  hypothesis  this  re- 
markable distribution  of  these  names  would  accord  with 
the  supposition  that  the  Saxon  rule  was  gradually 
extended  over  the  western  and  central  districts  by  the 
cadets  of  families  already  settled  in  the  island,  and  not 
by  fresh  immigrants  arriving  from  abroad. 

From  the  lists  given  by  Mr.  Kemble  the  following 
table  has  been  compiled,  so  as  to  represent  the  propor- 
tion of  names  of  these  two  classes  to  the  acreage  of  the 
several  counties.  The  absolute  numbers  are  not  given, 
since  the  varying  sizes  of  the  counties  would  vitiate  the 
results : — 


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Orig  inal  and  filial  settlements. 


^^^^    Filial 



Middlesex  .  .  .  . 




Bedfordshire  .  .  . 
Huntingdonshire  . 



Hertfordshire.  .  . 
Oxfordshire.  .  .  . 
Nottinghamshire  . 
Hampshire  .... 
Lincolnshire  .  .  . 
Cambridgeshire.  . 
Yorkshire  .... 
Dorsetshire.  .  .  . 
Lancashire  .... 










Derbyshire  .  .  . 
Gloucestershire . 
Leicestershire    . 
Warwickshire    . 
Somerset  .  . 
Salop.  .  .  . 
Wiltehire.  . 
Devonshire . 
Rutland.  .  . 
Cheshire  .  . 
Staffordshire  . 
Durham    .  .  . 
Cumberland    . 
Cornwall .  .  . 
Monmouth  .  . 



















For  the  preceding  results  no  great  amount  of  novelty 
can  be  claimed,  since  they  are  based  mainly  on  the  re- 
searches of  Mr.  Kemble,  and  of  Professor  Leo  of  Halle. 

But,  having  occasion,  for  another  purpose,  to  make  a 
minute  examination  of  the  .sheets  of  the  large  Govern- 
ment survey  of  France,  I  was  startled  by  a  remarkable 
phenomenon,  which,  so  far  as  I  can  ascertain,  seems 
hitherto  to  have  escaped  the  notice  which  it  deserves 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


The  Anglo-Saxons, 

In  the  old  French  provinces  of  Picardy  and  Artois, 
there  is  a  small  well-defined  district,  about  the  size  of 
Middlesex,  lying  between  Calais,  Boulogne,  and  St  Omer, 
and  fronting  the  English  coast,  in  which  the  name  of 
almost  every  village  and  hamlet  is  of  the  pure  Anglo- 
Saxon  type  ;  and  not  only  so,  but  the  names  are,  most 
of  them,  identically  the  same  with  village-names  to  be 
found  in  England.  To  exhibit  graphically  the  distribu- 
tion of  these  Saxon  villages  the  accompanying  sketch- 
map  has  been  constructed.  Each  dot  represents  the 
position  of  one  of  the  Saxon  names. 



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The  Saxon  Colony  near  Boulogne,  133 

Thus  we  have  in  the 

Freruh  District  Corresponding  English  Namet. 

Wariiem V^zxhsan,  Norfolk. 

Rattekot Kadcot,  Oxon. 

Le  Wast Wast,  Gloucesttrskirey  Northumberland, 

Frethun Freton,  Norfolk. 

Cohen,  Cuhem,  and  Cuhen.  Cougham,  Norfolk. 

Hollebeque Holbeck,  Notts. ^  Yorks,^  Lincoln. 

Ham,  Hame,  Hames    .     .  Ham,  Kent^  Surrey^  Essex,  Somerset. 

Werwick Warwick,  Warwick^  Cumberland. 

Appegarbe Applegarth,  Dumfries, 

Sangatte Sandgate,  Kent. 

Guindal Windle,  Lancashire. 

Intern Ingham,  Lincoln^  Norfolk^  Middlesex. 

Oye Eye,  Suffolk,  Hereford^  Northmptonsh,,  Oxon, 

Wimffle* Windmill,  A'^. 

Grisendale Grisdale,  Cumberland,  Lancashire. 

We  have  also  such  familiar  English  forms  as  Gray- 
wick,  the  River  Slack,  Bruquedal,  Marbecq,  Longfosse, 
Dalle,  Vendal,  Salperwick,  Fordebecques,  Staple,  Cre- 
hem,  Pihem,  Dohem,  Roqueton,  Hazelbrouck,  and  Roe- 
beck.  Twenty-two  of  the  names  have  the  characteristic 
suffix  'ton,  which  is  scarcely  to  be  found  elsewhere  upon 
the  Continent,^  and  upwards  of  one  hundred  end  in  ham, 
heniy  or  hen.  There  are  also  more  than  one  hundred 
patronymics  ending  in  ing.  A  comparison  of  these 
patronymics  with  those  found  in  England  proves,  be- 
yond a  doubt,  that  the  colonization  of  this  part  of 
France  must  have  been  effected  by  men  bearing  the 
clan-names  which  belonged  to  the  Teutonic  families 
which  settled  on  the  opposite  coast.^    More  than  eighty 

1  Sankey,  Portefeuille,  p.  53,  refers  this  very  remarkable  name  to  the 
time  of  the  occupation  of  Boulogne  by  the  English  in  the  sixteenth  century. 
I  cannot  doubt  that  it  is  an  evidence  of  a  much  earlier  connexion. 
•  •  Seep.  ii9»  Jw/rtf. 

'  A  few  phonetic  changes  are  worthy  of  notice.     We  find  ham  once  or 


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1 34  The  A  nglo- Saxons. 

per  cent,  of  these  French  patronymics  are  also  found  in 
Thus  we  have 

In  France,  In  England, 

Alencthun Allington,  Kent. 

Bazingham Bassingham,  Line. 

Balinghem Ballingham,  Hereford. 

Berlinghen Birlingham,  Worcester. 

Colincthun CoUington,  Sussex, 

Elingehen Ellingham,  Hants. 

Eringhem Erringham,  Sussex. 

Hardinghem Hardingham,  Norfolk. 

Linghem .  Lingham,  Cheshire. 

Lozinghem Lossingham,  Kent. 

Maninghem Manningham,  Yorks. 

Masinghen Massingham,  Norfolk, 

Pelincthun Pallington,  Dorset. 

Todincthun Toddington,  Bedford, 

Vdinghen Wellingham,  Norfolk, 

A  more  detailed  comparison  of  these  patronymics  will 
be  found  in  the  appendix,^  and  to  this  the  attention  of 
the  student  is  specially  requested.  It  is  confidently  be- 
lieved that  such  a  comparison  will  render  it  impossible 
not  to  admit  that  the  same  families  which  gave  their 
names  to  our  English  villages  must  have  also  made  a 
settlement  on  that  part  of  the  French  coast  which  lies 
within  sight  of  the  English  shore. 

The  question  now  arises  whether  the  Saxons,  as  they 
coasted  along  from  the  mouths  of  the  Rhine,  made  the 

twice  close  to  the  coast — the  usual  form,  however,  is  hem — and  further 
inland  it  changes  to  hen  ;  while  tng  is  sometimes  changed  into  eng  or  w«r, 
SLndgay  intogue.  The  suffix  ^^  which  we  find  in  Framlingay,  Gamlingay, 
&c.  is  found  abundantly  in  those  parts  of  Germany  from  whence  the 
Saxons  emigrated.  It  there  takes  the  form  guu.  This  word  originally- 
denoted  a  forest  clearing,  hence  aflerwards  it  came  to  mean  the  primary 
settlement  with  independent  jurisdiction,  like  the  Cymric  tre/l  Palgrave, 
English  Commonwealth,  vol.  i.  p.  88;  Forstemann,  Ortsnametiy  p.  63. 
1  Appendix  B. 


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Litus  Saxonicum,  135 

Boulogne  colony  a  sort  of  halting-place  or  stepping- 
stone  on  their  way  to  England,  or  whether  the  French 
settlement  was  effected  by  cadets  belonging  to  families 
which  had  already  established  themselves  in  this  island. 

In  favoyr  of  the  latter  view  we  may  adduce  the  entire 
absence  of  Saxon  names  from  that  part  of  the  coast 
which  lies  to  the  north-east  of  Cape  Grisnez.  Why 
should  the  intending  settlers  have  passed  along  this 
stretch  of  coast,  and  have  left  it  entirely  untouched  ? 
The  map^  shows  conclusively  that  the  colonists  did  not 
arrive  from  the  east,  but  from  the  west — the  Saxon  names 
radiate,  so  to  speak,  from  that  part  of  the  coast  which 
fronts  England.  And  the  names  are  arranged  exactly 
as  they  would  have  been  if  the  invaders  had  set  sail  from 
Hythe  for  the  cliffs  on  the  horizon.  The  district  about 
St.  Omer  was  evidently  colonized  by  men  who  landed, 
not  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dunkerque,  but  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Boulogne.*  Again,  if  any  importance  is  to 
be  attached  to  Mr.  Kemble's  theory  of  original  and  filial 
settlements,*  the  Saxon  villages  in  France  must  all  have 
h^^n  filial  settlements.  We  find  that  ing  is  never  a  mere 
suffix ;  in  every  case  it  forms  the  medial  syllable  of  the 

On  the  other  hand,  it  may  be  said  that  these  names 
mark  the  position  of  the  "  Litus  Saxonicum  in  Belgica 
Secunda  " — the  coast  settlement  of  the  Saxons  in  Flan- 
ders,— ^which  is  mentioned  in  the  Notitia  Imperii.  This 
Litus  Saxonicum  existed  as  early  as  the  third  century. 

^  See  p.  132,  supra, 

*  As  if  to  preclude  all  doubt,  at  some  distance  inland,  on  the  northern 
border  of  ^e  Saxon  colony,  we  find  the  village  of  Marck,  a  name  which 
always  indicated  an  ethnological  frontier.     See  Chapter  X. 

'  Sec  p.  130,  supra. 


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136  The  A  nglo'  Saxons, 

and  therefore,  it  may  be  ui^ed,  its  foundation  must  have 
been  long  anterior  in  date  to  the  Saxon  colonization  of 
Britain,  which,  according  to  the  chroniclers,  commenced  in 
the  fifth  century,  with  the  arrival  of  Hengist  and  Horsa. 
Eutropius  informs  us  that  the  Emperors  Diocletian  and 
Maximian  appointed  Carausius,  *'  apud  Bononiam," 
(Boulogne)  to  protect  the  Flemish  coast  and  the  adjoin- 
ing sea,  "  quod  Saxones  infestabant."  Carausius  was  a 
Menapian,  that  is,  a  native  of  the  islands  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Rhine.^  He  was  probably  one  of  those  pirates 
whose  incursions  he  was  appointed  to  suppress.  Carau- 
sius, it  would  seem,  entered  into  a  compact  with  his 
Saxon  kinsmen,  and  promoted  their  settlement,  as  sub- 
sidized naval  colonists,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  his  for- 
tress at  Boulogne.^ 

It  may  be  said,  in  reply,  that  the  date  ordinarily  as- 
signed for  the  commencement  of  the  Saxon  colonization 
of  Britain  is  too  late  by  at  least  a  couple  of  centuries. 
Even  in  the  time  of  Agricola  the  Saxon  piracy  had 
begun.*  In  the  south-east  of  England  a  Saxon  immigra- 
tion seems  to  have  been  going  on  in  silence  during  the 
period  of  the  Roman  rule.*    Without  supposing,  as  some 

^  Palgrave,  Englisk  Commorrwealth^  vol.  i.  p.  375. 

*  LAppenberg,  England  under  the  Anglo-Saxon  Kings^  vol.  i.  pp. 
44 — 47 ;  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen,  pp.  381,  384 ;  Gough*s  Camden^  vol.  L 
p.  308;  Leo,  Vorlesungen,  voL  i.  p.  267;  Turner,  Anglo-Saxons^  vol.  i. 
p.  145 ;  Depping,  Expiditions  Maritimes^  voL  i.  p.  84 ;  Wamkonig, 
Flandriscke  Staatsgeschichte^  vol.  i.  p.  91. 

'  Poste,  Britannic  Researches^  p.  20. 

*  Haigh,  Conquest  of  Britain^  pp.  i6i — 166.  The  Roman  Legions 
stationed  in  Britain  were  composed  mainly  of  Germans.  This  must  have 
introduced  a  considerable  German  element  into  the  population.  Leo, 
Vorlesungen,  vol.  i.  p.  268;  Wright,  "On  the  Ethnology  of  South 
Britain  at  the  extinction  of  the  Roman  Government."  Essays^  voL  i.  pp. 
70,  71- 


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Date  of  First  Teutonic  Settlement  in  England,     137 

inquirers  have  done,  that  the  Belgae,  whom  Caesar  found 
in  Britain,  were  Low  Germans  in  blood  and  speech,  we 
may  suppose  that,  after  the  extermination  of  the  Iceni, 
the  desolated  lands  of  Eastern  Britain  were  occupied 
by  German  colonists.  In  Essex  and  Suffolk  there  is 
a  smaller  proportion  of  Celtic  names  than  in  any  other 
district  of  the  island,  and  this  would  indicate  that  the 
Germanization  of  those  counties  is  of  very  ancient  date. 
Gildas,  Nennius,  and  Beda,  among  all  their  lamentations 
over  the  "destruction  of  Britain"  by  the  Jutish  and 
Saxon  invaders,  are  strangely  silent  as  to  any  settlements 
on  the  eastern  coast,  where,  from  gec^raphical  considera- 
tions, we  might  have  expected  that  the  first  brunt  of 
invasion  would  be  felt  While  we  can  trace  the  progress 
of  the  Saxons  in  the  western  and  central  districts  of 
England,  with  respect  to  the  east  both  the  British  bards 
and  the  Saxon  chroniclers  are  dumb.  They  tell  us  of  no 
conquests,  no  defeats.^  Descents  had,  however,  been 
made,  for  we  learn  from  Ammianus  Marcellinus  that, 
nearly  a  century  before  the  date  assigned  by  Beda  for 
the  landing  of  Hengist  and  Hprsa,  London  was  taken  by 
Saxon  invaders,  who  slew  the  Duke  of  Britain  and  the 
Count  of  the  Saxon  shore. 

This  name  alone  might  suffice  to  set  the  question  at 
rest.  Even  before  the  time  of  Constantine,  there  was  in 
England,  as  well  as  in  Flanders,  a  Litus  Saxonicum,  or 
Saxon  coast  settlement,  which  extended  from  Brancaster 
in  Norfolk  as  far  as  Shoreham  in  Sussex.*  The  Roman 
names  of  the  places  in  this  district  seem  in  some  cases 

*  Palgrave,  English  Commonwealthf  vol.  i.  p.  413. 

*  Grimm,  Gach.  d.  Deut,  Spr.  p.  625 ;  Palgrave,  English  Common- 
wealth,  vol.  i.  pp.  389,  412  ;  St.  John,  Four  Conquests,  vol.  i.  p.  44  ; 
Latham,  Ethnology  0/  Brit,  Is,  p.  199;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnog, 
p.  45. 


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138  The  A  nglo-  Saxofis. 

to  be  referable  to  Teutonic  rather  than  Celtic  roots.  The 
modern  name  of  RECULVERS  probably  approximates 
very  closely  to  the  original  word  which  was  Latinized 
into  Regulbium,  and  it  suggests  the  settlement  of  a 
Teuton  named  Raculf.^  The  name  of  DOVER,*  Latinized 
into  Dubris,  reminds  us  of  DOUVRES  in  the  Saxon  shore 
near  Bayeux,  and  of  DOVERCOURT  in  the  intensely  Teu- 
tonized  district  near  Harwich,  as  well  as  of  the  Dovre- 
fjeld  in  Norway,  and  THANET,  also  a  Teutonic  name, 
appears  in  the  pages  of  Solinus,  an  author  certainly  not 
later  than  the  fourth  century. 

There  are  several  concurrent  indications  that  the  dis- 
trict of  Holderness  was  occupied  by  Teutonic  settlers 
before  the  close  of  the  Roman  rule.  Holderness  is  a 
fertile  tract  of  some  250  square  miles,  bounded  on  the 
north,  east,  and  south  by  the  sea  and  the  Humber,  and 
on  the  west  by  the  Wolds,  which  were  probably  a 
frontier  of  wooded  and  impenetrable  hills.'  In  this  dis- 
trict Ptolemy  places  a  people  whom  he  calls  the  Uaplaoi, 
Grimm  has  shown  that  the  old  German/  is  interchange- 
able in  Latin  with  /  the  aspirated  form  of  the  same 
letter.*  This  would  lead  us  to  identify  the  Hapiaoi  with 
the  F-risii  or  Frisians.^     In  the  same  district  Ptolemy 

^  The  name  of  the  British  usurper,  Tetricus,  whose  date  is  about  270 
A.D.  appears  to  be  only  the  German  name  Dietrich  in  a  Latinized  form. 
Haigh,  Conquest  of  Britain^  p.  162. 

'  The  root  may  be  the  Anglo-Saxon  Q/Sr,  shore,  with  a  preposition,  or 
the  definite  article  prefixed.  The  usual  derivation  is  from  the  Celtic  dujr^ 
water.     Gliick,  Kelt.  Namen^  p.  35  ;  Zeuss,  Die  Deuiscken^  p.  575. 

'  The  name  Holderness  means  a  wooded  promontory.  The  Wolds  axe 
"  the  woods."    Cf.  the  German  wold, 

<  Gesch.  d.  Deut,  Spr.  p.  394. 

0  The  Frisian  form  of  ham  is  um.  See  p.  123,  supra.  Holderness  is 
the  only  part  of  England  where  this  form  occurs.  Here  we  find  the 
village  names  Aig-am^  "SeyrS'Om,  HoU-jrm,  Arr-a^i,  "Rys-om  Garth,  axid 


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Frisian  Settlement  in  Yorkshire.  139 

places  PETUARIA,  a  name  which  cannot  be  explained  from 
Celtic  sources,  but  which  points  undoubtedly  to  the 
German  root  w(ere — inhabitants,  which  appears  in  Cant- 
ware,  Wihtware,  and  so  many  other  names.^  Nor  is  this 
all,  for  Ptolemy  gives  us  a  third  name  in  the  district  of 
Holdemess,  Gabrantoz'iirorum  Sinus,  which  must  be 
either  Filey  Bay  or  Bridlington  Bay.  Now  this  word 
contains  the  root  vie,  which  was  the  appellation  of  a  bay 
in  the  language  of  the  vikings  or  Bay-men  who,  at  a 
later  period,  descended  in  such  numbers  from  the  Frisian 

There  seems  therefore  to  be  good  ground  for  assign- 
ing for  the  commencement  of  the  Saxon  settlements  in 
Britain  a  date  anterior  to  the  time  of  Carausius,'  and  we 
may  believe  that  the  Saxon  settlement  in  Flanders  may 
be  partly  due  to  the  energetic  measures  by  which 
he  compelled  or  induced  the  Saxon  pirates,  who  were 
establishing  themselves  on  the  British  coast,  to  seek  a 
new  home  beyond  the  channel. 

There  was  also  a  third  Litus  Saxonicum,  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Caen,  and  which  extended  as  far  as  the 
islands  at  the  mouth  of  the  Loire,*  where  the  population 

^rame,  as  well  as  Owstwick,  another  Frisian  form.  The  village  of 
FRiSMERSK  is  HOW  Washed  away.  Poulson,  Hist,  of  Holderness,  vol.  ii. 
p.  5^8. 

1  See  p.  68,  mpra.  Ptolemy  also  gives  us  a  Vand-«ar-ia,  near  the  wall, 
apparency  a  settlement  of  some  tribe  of  Vandals  or  Wends. 

•  Cf.  Wright,  "  On  the  reihains  of  a  primitive  people  in  the  south-east  or 
Yorkshire."  Essays^  vol.  i.  p.  I ;  Latham,  English  Lang,  vol.  i.  pp.  5,  6; 
Poulson,  Hist,  of  Holdemess,  vol.  i.  pp.  4 — 9. 

'  The  date  usually  assigned  to  the  landing  of  Hengist  and  Horsa  is  449 
A.D.  The  Saxons  took  London  in  367.  Carausius  was  appointed  in 
287.  The  latest  writer  on  the  subject  places  the  commencement  of  the 
Saxon  colonization  "  three  or  four  centuries  "  before  449.  Thrupp,  Anglo- 
Saxon  Homey  p.  4. 

♦  Zeuss,  Die  DetUschen,  p.  386  ;  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  i. 


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1 40  The  A  nglO'Saxons, 

still  retains  the  distinctive  outward  marks  of  Saxon 
blood.^  The  Swabian  Usti  who,  as  we  learn  from  the 
Notitia,  were  settled  at  Bajoccas  (Bayeux)  may  have 
formed  the  nucleus  of  this  settlement  In  the  year  843 
the  annalists  mention  the  existence  of  a  district  in  this 
neighbourhood  called  Otlinga^  Saxonica,  and  Gregory  of 
Tours  speaks  of  the  Saxones  bajocsissini.  This  Saxon 
settlement  dates  from  the  third  century,  and  its  forma- 
tion was  probably  contemporaneous  with  that  of  the 
colony  in  Picardy.  By  the  aid  of  local  names  we  can 
still  trace  its  sharply  defined  boundaries.^  It  will  be 
seen  that  in  the  departments  of  the  Eure  and  of  the 
Seine  Inf^rieure,  where  the  Danish  names  of  a  later 
period  are  so  thickly  clustered,  hardly  a  single  Saxon 
name  is  to  be  found,  while  in  the  department  of  the  Cal- 
vados, and  in  the  central  portion  of  La  Manche,  where 
the  Danish  names  are  comparatively  scarce,  their  place 
is  occupied  by  names  of  the  Saxon  type.  The  North- 
men seem  to  have  respected  the  tenure  of  their  Teutonic 
kinsmen,  and  to  have  dispossessed  only  the  Celtic  tribes 
who  dwelt  to  the  east  and  north-west  of  the  Saxon 
colony.     The  artificial  landscape  in  this  Saxon  district  is 

pp.  44,  46;  Anglo-Norman  Kings^  P-  ^3 »  Latham,  Channel  Is.p,  313; 
EthnoL  Brit,  Is.  p.  197;  Nationalities  of  Europe^  vol.  ii.  pp.  21,  292; 
Depping,  Expeditions  Maritimes,  voL  i.  pp.  84,  8$ ;  Petersen,  Reckerchts^ 

p.  44- 

1  Louth,  Wanderer  in  Western  France^  p.  292. 

'  This  phrase,  which  has  elicited  so  many  ingenious  etymological  guesses, 
does  not  mean  the  district  where  the  Saxon  language  was  spoken,  but,  as 
Grimm  has  suggested,  it  was  the  abode  of  Saxon  nobles,  AdoHngs  or 
yEthelings,— Gesch,  der  Detit,  Sprack,  p.  626.  See  Donaldson,  Engiisk 
Ethnog,  p.  45;  Depping,  ExpSditions^  vol.  i.  p.  85;  and  compare  the 
name  of  Athelney,  which  in  the  Saxon  Chronicle  (A.D.  878)  is  written 
jEtkdinga-igge^  the  isle  of  the  iSthelings. 

'  See  the  coloured  map,  and  the  sketch  map  of  Normandy  in  the  next 


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Saxon  Settlement  near  Caen.  141 

of  a  thoroughly  English  type.  The  sketcher  might 
imagine  himself  in  Devonshire  or  Kent.  The  country  is 
divided  by  thick  hedgerows  into  small  irregular  crofts, 
and  the  cottages  are  unmistakably  English  rather  than 
French  in  structure  and  appearance.^ 

In  this  neighbourhood  we  find  the  village  names  of 
SASSETOT  (Saxons'-field),  hermanville,  etreham,  or 

OUISTREHAM*    (Westerham),     HAMBYE,^    LE     HAM,     LE 

hamelet,  cottun  (cows'  yard),  etainhus,  heu- 
LAND  (highland),  PLUMETOT  (Blomfield  or  Flowerfield), 
DOUVRES,  on  "  the  shore,"  which  reminds  us  of  our  own 
Dover,  and  CAEN,  which  was  anciently  written  Cathem 
and  Catheim.*  There  are  also  about  thirty  Saxon  pa- 
tronymics. It  is  curious  to  observe  in  how  many  cases 
we  find  the  same  families  on  the  opposite  coast  of  Hants, 
Dorset,  Devon,  and  Cornwall.  In  the  whole  of  Cornwall 
there  are  only  two  patronymic  names,  and  both  of  these 
are  also  found  among  the  thirty  on  the  opposite  coast. 
We  have  the 

Families  of  the  Near  Bayeux  at  In  England  at 

p.   .  ^  /Berengeville J  Berrington,      Dur.      Glouc, 

^"™^ (Berigny }      Salop,  Worcester, 

Beltings Bellengreville Bellinger,  Hants. 

Basings Bazenville Basing,  Hants, 

Bobbings Baubigny Bobbing,  Kent, 

Callings Caligny Callington,  Cornwall. 

^^^ ^^^y l^h^JS.n'I'i^/"- 

^  These  two  characteristic  features  of  Saxon  colonization  are  also  to  be 
noted  in  the  Litus  Saxonicum  near  Boxilogne. 

'  La  Roquette,  Noms  en  Normandie,  p.  56. 

'  This  mongrel  growth  is  apparently  a  Danish  graft  on  a  Saxon  stock. 

4  La  Roquette,  Noms  en  Normandie,  P-  53  J  Chamock,  Local  Etym.  p. 
53.  Cat  is  perhaps  a  corruption  of  Goth  or  Geat,  or  it  may  be  the  proper 
name  Geit. 


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142  The  A  nglO'Saxons. 

Families  of  the                 NearBayeux  at  In  England  at 

Cofings Cavigny Covington,  Huntingdon, 

C-rdings Cartigny j  ^^^^^f,^! 

Grsefings Gravigny Grayingham,  Line. 

Hardings Hardinvast Hardenhuish,  Wilts, 

Ifings Juvigny Jevington,  Sussex, 

Essings Isigny Issington,  Hants, 

Mserings Marigny Marrington,  Salop, 

Potings Potigny Podington,  Dorset, 

Seafings Savigny Sevington,  Kent, 

Sulings Soulangy SuUington,  Sussex, 

Dhyrings Thorigny  ^ Torrington,  Devon, 

Local  names  are  of  great  value  when  we  attempt  to 
estimate  the  amount  and  the  distribution  of  the  Teutonic 
element  in  the  population  of  France.  Any  historical 
notices  which  might  aid  us  are  very  vague,  and  the 
philological  analysis  of  the  modem  French  vocabulary  ^ 
would  give  a  most  inadequate  notion  of  the  actual  num- 
bers of  the  Frank  and  Burgundian  colonists.  In  fact, 
the  local  names  enable  us  to  prove  that  certain  parts  of 
modern  France  are  as  thoroughly  Teutonic  in  blood  as 
any  portion  of  our  own  island. 

The  Germanization  of  France  commenced  with  settle- 

1  The  Gothic  igg  becomes  ing  in  the  Teutonic,  and  ign  in  the  Romance 
languages.     Grimm,  Gach,  Deut.  Spr,  p.  775. 

*  Not  more  than  five  hundred  words  were  introduced  into  the  French  lan- 
guage by  the  German  conquerors.  Diez,  Gram,  d,  Rom,  Spr.  vol.  i.  p.  52, 
Most  of  them  are  names  of  weapons  and  military  terms,  such  as  gonfanon^ 
massacre  from  mettger,  a  butcher,  bivouac  from  berwacht^  and  guerre^  from 
werray  war.  lb.  p.  55 ;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures,  2nd  series,  p.  263  ;  Perticari  ; 
and  Milman,  Hist,  Latin  Christianity,  vol.  vi.  p.  332.  The  other  words 
are  chiefly  the  names  of  articles  of  dress,  of  beasts  of  the  chase,  and  terms 
belonging  to  the  feudal  system.  Diez,  Gram.  p.  56;  Lewis,  Romance 
Languages,  p.  270.  To  these  must  be  added  the  points  of  the  compass, 
nord^  sudy  est,  ouest.    The  fact  that  in  these  cases  the  Teutonic  terms  should 


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Gennanization  of  France,  143 

ments  of  subsidized  colonists,  Ustiy  who  were  introduced 
by  the  Roman  rulers  to  defend  the  frontier.  According 
to  the  Notitia  there  were  Batavian  IcbH  at  Arras.  The 
Emperor  Julian  transported  thousands  of  the  Chattuarii, 
Chamavi,  and  Frisii,  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Amiens, 
Beauvais,  and  Langres.*  The  system  was  continued  at 
a  later  period.  Charlemagne  transported  into  France  a 
vast  multitude  of  Saxons — multitudinem  Saxonorum 
cum  mulieribus  et  infantibus.'  After  another  Saxon 
conquest  he  transplanted  every  third  man — tertium 
hominem — of  the  vanquished  people.*  Many  of  the 
German  names  in  France  may  be  due  to  these  forced 
emigrations,*  but  by  far  the  greater  number  are,  no 
doubt,  records  of  the  settlements  of  the  Frank  and  Bur- 
have  displaced  their  Romance  equivalents  is  a  striking  indication  of  the 
more  mobile  habits  of  the  German  tribes  as  contrasted  with  the  stationary 
life  of  the  Celto-Latin  inhabitants.  Lewis,  Romance  Lang.  p.  267.  The 
radical  meaning  of  the  word  west  is  perhaps  the  vast,  the  vastitudo,  or  great 
unknown  region  lying  before  the  conquerors  as  they  advanced  from  the  east. 
See  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ.  part  i.  p.  112;  Miiller,  Marken  des  Vaterl. 
p.  209.  The  Romance  words  introduced  into  the  Teutonic  languages 
are  chiefly  ecclesiastical,  a  fact  which,  connected  with  the  nature  of 
the  terms  conversely  introduced  into  the  Romance  languages,  suggests 
carious  speculations  as  to  the  reciprocal  influence  of  the  rude  conquerors 
and  their  more  civilized  subjects.  See  Diez,  Gram.  d.  Rom,  Spr.  vol.  i. 
p.  58L  German  was  spoken  in  France  more  or  less  for  some  400  years 
after  the  Teutonic  conquest  So  late  as  the  year  812,  a.  D.  the  Council  of 
Tours  ordained  that  every  bishop  should  be  able  to  preach  both  in  the 
Romance  and  Teutonic  languages.  Diez,  Gram,  d,  Rom,  Spr,  vol.  L  p.  48 ; 
Milman,  Hist.  Latin  Christianity,  vol.  vi.  p.  341. 

^  Probably  a  Latinization  of  the  German  word  IBeiite,  people.  The 
lathes  of  Kent  are  probably  a  vestige  of  the  Isetic  organization. 

'  Latham,  Channetlslands,  p.  343';  Nationalities  of  EuropeyWoL  ii.  p.  294. 

•  Annal.  Laureshamenses,  apud  Pertz,  Mon,  Germ,  voL  L  p.  38 ;  Wam- 
konig,  Flandrische  StcMtsgeschichte,  vol.  i.  p.  92. 

*  Annal.  Laur,  Minores^  apud  Pertz,  vol.  i.  pp.  1 19,  120. 

»  Guilmot,  quoted  by  Wamkonig,  Flandrische  Staatsgesch,  voL  i.  p.  92, 
believes  all  the  Flemish  patronymics  to  be  due  to  this  cause. 


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1 44  The  A  nglo-S axons. 

gundian  conquerors.  The  area  and  intensity  of  this 
German  colonization  may  conveniently  be  traced  by 
means  of  the  patronymic  village-names,  of  which  there 
are  more  than  iioo  in  France.^ 

About  250,  or  nearly  one-fourth,  of  these  clan-names 
are  also  to  be  found  in  England — the  proportional  num- 
ber of  identifications  being  far  smaller  than  in  the  case 
of  the  Litus  Saxonicum  in  Picardy. 

Thus  we  have  the 

Families  of  the  In  France  at  In  England  at 

^binfis . . .  j  ^^f:n,.c<^uT^L  8!;  I  ^^^^  ^a^- 

iEcings    .  .  .     Acquing,  Isle  of  France  ....     Oakington,  Camb, 

w,|.  (  AUiijny,  Burgundy |  AUington,    Dev,    Hants. 

flings I  ^yj*g^^  Burgu^y i      KM 

Antings  .  .  .     Antigny,  Burgundy ^  Poitou  (2)    Antingham,  Norf 

Arrings   .  .  .     Arrigny,  Champagne Arrington,  Camb, 

Baelings   .  .  .     Balagny,  Isle  of  France  ....     Ballingdon,  Essex. 

^^   ■  ■  •{ISlilf/r/:;?^,;;,:  :  :}  Basing,  mn^. 
Beadings.  .  .     Bettigny,  Champagne Beddingham,  Sussex. 

B^iHngs . .  ■S^^TaSZ'""'':  : : :  ^y^^^^nanu. 

Bessings  .  .  .     Bissines,  Limousin Bessinghanii  Norf. 

Billings    .  .  .     Billanges,  Limousin Billing,  Northumb, 

Bings    ....     Binges,  Burgundy. Bing,  Suff. 

Jobbings  .  -S^^^^yl^Z;.  :  :  :  :  | Bobbing,  AVn..  ' 

Bomngs  .  .  •S^X^:;'^::^::^  \  —  -jBoHington.  Es... 

Bondings.  .  .     Bontigny,  Lorraine Bondington,  Somers. 

Brantings  .  .     Brantigny,  Champagne   ....     Brantingham,  Yorks. 

The  map  will  give  an  approximate  idea  of  the 
distribution  of  these  names. 

^  See  Appendix  B. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

German  Village-N antes  in  France, 


They  cluster  most   thickly  in  the  old  province   of 
Lorraine,  where,  especially  in  the  departments  of  the 


The  towns  indicated  by  initials  are  Amiens,  Caen,  Rouen,  Paris,  Rheims^ 
Treves,  Chalons,  Troyes,  Dijon,  Strasbourg,  and  Ma9on.  The  shaded 
district  (Alsace)  is  full  of  names  of  the  pure  German  type,  few  of  which, 
however,  are  patronymic. 

Meurthe  and  the  Moselle,  almost  every  village  name 
bears  witness  to  the  extensive  colonization  effected  by 
the  Prankish  conquerors.  The  Isle  of  France,  especially 
the  department  of  the  Aisne,  the  Upper  Valley  of  the 
Lx>ire  above  Orleans,  and  the  provinces  of  Franche- 
Comt6  and  Burgundy,  present  numerous  names  of  the 
patronymic  class. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

146  The  A  nglo-Saxons. 

It  is  difficult  to  account  for  these  resemblances  on  the 
ordinary  theory  that  England  was  colonized  exclusively 
by  the  Saxons  and  Angles,  and  France  by  the  Franks 
and  Burgundians.  .A  large  number  of  Frank  adven- 
turers must  have  joined  in  the  descents  which  the 
Saxons  made  on  the  English  coast  :^  and  many  Saxons 
must  have  found  a  place  in  the  ranks  of  the  Frankish 
armies  which  conquered  North-eastern  France.  The 
chroniclers,  when  mentioning  the  earlier  invasions  and 
piratical  attacks,  attribute  them  to  Franks  and  Saxons,' 
or  to  Saxons  and  Lombards  in  conjunction.  The  tribes 
between  the  Rhine  and  the  Elbe  —  Franks,  Saxons, 
Angles,  Sueves,  Lombards,  and  Burgundians — were 
probably  united  by  a  much  closer  connexion — ethno- 
logical, geographical,  and  political — than  historians  have 
hitherto  been  willing  to  admit.  At  all  events,  the  speech 
of  all  these  invading  tribes  must  have  been  mutually 
intelligible.^  Indeed,  there  seems  to  be  strong  reason 
for  believing  that  the  names  of  Frank,  Saxon,  or  Lom- 
bard are  not  true  ethnic  names,  but  that  they  were  only 
the  designations  of  temporary  confederations  for  military 
purposes,*  an  hypothesis  which  would  be  almost  reduced 
to  a  demonstration  if  we  could  succeed  in  establishing 

1  Dr.  Latham  thinks  that  Kent  was  largely  colonized  by  Franks.  English 
Language^  vol.  i  p.  1 78.  Ammianus  Marcellinus  places  Alemanni  in  Britain. 
Lappenberg  believes  that  the  Saxons  were  accompanied  by  lai^ge  numbers 
of  Franks,  Frisians,  and  Lombards.  The  Welshman  Llywarc  Hen  uses 
Frank  as  an  equivalent  for  Saxon. 

'  Eutropius,  Julian,  and  Ammianus  Marcellinus  associate  the  Franks  and 
Saxons  in  this  manner. 

•  Diez,  Gram,  d.  Rom,  Spr.  vol.  i.  p,  46  ;  Marsh,  History  of  Eng,  Lang. 
p.  55  ;  Poste,  British  Researches^  p.  74 ;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnog, 
p.  61. 

*  See  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen,  pp.  326,  380—384;  Sheppard,  Fall  0/ Rome, 
p.  130. 


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Saxon  and  Lombard  Names  in  Italy.  147 

that  plausible  etymology  of  these  names  which  makes 
them  descriptive  terms  relating  to  the  equipment  of  the 
invading  hosts — ^whether  armed  with  javelin  (franca), 
sword  (seax)y  or  partisan  (lang-barta)}  This  hypothesis, 
which  I  was  first  inclined  to  reject  somewhat  cavalierly, 
has  commended  itself  more  and  more  to  my  judgment 
during  the  progress  of  a  laborious  comparison  of  the 
village  names  of  France,  Germany,  Italy,  and  England. 
Little  need  be  said  about  the  German  names  in 
Northern  Italy.  Paulus  Diaconus  and  Gregory  of 
Tours  assert  that  the  conquest  was  effected  by  Saxons 
and  Lombards.  We  find  the  names  of  the  early  Lom- 
bard kings  are  of  a  pure  Anglo-Saxon  type.  Thus 
Audouin  and  Alboin  are,  no  doubt,  the  same  names  as 
Edwin  and  Elfwine.*  My  friend,  Mr.  G.  P.  Marsh,  the 
United  States  Minister  at  Turin,  has  kindly  pointed  out 
to  me  several  clusters  of  Saxon  patronymics  in  Northern 
Italy.  One  of  these  is  to  be  found  on  the  Southern  side 
of  the  Po,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Dora  Baltea,  where 
we  have  the  villages  of  VARENGO,  ODALENGO,  TON- 
ENGO,  GONENGO,  and  SCALENGHE.  Near  Biella  there 
is  another  cluster  of  these  names — VALDENGO,  AR- 
BENGO,  BOLENGO,  and  TERNENGO.  Near  Milan  we  find 
MARENGO  and  MORENGO  ;  and  near  Brescia — BOVENGO 
and  PISOGNE.^  In  the  villages  of  RONCEGNO  and 
TORCEGNO,  in  the  Valle  Sugana,  German  is  still 

'  See  p.  82,  supra. 

'  Latham,  Nationalities  of  Europey  vol.  ii.  p.  246. 

'  Compare  the  English  village-names  of  Warrington,  Athelney  (p.  140), 
Donnington,  Connington,  Skillington,  Waldingfield,  Erpingham,  Boling- 
broke,  Thaming,  Marrington,  Bovington,  Bessingham,  Rockingham,  and 

*  Latham,  Nationalities  0/  Europe,  vol.  ii.  p.  283;  Schmdler,  Ueber  die 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

148  The  A  nglo'Saxons, 

I  have  not  succeeded  in  discovering  any  undoubtedly 
Teutonic  names  in  Spain,  with  the  notable  exception 
of  BURGOS.^  Such,  however,  doubtless  exist  within 
the  confines  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Swabian  conquerors, 
which  comprised  Galicia,  the  Asturias,  and  part  of 

It  has  been  generally  assumed  that  the  original  home 
of  the  Saxons  is  to  be  sought  in  the  modern  kingdom 
of  Hanover,  between  the  mouths  of  the  Elbe  and  the 
Weser.  I  have  made  a  careful  search  in  this  region  for 
names  identical  or  analogous  with  those  which  are  found 
in  Saxon  England.  In  Westphalia  a  small  group  of 
patronymics  was  discovered.^  But  on  the  whole  the 
investigation  was  remarkably  barren  of  results;  the 
names,  for  the  most  part,  proving  to  be  of  an  alto- 
gether dissimilar  type.*  The  search  was  continued  over 
Mecklenburg,  Holstein,^  Friesland,  and  the  greater  part 
of  Germany.  A  few  sporadic  names  were  found,  but 
always  surrounded  and  outnumbered  by  names  possess- 
ing no  distinctive  Anglo-Saxon  character.  There  is, 
however,  in  a  most  unlikely  comer  of  the  Continent,  a 

sogenannten  Cimbem^  p.  561.  The  Lombard  German  was  commonly 
spoken  in  NorUiem  Italy,  till  the  year  800  A.  D.  Diez,  Gram,  d,  Rom.  Spr, 
voL  i.  p.  48. 

1  And,  possibly,  CoUnnga  and  Meville,  both  within  the  limits  of  the 
Swabian  kingdom. 

'  See  Grimm,  Gesch,  d,  Detit  Spr.  p.  501  ;  Keferstein,  Anskhteny  vol.  ii. 
p.  313:  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen^  p.  456. 

'  See  Appendix  B. 

*  Names  in  wick  and  wich^  so  common  in  England,  are  foand  on  the 
Continent  only  in  the  Netherlands,  Friesland,  and  old  Saxony.  Lappen- 
beig,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings^  voL  i.  p.  86.  The  horsts  which  abound  in  Kent 
and  Sussex,  are  found  also  on  the  Weser  in  Westphalia. 

*  Some  curious  coincidences  between  the  local  names  in  Kent  and  in 
Jutland  have  been  pointed  out  by  Maack,  in  the  Gtrmania,  vol  iv.  pp, 


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Franconia  and  Swabia,  149 

well-defined  district,  rather  larger  than  Devonshire,  where 
the  names,  though  slightly  disguised  in  form,  are  as 
characteristically  Saxon  as  those  found  in  the  Boulogne 
Colony.  This  district  is  confined  chiefly  to  the  Valley 
of  the  Neckar,  but  just  crosses  the  watershed  between 
the  Neckar  and  the  Danube.  It  occupies  the  Northern 
half  of  the  modern  kingdom  of  Wiirtemberg,  and  in- 
cludes a  small  portion  of  Bavaria  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Donauwerth.  It  also  stretches  into  the  State  of 
Baden,  between  Heidelberg  and  Bruchsal.  It  does  not 
extend  to  the  left  bank  of  the  Rhine,  or  to  the  right 
bank  of  the  Lower  Neckar.  In  Wiirtemberg,  however, 
it  occupies  both  banks  of  the  Neckar.  The  railway  from 
Bruchsal  to  Ulm,  with  its  serpentine  windings  and  fear- 
ful gradients,  carries  the  tourist  through  the  centre  of  this 
district — ^which  has  attractions  for  the  artist  and  the 
angler,  as  well  as  for  the  ethnologist^ 

This  district  comprehends  the  Southern  portion  of 
what  was  known  in  mediaeval  times  as  FRANKEN,  or 
Franconia,  and  the  northern  part  of  swabia,  or  Schwa- 
benland.^  Etymologically  and  historically,  Franconia 
is  the  land  of  the  Franks,  and  Schwabenland  is  the 
land  of  the  Suevi,  just  as  England  is  the  land  of  the 
Angles.   Tacitus  locates  the  Suevi  near  the  Angles ;  and 

'  There  are  many  points  of  analogy  between  this  part  of  Germany  and 
England.  It  is  the  hop  garden  and  brewery  of  the  Continent.  It  was  in 
the  midst  of  this  district  that  I  met  with  the  only  case  of  downright  English 
beery  drunkenness  that  it  has  been  my  lot  to  encounter  during  many  rambles 
on  the  Continent  The  people  are  the  only  Protestants  in  South  Germany, 
and  they  are  distinguished  by  the  English  love  of  field  sports.  It  may  be 
carious  to  note  that  the  battles  of  Blenheim  and  Dettingen  were  fought  on 
the  borders  of  this  Saxon  district,  and  that  of  Agincourt  on  the  borders  of 
the  Boulogne  colony. 

•  On  the  close  connexion  of  the  Franks  and  Suevi,  see  Zeuss,  Die 
Deutschen,  pp.  328,  338. 


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1 50  The  A  nglO'Saxons. 

Ptolemy  even  speaks  of  the  Suevi  as  one  division  of  the 

The  ancient  charters  of  this  district,  extending  from 
the  eighth  to  the  twelfth  centuries,  have  been  admirably- 
edited,  and  published  by  the  Government  of  Wlirtem- 
berg.^  The  local  names  which  occur  in  these  charters 
are,  to  a  surprising  extent,  identical  with  those  in  the 
Anglo-Saxon  charters,  published  by  the  English  His- 
torical Society.*  Twenty-four  very  remarkable  corre- 
spondences are  given  by  Professor  Leo,*  and  it  would  be 
easy  largely  to  increase  the  list. 

But  confining  ourselves  to  the  names  which  have 
survived  to  modern  times,  I  find  in  the  maps  of  the 
admirable  government  survey  of  Wiirtemberg  no  less 
than  344  patronymics,  of  which  266,  or  80  per  cent, 
occur  also  in  England  ;  ^  and  the  number  of  identifica- 
tions might,  doubtless,  be  largely  increased  by  a  more 
careful  comparison.  The  evidence  is  overwhelming.  It 
proves  that  the  villages  of  Wiirtemberg  and  the  villages 
of  England  were  originally  settled  by  men  bearing  the 
same  family  names.     One  or  two  instances  of  these  cor- 

Tvv  * Ayyt t\uif.    See  Zenss,  Die  Deutschen^  p.  153.     It  is  a  very  significaiLt 
fact  that  in  mediaeval  times  the  district  south  of  Heidelberg  was  called  the 


•  Wirtembergisches  Urkundenbuch^  herausgfgeben  von  dem  Koniglickm 
Staatsarchrv  in  Stuttgart,  Edid.  Kausler ;  two  vols.  4ta  1849  and  1858. 
A  large  number  of  ancient  Swabian  names  are  also  to  be  found  in  the 
Codix  lAiureshanunsis^  in  Diimges,  Regesta  Badensiay  and  in  Trehere, 
Origines  Palatini,  See  also  Forstemann,  Alt-deutsches  Nanienbuck^  vol. 
ii.  passim, 

•  Codex  Dip^omaticus  ^vi  Saxoniciy  opera  Joh.  M.  Kemble ;  five 
vols.  8vo. 

•  Anglo-Saxon  Names^  pp.  116 — 119. 

^  The  proportion  is  the  same  as  in  the  Boulogne  colony. 


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Patronymic  Village-Names  in  Wiirtemberg,      151 

respondences  may  here  be  given,  and  others  will  be 
found  in  the  appendix.^  Thus  the  iEslingas  are  men- 
tioned in  a  Kentish  charter,  ^  we  have  Eslingaforda  in 
the  Exon  Domesday,  and  ISLINGTON  in  Norfolk  and 
Middlesex-  In  Artois  we  find  ISLINGHEM  and  ESLING- 
HEN ;  and  in  Wiirtemburg  there  are  several  villages 
the  Besingas,  who  are  mentioned  in  an  Anglo-Saxon 
charter,  appear  at  BESSINGHAM  in  Norfolk,  at  BEZING- 
HAM  in  Artois,  and  at  BISSINGEN  in  Wiirtemberg.  The 
Birlingas  appear  in  a  Worcestershire  charter,  we  have 
BIRLING  in  Kent,  BIRLINGHAM  in  Worcestershire,  BAR- 
in  Wiirtemberg — a  place  which  has  been  identified, 
with  the  Birlingen  of  an  ancient  charter.  So  we  have 
BOOKING  in  Essex,  BOUQUINGHEM  in  Artois,  and 
BOCHINGEN  in  Wurtemberg. 

»  It  will  be  observed  that  these  Swabian  names  ter- 
minate almost  universally  in  ing-en.  The  suffix  en  is 
usually  the  sign  of  the  dative  plural.  Thus  Birlingeh 
would  mean  "  At  the  Birlings,"  that  is,  **  at  the  place 
where  the  family  of  Birl  lives."  '  It  should,  however, 
be  noted  that  a  name  like  Birlingen  may  be  a  corrup- 
tion of  the  BerlingA^,  which  we  find  in  Artois.*    The 

'  Appendix  B. 

*  Cod.  DipL  no.  in. 

'  So  Bad//f  is  a  dative  plural  answering  to  Thermis  or  Aquis.  HolsteiVi, 
Swed/^f ,  Hess^,  and  Preuss^»  are  also  dative  plurals.  Pott,  Personen-Nameriy 
p.  169 ;  Forstemann,  Alt-Deutsches  Namenbuch^  vol.  iL  p.  835  ;  Ortsnatnm, 
PP*  194*  195;  Grimm,  Deut,  Gram,  voL  iL  p.  349 ;  Meyer,  Ortsnamen  des 
Kantons  Zurich^  p.  139 ;  Bender,  Deutschm  Ortsnamen,  p.  103  ;  ,Vilmar, 
Ortsnamen^  pp.  264,  265  ;  and  p.  69,  supra, 

*  That  the  Suevi  were  associated  with  the  Saxons  in  the  formation  of 
the  Flemish  settlement  is  proved  by  the  names  of  some  fifteen  villages  in 


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I S2  The  Anglo-Saxons, 

hen  in  this  case  is,  undoubtedly,  a  corruption  of  hem, 
for  we  find  that,  close  to  the  coast,  the  village-names 
end  in  hem^  a  suffix  which  passes  into  hen  as  we  ap- 
proach the  Belgian  frontier.  The  hem  of  Artois  is 
undoubtedly  only  a  phonetic  modification  of  the  Eng- 
lish hUm;  and  it  is,  therefore,  a  question  whether  the 
'ing-en  of  Wiirtembeig  is  not  the  same  as  the  -ing- 
ham  of  England,  since  we  can  trace  it  through  the 
intermediate  stages  of  inghen  and  inghem} 

What  interpretation  shall  we  put  upon  these  facts  ? 
Shall  we  conclude  that  the  cradle  of  the  Saxon  race  is 
to  be  sought  in  the  Valley  of  the  Neckar,  or  were 
Swabia  and  England  both  colonies  from  a  common 
motherland  ?  In  the  case  of  a  fluviatile  migration  the 
descent  of  the  river  would  be  far  more  easy,  and  there- 
fore far  more  probable,  than  the  ascent  against  a  rapid 
current  like  that  of  the  Rhine.*   But  this  argument  is  of 

Flanders  which  contain  their  name,  e,g,  Suevezele,  Sueveghem,  &c. 
Wamkonig,  Flandrischf  Staatsgeschichie,  vol.  i.  p.  91. 

1  In  Switzerland  heim  often  becomes  en,  e.g.  Altheim  is  now  Alten, 
Dachsheim  is  now  Dachsen,  Sickingen  was  anciently  Sickingheim.  Pott, 
Personennamen,  p.  169 ;  Meyer,  Ortsnamefiy  p.  125.  In  Hesse  we  find 
Sielen,  anciently  Siliheim,  and  Heskem,  anciently  Heistincheim.  Vilmar, 
Ortsnamen,  p.  271 ;  Foistemann,  Ortsnamen,  pp.  98,  231.  Some  of  the 
names,  instead  of  the  suffix  ing-en,  terminate  in  ig-heim.  This  is  clearly 
the  Anglo-Saxon  ham,  a  home,  while  h&m,  an  inclosure,  would  be  repre- 
sented by  en.  The  distinction  which  has  been  lost  in  England  has  been 
preserved  in  Swabia.  Since  heim  is  a  long  syllable,  the  penultimate  is 
shortened  for  phonetic  reasons  by  the  omission  of  a  letter,  and  ingheim 
becomes  igheim,  or  enheim,  as  in  the  cases  of  Bonigheim,  Besigheim, 
Bietigheun,  Billigheim  and  Dackenheim. 

•  Along  the  whole  course  of  the  Rhine,  from  the  Neckar  to  the  sea,  a 
distance  of  more  than  250  miles,  we  find  scattered,  here  and  there,  isolated 
names  undoubtedly  akin  to  those  which  we  have  been  considering.  There 
is  no  cluster  of  them  to  be  discovered  anywhere,  nothing  but  single  names, 
such  as  Bingen,  Wellingen,  Rellinghaus,  and  Eppinghofen,  which  seem  to 
have  been  waifs  by  the  roadside,  dropped  by  the  passing  host  of  pilgrims. 


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Original  seat  of  the  Saxons.  153 

small  force,  when  weighed  against  the  concurrence  of 
ancient  tradition,  which  places  the  Saxons  on  the  coast 
of  the  German  ocean.  Ptolemy  speaks  of  the  "  islands 
of  the  Saxons ; "  and  the  geographer  of  Ravenna  says, 
"confinalis  Daniae  est  patria  quae  nominatur  Saxonia." 
Orosius  speaks  of  the  Saxons,  "gentem  Oceani  in 
litoribus  et  paludibus  inviis  sitam."  ^ 

These  and  other  early  notices  render  it  difficult  to 
avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  **  old  Saxons  "  were  seated 
somewhere  between  the  mouths  of  the  Elbe  and  of  the 
Rhine,  in  juxtaposition  with  the  Suevi,  the  Franks,  the 
Lombards,  and  the  Angles.  As  we  have  already  seen,  it 
was  here  that,  for  thirty-two  years,  they  withstood  the 
power  of  Charlemagne,  who  avenged  their  obstinate 
resistance  by  the  massacre  of  thousands  of  their  warriors 
in  cold  blood,  and  dispersed  a  third  of  the  nation  into 
distant  provinces.*  This  extermination  of  the  Saxons 
on  the  Weser,  coupled  with  the  subsequent  influx  of  a 
Sclavonic  population,  as  evinced  by  the  local  names,  may 
serve  to  account  for  the  absence  of  characteristic  Saxon 
names  in  that  region,  while  the  Swabians  and  Angles  of 
Wurtemberg  may  possibly  have  formed  one  of  the  trans- 
ported colonies  of  Charlemagne  ;  if,  indeed,  the  Swabian 

*  On  the  original  seat  of  the  old  Saxons  see  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon 
Kings^  vol.  L  p.  87 ;  Zeuss,  Die  Dmtschen,  pp.  380—394.  The  modem 
kingdom  of  Saxony  was  Sclavonic  to  a  late  date,  as  is  shown  by  the  local 
names.  It  is  out  of  the  question  to  locate  the  "old  Saxons"  in  this 

'  Eginhard,  in  his  life  of  Charlemagne,  sec.  vii.  and  again  in  his  Annals, 
A.D.  804,  says  that  Charlemagne  transplanted  10,000  men  of  the  Saxons, 
with  their  wives  and  children,  into  Germany  and  Gaul.  AU  these  were 
from  the  Duchy  of  Bremen.  The  names  of  Sachsenhausen,  near  Frankfort, 
and  Katzellenbogen  in  the  gorge  of  the  Rhine,  may  be  records  of  some  of 
these  settlements.  See  p.  143,  supra ;  Pertz,  Mon,  Ger.  vol  ii.  p.  447  ; 
vol  i.  p.  191 :  Palgrave,  English  Commomvealth^  vol.  I  p.  40. 


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154  l^f^  -^  nglo'  Saxons, 

colony  was  not  a  settlement  brought  about  at  the  same 
time  and  by  the  same  causes  that  produced  the  descents 
upon  the  English  coast.^ 

1  Both  Zeuss  and  Latham  think  that  the  Suevi  left  the  shores  of  the 
Weser  for  those  of  the  Danube  and  the  Neckar  m  the  third  century.  The 
Saxons  moved  southwards  in  the  sixth  century.  See  Zeuss,  Die  DaUschen^ 
p.  316 ;  Turner,  Anglo-Saxom^  vol.  i.  p.  208. 


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The  Northmen,  155 



Incursions  of  the  Northmm-^ Norse  Ust^words;  ''by,''  '* thorpe,''  ''toft,'' 
"vaU,""  '* garth,"  "ford;'  "wick" --Vestiges  of  the  Danes  near  the 
Thames — Essex,  Suffolk,  Norfolk,  and  Lincolnshire — The  Danelagh — 
Norwegians  in  Sutherland,  the  Orkneys,  Shetlands,  Hebrides,  and  Isle  of 
Man — Cumberland  and  Westmoreland — TTu  JViredl — Colony  in  Pern- 
brokeshire — Devonshire  and  the  South  Coast — Northmen  in  Ireland — 
— Intensity  of  the  Scandinavian  element  in  different  parts  of  England — 
Northmen  in  France  —  Names  in  Normandy —  Norse  Names  in  Spain, 
Sicily,  and  the  Hellespont — Local  vestiges  of  the  Anglo-Norman  conquest 
— Anglo-Norman  nobles  in  Scotland, 

For  three  centuries  the  Northmen  were  the  terror  of 
Western  Europe.  They  sailed  up  the  Elbe,  the  Scheldt, 
the  Rhine,  the  Moselle,  and  the  Neckar.^  They  ravaged 
the  valleys  of  the  Somme,  the  Seine,  the  Marne,  the 
Yonne,  the  Loire,  and  the  Garonne.  They  besieged 
Paris,  Amiens,  Orleans,  Tours,  Troyes,  Chalons,  Poic- 
tiers,  Bordeaux,  and  Toulouse.*  They  plundered  the 
coasts  of  Italy,  and  encountered  the  Arabs  at  Seville 
and  Barcelona.^  Over  the  entrance  to  the  arsenal  at 
Venice  may  still  be  seen  one  of  the   sculptured  lions 

*  Strinnholm,  IVikingsiige,  p.  8l. 

•  lb.  pp.  34,  35,  98,  144 ;  Crichton,  Scandinavia,  vol.  i.  p.  165. 

'  Gayangos,  Moham,  Dynasties,  vol.  ii.  pp.  116,  431,  435 ;  Strinnholm, 
IVikingsiige,  p.  36;  Depping,  Expeditions,  vol  i.  pp.  no,  134. 


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1 56  TJte  Northmen. 

which  once  adorned  the  Piraeus  at  Athens.  The  marble 
is  deeply  scored  with  Norse  runes,  which,  by  the  aid  of 
photography,  have  been  deciphered  by  Professor  Rafn  of 
Copenhagen,  and  which  prove  to  be  a  record  of  the 
capture  of  the  Piraeus  by  Harold  Hardrdda,  the  Norwe- 
gian king  who  fell  at  Stamford  Bridge.^  The  Northmen 
established  themselves  as  conquerors  or  colonists  over 
the  half  of  England,  in  the  isles  and  western  coasts  of 
Scotland,  in  Greenland,  in  Iceland,  in  the  Isle  of  Man, 
and  in  the  north  of  France — they  founded  kingdoms  in 
Naples,  Sicily,  France,  England,  and  Ireland — ^while  a 
Norse  dynasty  ruled  Russia  for  seven  hundred  years,* 
and  for  centuries  the  Varangian  guard  upheld  the 
tottering  throne  of  the  Byzantine  emperors. 

The  historic  annals  of  these  <<)nquests  are  scanty  and 
obscure.  But  the  Norse  names  which  are  still  found 
scattered  over  the  north-west  of  Europe  supply  a  means 
of  ascertaining  many  facts  which  history  has  left  un- 
recorded. By  the  aid  of  the  names  on  our  modem 
maps  we  are  able  to  define  the  precise  area  which  was 
ravaged  by  the  Scandinavians, .  and  we  can,  in  many 
instances,  detect  the  nature  of  the  descent,  whether  for 
purposes  of  plunder,  trade,  or  colonization.  Sometimes, 
indeed,  we  can  even  recover  the  very  names  of  the 
Viking  chiefs  and  of  their  followers,  and  ascertain  from 
whence  they  sailed,  whether  from  the  low-lying  coasts  of 
Denmark,  or  from  the  rock-bound  fjords  of  Norway. 

Before  we  proceed  to  attempt  the  solution  of  any  of 

1  Laing,  Hdmskringla,  vol.  iii.  pp.  3,  4 ;  Dasent,  Burnt  Njal,  vol.  i.  p. 
10 ;  vol.  iL  p.  499 ;  St.  John,  Four  Conquests^  voL  ii.  p.  248. 

'  Of  the  fifty  Russian  ambassadors  to  Constantinople  in  the  year  945, 
as  many  as  forty-seven  bear  Norse  names,  such  as  Rulov  (Rolf),  Phrelaf 
(Frideleif),  Grim,  Karl,  Ulf,  Asbrand,  and  Sven.  Strinnholm,  Wikingtuge, 
p.  296. 


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A  rea  of  Norse  Invasion,  157 

these  curious  problems,  it  will  be  necessary  to  exhibit 
the  tools  with  which  the  historical  lock  is  to  be  picked. 
We  must  analyse  and  classify  the  characteristic  names 
which  the  Northmen  have  left  upon  the  map. 

The  most  valuable  and  important  of  these  test-words 
is  byr  or  by.  This  word  originally  meant  a  dwelling,  or 
a  single  farm,  and  hence  it  afterwards  came  to  denote  a 
village.!  In  Iceland,  at  the  present  day,  the  ordinary 
name  given  to  a  farmstead  is  boer,^  and  in  Scotland  a 
cow-stall  is  still  called  a  byre.  We  find  this  word  as  a 
suffix  in  the  village-names  of  Denmark,  and  of  all 
countries  colonized  ^  by  the  Danes.  In  Normandy  we 
find  it  in  the  form  bue  or  boei4f^  and  in  England  it  is 
usually  contracted  into  by.^  In  the  Danish  district  of 
England — between  Watling  Street  and  the  River  Tees — 
the  suffix  by  frequently  takes  the  place  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  -ham  or  -ton.  In  this  region  there  are  numerous 
names  like  GRIMSBY,*  WHITBY,  DERBYj^*  RUGBY,   KIRBY, 

^  A  by-law  is  the  local  law  enacted  by  the  township.  Compare  the 
Burlaw,  or  Birlaw,  of  Scotland.  Palgrave,  English  Commonwealth,  vol.  i. 
p.  So.  On  the  suffix  iy,  see  Donaldson,  English  Ethnog,  p.  54 ;  Worsaae, 
Danes  and  Norwegians,  pp.  67,  159;  Latham,  English  Language,  voL  i. 
p.  431  ;  Ansted  and  Latham,  Channel  Islands,  p.  333 ;  Fergxison,  North- 
men, p.  42. 

*  Peaks  and  Passes,  Second  Series,  vol.  i.  p.  47. 

'  It  denotes  Danish  colonization.  In  places  visited  only  for  purposes  of 
trade  or  plunder  no  dwellings  would  be  required. 

*  The  Devonshire  suffix  here  or  hear  comes  still  nearer  to  the  Icelandic 
form.  See  p.  179,  infra.  The  Normand  boeuf%^cca&  to  be  represented  in 
the  English  booth,  and  the  Scotch  bothie,  Le  Prevost,  Recfurches,  p.  40 ; 
Feiguson,  Northmen,  p.  46. 

*  At  the  port  of  Elsinore,  previous  to  the  recent  abolition  of  the  Sound 
dues,  the  vessels  of  Grimsby  could  claim  certain  privileges  and  exemptions 
conferred  by  the  Danish  founder  of  the  town.  Palgrave,  Eng.  Common- 
wealth,  vol.  i.  p.  50 ;  Normandy  and  England,  vol.  iii.  p.  349. 

*  In  a  few  cases  we  have  documentary  evidence  of  a  change  of  name 
consequent  upon  the  Danish  conquest      Thus  we  know  that  the  Norse 


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I $8  The  Nortkmm, 

NETHERBY,  SELBY,  Of  ASHBY.  In  Lincolnshire  alone 
there  are  one  hundred  names  ending  in  by.  To  the  north 
of  Watling  Street  there  are  some  six  hundred  instances 
of  its  occurrence — to  the  south  of  it,  scarcely  one.  There 
are  scores  and  scores  of  names  ending  in  by  in  Jutland 
and  Sleswic,  and  not  half-a-dozen  throughout  the  whole 
of  Germany.^  The  suffix  is  common  both  to  the  Nor- 
wegian and  Danish  districts  of  England,  though  it  is 
more  frequent  in  the  latter. 

Another  useful  test-word  is  thorpe,  tkrop,  or  trap,- 
which  we  find  in  ALTHORPE,  COPMANSTHORPE,  and 
wlLSTROP,  near  York.  It  pieans  an  aggregation  of  men 
or  houses — a  village.  This  suffix  is  very  useful  in 
enabling  us  to  discriminate  between  the  settlements  of 
the  Danes  and  those  of  the  Norwegians,  being  confined 
almost  exclusively  to  the  former.  It  is  very  common  in 
Denmark  and  East  Anglia,  it  is  very  rare  in  Norway,  it 
does  not  occur  in  Lancashire,  only  once  in  Cumber- 
land, and  very  seldom  in  Westmoreland. 

The  word  toft^  which  in  Normandy  takes  the  form  toty 
is  also  distinctly  Danish  and  East  Anglian.  It  is  very 
scarce  in  Norway  and  Westmoreland,  and  is  unknown  in 

name  of  Deoraby  or  derby  took  the  place  of  the  former  Saxon  name  of 
Northweorthig,  or  Norworth  as  it  would  now  be  written.  So  the  Saxon 
Streoneshalch  became  the  Norse  whitby. 

1  Even  these  are  chiefly  foimd  on  the  Eyder  and  north  of  the  Elbe — a 
Danish  district. 

'  It  corresponds  to  the  German  darf,  a  village,  seen  in  the  names 
ALTORF,  DUSSELDORF,  &c  Cf.  Amold,  Hist.  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  526.  In 
Westphalia  and  Miinster  the  form  trup  or  drup  is  very  common,   as 

HOLTRUP,    ALDRUP,    SANDRUP,     BARNSTRUP,    WESTRUP.        Massman,     in 

Dorow's  DenkmaleTf  vol.  i.  pp.  187 — 192.  The  etymological  affinities  of 
thorp€  are  discussed  by  Diefenbach,  Verglekhendes  IVorUrbuch,  vol.  ii. 
p.  698 ;  Leo,  A,'S.  Names,  pp.  43—50 ;  Forstemann,  Namenbuch,  voL  ii, 
p.  1391. 


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The  Suffixes  "  by  I'  "  thorpel'  and  "  tofC  1 59 

Cumberland.  It  signifies  a  homestead  or  inclosure,  and, 
like  by  and  thorpe,  it  is  an  indication  of  permanent 

Thwaite,  on  the  other  hand,  is  the  distinctive  Norwe- 
gian suffix.  The  meaning  is  nearly  the  same  as  the 
Saxon  field,  a  forest  clearing.  It  is  very  common  in 
Norway,  it  occurs  forty-three  times  in  Cumberland,  and 
not  once  in  Lincolnshire,  while  tkorpe,  the  chief  Danish 
test-word,  which  occurs  sixty-three  times  in  Lincolnshire, 
is  found  only  once  in  Cumberland. 

In  Normandy  the  greater  proportion  of  Norse  names 

end  in  vilUy  as  TANCARVILLE  or  HACONVILLE.     This 

has  always,  I  believe,  been  referred  to  the  Romance 

word  vilkiy  but  a  careful  study  of  the  regions  in  which  it 

occurs  has  convinced  me  that  it  must  be  the  Teutonic 

wHler,^  an  abode,  a  single  house,  which  is  so  common  in 

e  Rhinegau  and  in  many  parts  of  Germany.*    Toward 

e  edge  of  the  Norman  occupancy  it  takes  the  form 

Uiers,^  as  in  the  name  HARDIVILLIERS.    In  England  it 

found  in  the  form  well  or  will,  as  at  KETTLEWELL, 


The  Norse  garth,  an.  inclosure,  which  corresponds  to 
\  Anglo-Saxon  yard,  has  already  been  discussed.* 
The  work  beck,  *  a  brook,  is  more  frequent  in  the  Nor- 

Old  High  German  Ttnlari  or  wUre,  New  High  German  weiler, 
temann,  AU-deutsches  Namenbuch,  voL  ii.  pp.  1527 — 1533 ;  Bender, 
namen,  p.  131. 

(n  Canton  Zurich  it  occurs  more  than  seventy  times,  as  in  breitwil. 
jr,  Ortsnamen  des  Kantons  Zurich,  p.  75. 

This  form  alone  may  suffice  to  show  how  inadequate  the  Romance  villa 
a  source  of  these  names. 

See  p.  121,  supra,     micklegarth  or  "Greatgarth"  was  the  Norse 
e  of  Constantinople. 
'  In  Mercia  we  find  the  form  batch,  as  in  Woodbatch,  Comberbatch,  and 


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1 60  The  Northmen, 

wegian  than  in  the  Danish  region,  and  this  also  is  the 
case  with  the  suffixes  -haughy  -withy  -taruy  and  -dale} 
The  word  force,  which  is  the  ordinary  name  for  a  water- 
fall in  the  lake  district,  is  exclusively  Norwegian,  and 
corresponds  to  the  Icelandic  and  Norwegian  foss?  The 
vjoxAfell  is  also  derived  from  Norway,  where  it  takes  the 
iormffeld  (pronounced  fi-ell).  It  is  the  usual  name  for 
a  hill  in  the  north-west  of  England.^ 

We  now  come  to  the  words  which  do  not  necessarily 
imply  any  permanent  colonization  by  the  Northmen. 
The  suffix  ford  occurs  both  in -Anglo-Saxon  and  in 
Norse  names,  but  with  characteristic  difference  of  mean- 
ing. In  either  csiseford  is  a  derivative  oifaran  or  fara, 
to  go.*  The  fords  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  husbandmen, 
which  are  scattered  so  abundantly  over  the  south  of 
England,  are  passages  across  rivers  for  men  or  cattle; 
the  fords  of  the  Scandinavian  sea-rovers  are  passages  for 
ships  ^  up  arms  of  the  sea,  as  in  the  case  of  the  fjords  of 

1  The  Anglo-Saxon  form  is  dtll,  as  in  arundel.  The  Norse  form  dak 
is  seen  m  kendal,  annandale,  and  lonsdale.  The  German  equivalent 
is  thai.  When  dai  is  a  prefix  it  is  usually  a  cormption  of  the  Celtic  dai^  a 
field,  as  in  the  cases  of  Dalkeith  and  dalrymple. 

>  E.g,  the  waterfall  of  skogarfoss  in  Iceland. 

»  The  Anglo-Saxony?^/:/ or  yS/(/ is  from  the  same  root  as  the  tfone/r//. 
Kfdl  is  a  place  where  the  ground  is  on  the  fall ;  9.  fiefd  or/eld  is  where  the 
trees  have  been  felled.  In  old  writers  wood  and  feld  are  continually  con- 
trasted. Just  like  the  American  term  "  a  clearing,"  the  word  Juid  bore 
witness  to  the  great  extent  of  unfelled  timber  which  still  remained.  With 
the  progress  of  cultivation  the  word  has  lost  its  primitive  force.  The  word 
fold  is  from  the  same  source.  See  p.  I2i,  supra  ;  Trench,  Study  of  Words, 
p.  200;  ^^ZTsx^xi^y  Berichtigungefiy  p.  17. 

*  A  cabman's  or  waterman's y2rr.f  is  the  person  who  goes  with  him.  Far^- 
well  is  an  imperative— journey  well.  The  field -y&r^  is  so  called  from  its 
characteristic  habit  of  moving  across  the  fields.  See  Diefenbach,  Vergi. 
Wort.  vol.  i.  pp.  364 — 366 ;  Sparschuh,  Berichtigtmgefu,  p.  65. 

A  While  many  of  our  agricultural  terms,  as  basket,  crook,  kiln,  fleam, 
barrow,  ashlar,  gavelock,  rasher,  and  mattock,  are  of  Celtic  origin,  seafarmg 


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''Ford''  and'' wickr  i6i 

Norway  and  Iceland,^  and  the  firths  of  Scotland.  These 
Norse  fords  are  found  on  the  coasts  which  were  fre- 
quented for  purposes  of  trade  or  plunder.  We  have 
instances  in  WEXFORD,  CARLINGFORD,  WATERFORD,  and 
STRANGFORD  in  Ireland,  in  MILFORD  and  HAVERFORD 
in  Wales,  in  ORFORD  and  CHILLSFORD  in  Suffolk,  and 
perhaps  in  SEAFORD  2  in  Sussex,  and  DEPTFORD,  the 
•*  deep  reach  "  on  the  Thames. 

Wick  is  also  found  in  both  Anglo-Saxon  and  Norse 
names,  but  here  also  there  is  a  difference  in  the  ap- 
plication, analogous  to  that  which  we  have  just  con- 
sidered. The  primary  meaning  in  either  case  seems  to 
have  been  a  station.'  With  the  Anglo-Saxons  it  was  a 
station  or  abode  on  land — hence  a  house  or  a  village : 
with  the  Northmen  it  was  a  station  for  ships* — hence 
a  small  creek  or  bay.  The  sea-rovers  derived  their  name 
of  vik-ingSy^  or  "  creekers,"  from  the  wics  or  creeks  in 
which  they  anchored.  The  inland  wicks,  therefore,  are 
mostly  Saxon,  while  the  Norse  wicks  fringe  our  coasts,® 

words,  such  as  cockswain,  boatswain,  and  skipper,  are  mostly  Norse. 
Gamett,  Essay Sy  p.  31.     Cf.  Diez,  Gram,  d,  Rom.  Spr.  vol.  i.  p.  56. 

*  E.g.  FAXA  FIORD,  HAFNAFIORD,  and  HVALFIORD  in  Iceland. 

*  Still  pronounced  Seafoord. 

'  See  Marsh,  Lectures  on  the  Origin  and  Hist,  of  the  English  Language^ 
p.  132.  The  root  runs  through  all  the  Aryan  languages.  We  have  the 
Sanskrit  vi^a^  the  Zend  vtfy  the  Greek  oT/cos,  a  house,  and  the  Latin  vicus^ 
the  Maeao-Gothic  veihs,  the  Polish  wies,  the  Irish  fich,  the  Cymric  gwic,  all 
meaning  an  abode  or  village.  Diefenbach,  Vergieiehendes  Wbrterbuch, 
vol.  t  p.  138  ;  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ.  voL  ii.  p.  238  ;  Vilmar,  Ortsnamen, 
p.  270 ;  Crichton,  Scandinaviaf  vol.  i.  p.  37 ;  Sparschuh,  Benchiigungen, 
p.  95 ;  Forstemann,  Namenbuch^  vol.  ii.  p.  1509. 

*  There  is,  however,  an  Anglo-Saxon  verb  wiciany  to  run  a  ship  on  shore, 
to  take  up  a  station. 

*  Afterwards  the  word  viking  came  to  be  used  for  any  robber.  Thus  in 
a  Norse  Biblical  paraphrase  Goliath  is  termed  a  viking.  Dasent,  Burnt 
Njal,  vol.  ii.  p.  353. 

*  The  whole  of  the  Essex  coast  is  lined  with  names  ending  in  wick. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 62  The  Northmen, 

and  usually  indicate  the  stations  of  pirates,  rather  than 
those  of  colonists.  Thus  we  have  WICK  and  SAND- 
WICH, in  Kent;  WYKE,  near  Portland;  BERWICK,  in 
Sussex  and  Northumberland ;  and  WICKLOW,  in  Ireland, 
all  of  which  occur  in  places  where  there  are  no  inland 
names  denoting  Norse  colonization. 

HAM,  and  perhaps  of  WARWICK,  although  inland  places, 
are  derived  indirectly  from  the  Norse  wic,  a  bay,  and  not 
from  the  Anglo-Saxon  wic,  a  village.  All  these  places 
are  noted  for  the  production  of  salt,  which  was  formerly 
obtained  by  the  evaporation  of  sea-water  in  shallow 
wiches  or  bays,  as  the  word  baysalt  testifies.  Hence 
a  place  for  making  salt  came  to  be  called  a  wych-house, 
and  Nantwich,  Droitwich,  and  other  places  where  rock- 
salt  was  found,  took  their  names  from  the  wych-houses 
built  for  its  preparation.^ 

Another  word  which  denotes  the  occasional  presence 
of  the  sea-rovers  is  ness  or  naze,  which  means  a  nose,  or 

About  thirty  of  the  farmhouses  in  tlie  salt  marshes  bear  this  name.  We 
have  the  Wick  (three  times),  Eastwick  (twice),  Westwick  (twice),  Northwick 
(twice),  as  well  asjewick,  Raywick,  Frowick,  Langwick,  and  Lastwick. 
These  names  may  be  derived  either  from  the  Anglo-Saxon,  or  from  the 
Norse,  wic.  More  probably,  however,  they  should  be  referred  to  an  entirely 
different  source,  namely  the  Anglo-Saxon  vtc^  a  marsh,  a  word  which  is 
related  to  the  German  weichy  soft,  and  the  modem  English  word  weak. 
Diefenbach,  Vergleichendes  IVorterhtch,  vol.  i.  p.  139  ;  Leo,  RectUudines 
Sing.  Pers.  p.  53.  The  numerous  places  in  South  Tyrol  called  Vigo  seem 
to  derive  their  names  from  the  Latin  vicus.  Gilbert  and  Churchill,  Dolomite 
Mountains^  p.  74. 

1  See  Knapp,  English  Roots  and  Ramifications,  p.  i8.  Domesday  Book 
mentions  salt  works  at  Wich,  Upewic,  Helperic,  Midelwic,  and  Norwiche, 
all  in  Worcestershire.  From  the  same  authority  we  learn  that  at  Droitwich 
certain  dues  of  salt  were  payable.  Ellis,  Introduction  to  Domesday,  pp.  xL 
and  xli. 


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" Ness''  and '' scarr  163 

promontory  of  land.  Thus  we  have  CAITHNESS,  WRAB- 
NESS,  CAPE  GRINEZ,  near  Calais,  and  the  naze  in 
Norway  and  in  Essex. 

We  may  ^Iso  detect  the  visits  of  the  Northmen  by  the 
word  scary  a  face  of  rock  or  cliff — from  skera,  to  skear^  or 
cut  asunder.^     Instances  are  to  be  found  in  the  names  of 

SCARBOROUGH,   the    SKERRIES,    and    SKERRYVORE.       A 

holm  means  an  island,  almost  always  an  island  in  a  lake  - 
or  river.  STOCKHOLM  stands  on  such  an  island.  We 
have  also  FLATHOLM  in  the  Severn,  and  LINGHOLME  on 
Windermere.  An  island  in  the  sea  is  denoted  by  the 
suffix  oe^  a,  ayy  or  ey?'  as  in  the  case  of  the  FAROE 
ISLANDS ;  MAGEROE,  in  Norway ;  STAFFA,  lONA,  and 
CUMBRAY,  on  the  western  coast  of  Scotland  ;  and  LAMB  AY 
on  the  Irish  coast 

Furnished  with  these  test-words  we  may  endeavour  to 
trace  the  various  settlements  of  the  Danes  and  of  the 

To  begin  with  our  own  island.  As  will  be  seen  by 
a  reference  to  the  coloured  map,  the  Danes  of  Jutland 
appear  to  have  frequented  the  south-eastern  portion  of 
the  island  for  purposes  of  trade  or  plunder  rather  than  of 
colonization.  This  we  gather  from  the  fact  that  the 
Norse  names  in  this  district  are  found  chiefly  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  the  coast,  and  designate  either  safe 
anchorages,  or  dangerous  headlands.     We  find  hardly 

^  Cf.  the  Gaelic  and  Erse  sgdr^  a  diff,  and  the  Anglo-Saxon  scirarty  to 
divide.  Hence  the  shire^  a  division  of  land,  the  shore  which  divides  land 
from  sea,  a  skeiver,  the  plonghr^arir  and  the  shears,  instruments  for  dividing, 
and  a  share,  a  divided  part  To  score  is  to  make  notches  on  a  stick,  and  the 
numeral  a  score  denotes  the  number  of  notches  such  a  stick  would  contain. 
A  scar  is  the  mark  where  the  flesh  has  been  divided.  A  shard  is  a  bit  of 
broken  pottery.    Sharp  and  sharp  denote  that  something  has  been  cut  off. 

*  The  suffix  ey  is  Anglo-Saxon  as  well  as  Norse. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 64  The  Northmetu 

one  solitary  instance  of  the  occurrence  of  the  suffixes  by^ 
toft,  thorpe,  or  thwaite,  which  would  indicate  permanent 

London  was  repeatedly  besieged  by  the  Danes.  With 
the  hope  of  capturing  the  rich  and  unrifled  prize,  their 
fleets  lay  below  the  city  for  many  months  together.^ 
Their  stations  were  at  DEPTFORD,  "  the  deep  fiord  ; "  at 
GREENWICH,*  the  "green  reach:"  and  at  WOOLWlCH, 
the  "hill  reach," ^  so  called  apparently  from  its  being 
overhung  by  the  conspicuous  landmark  of  Shooter's 
HilL  The  spits  and  headlands,  which  mark  the  navi- 
gation along  the  Thames  and  the  adjacent  coasts,  almost 
all  bear  characteristic  Norse  names — such  as  the  FORE- 

NAZE,  near  Harwich.  On  the  Essex  coast  we  find  DANE- 
Hundred,  in  the  south-east  of  Essex,  is  spelt  Daneing  in 
a  charter  of  Edward  the  Confessor.*  PRETTLEWELL  and 
HAWKSWELL,  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  may  probably 
contain  the  suffix  -villej  which  is  so  common  in  Nor- 
mandy ;  and  THOBY,  ne^r  Ingatestone,*  SCAR  House, 
and  LEE  BECK,  indicate  the  presence  of  Danish  settlers. 
In  the  extreme  north-eastern  corner  of  the  county  we 

*  Saxon  Chronicle,  A.D.  1013,  1014,  1016. 

s  There  is  a  grenivik  in  Iceland,  which  is  mentioned  in  the  Landna- 
fnabok,  p.  255. 

'  This  etymology  is  confirmed  by  the  fact  that  Woolwich  is  written 
Hulviz  in  Domesday. 

^  Stansgate  Wick,  Wigborough,  and  Battleswick  may  be  either  Saxon  or 
Norse.     See  p.  161,  supra. 

*  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  132. 

*  Not  far  from  hence  Cnut  gained  a  great  victory  over  Eadmund  Iron- 
de,  which  may  have  led  to  the  settlement  of  some  of  the  conquerors  in  the 

neighbourhood.     See  Chapter  XII. 


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Tlu  Northmen  in  Essex,  Suffolk,  and  Norfolk.     165 

find  a  little  compact  Danish  colony — planted  on  a  spot 
well  guarded  by  marshes  and  the  sea.  Here  we  discover 
the  Danish  names  of  HARWICH,  holmes  Island,  KIRBY, 
THORPE-le-Soken,  and  East  THORPE.  At  WALTON  ON 
THE  NAZE  there  seems  to  have  been  a  walled  inclosure, 
to  defend  the  intruders  from  the  assaults  of  their  hostile 
Saxon  neighbours.  In  the  south-eastern  corner  of 
Suffolk  we  have  another  WALTON,  probably  a  second 
fortified  outpost  of  the  Danish  kingdom.^ 

In  Suffolk  there  are  a  few  scattered  Danish  names, 
chiefly  near  the  coast — such  as  IPSWICH,  DUNWICH,^ 

The  name  of  NORWICH  is  probably  Norse.  The  city 
is  situated  on  what  was  formerly  an  arm  of  the  sea,  and 
it  was  visited  by  Danish  fleets.*  In  the  extreme  south- 
eastern corner  of  Norfolk  there  is  a  dense  Danish  settle- 
ment— occupying  the  Hundreds  of  East  and  West 
FLEGG,*  a  space  some  eight  miles  by  seven,  well  pro- 
tected on  every  side  by  the  sea,  and  the  estuaries  of  the 
Bure  and  the  Yare.     In  this  small  district  eleven  names 

*  In  England  we  find  some  forty  places  called  Walton.  With  one  or 
two  exceptions  these  occur  in  the  neighbourhood  of  some  isolated  Danish 
or  Norw^;ian  colony.  There  are  places  bearing  the  name  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Harwich,  Ipswich,  Fenny  Stratford,  Lynn,  Wisbeach,  Liverpool, 
and  Haverford  West,  all  regions  inhabited  by  an  intrusive  population,  to 
whom  the  security  afforded  by  a  walUd  town  would  be  a  matter  of  prime 

■  Beda  writes  the  name  Dunmoc.  It  would  seem,  therefore,  that  the  last 
syllable  of  the  modem  name  is  due  to  Danish  influence. 

'  S€Lxon  Chronicle^  A.D.  1 004;  Turner,  Angio-Saxons,  vol.  ii.  p.  317; 
Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England,  vol.  iii.  p.  398. 

*  From  the  Norse  yrorAJifgg,  or  Danish  vlak,  flat.  Compare  the  names 
of  FLECKNEY,  in  Leicestershire,  and  flekkesfjord  and  fleckeroe,  on 
the  Norwegian  coast. 


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1 66  The  Northmen, 

out  of  twelve  are  unmistakably  Norse,  compounded 
mostly  of  some  common  Danish  personal  name,  and  the 
suffix  by.  We  find  the  villages  of  STOKESB Y,  BILLOCKBY, 
HERRINGBY  and  CLIPPESBY.  The  parish  of  REPPS  re- 
minds us  of  the  Icelandic  districts  called  Hreppar}  and 
St.  Olave's  Bridge  preserves  the  name  of  the  royal  saint 
of  Scandinavia.  In  the  remaining  part  of  Norfolk  there 
are  scattered  names  of  a  distinctively  Danish  cha- 
racter, though  they  by  no  means  preponderate.^  Here, 
however,  we  are  met  by  an  element  of  uncertainty,  since 
the  dialectic  peculiarities  of  the  Danes  from  Jutland 
merge  into  those  of  the  East  Anglians*  who  migrated 
from  the  contiguous  districts  of  Holstein  and  Sleswic ;  and 

*  See  p.  191,  infra, 

■  In  the  list  of  Suffolk  surnames  given  in  Donaldson's  Engiisk  Ethno- 
graphy, pp.  62 — 65,  there  are  several  which  occur  in  the  Landnamabok  of 
Iceland.  The  sons  of  Njal  were  Skarphethin,  Helgi,  and  Grimmr;  these 
three  names  are  common  in  Norfolk  in  the  form  Sharpin,  Heely,  and 
Gryme.  Dasent,  Burnt  Njal^  vol.  i.  p.  79 ;  Borrow,  Wild  WaUsy  vol.  i. 
p.  352,  note. 

'  In  the  Rev.  R.  Gamett's  Essay  on  the  Language  and  Dialects  of  the 
British  Isles  {Essays,  pp.  139,  140,  143)  an  attempt  is  made  to  distinguish 
the  Anglian  districts  by  means  of  the  hard  forms,  Carlton,  Fiskerton, 
Skipton,  Skelbrooke,  Skephouse,  &c.,  which  lake  the  place  of  the 
Charltons  or  Chorltons,  Fishertons,  Shelbrookes,  and  Sheephooses,  which 
are  found  to  the  south  of  the  Thames  and  the  west  of  the  Teme.  But  it 
may  be  doubted  how,  far  these  forms  are  Anglian  and  how  far  Scandi- 
navian. Mr.  R,  Gamett*s  Anglian  districts  are:  I.  East  Anglian — 
Norfolk  and  Suffolk.  2.  Middle  Anglian — Lincoln,  Notts,  and  Derby- 
shire. 3.  North  Anglian^West  Riding.  4.  Northumbrian — ^Durham, 
Nortliumberland,  and  the  North  and  East  Ridings.  All  these  so-called 
Anglian  districts  are  also,  it  will  be  seen,  decisively  Scandinavian.  In 
fact,  the  Saxon  peculiarities  pass  into  those  of  the  Anglians,  the  Anglian 
into  those  of  the  Danes,  and  these  again  into  those  of  the  Norwegians. 
The  Danish  inroads  were  the  continuation,  under  another  name,  of  the 
earlier  Anglo-Saxon  expeditions.  See  Palgrave,  Eng.  Comm,  vol.  i 
p.  568. 


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Lincolnshire.  167 

it  is  often  difficult  to  discriminate  between  the  names 
derived  from  either  source. 

When,  however,  we  cross  the  Wash  and  come  to 
Lincolnshire,  we  find  overwhelming  evidence  of  an  almost 
exclusive  Danish  occupancy.  About  one-fourth  of  the 
village  names  in  Lincolnshire  present  the  characteristic 
Danish  suffix  by,  while  the  total  number  of  Danish 
names  in  this  county  amounts  to  about  three  hundred — 
more  than  are  found  in  all  the  rest  of  Southumbrian 

The  fens  which  border  the  Witham,  the  Welland,  and 
the  Nen  eflfectually  guarded  the  southern  frontier  of  the 
Danish  settlers ;  and  this  natural  boundary  they  do  not 
seem  to  have  crossed  in  any  considerable  numbers.  A 
line  drawn  from  east  to  west,  about  eleven  miles  to  the 
north  of  Boston,  will  mark  the  southern  limit  of  the 
purely  Danish,  as  distinguished  from  the  Anglian  settle- 
ment.^ North  of  this  line  is  a  district  about  nine  miles 
by  twelve,  between  Tattershall,  New  Bolingbroke,  Horn- 
castle,  and  Spilsby,  which  would  appear  to  have  been 
more  exclusively  Danish  than  any  other  in  the  kingdom.^ 
In  this  small  space  there  are  some  forty  unmistakable 
Danish  village-names ;  such  as  KIRBY,  MOORBY,  ENDERBY, 
HEMINGBY,  TOFT,  and  Others,  all  denoting  the  fixed 
residence  of  a  Danish  population. 

From  Lincolnshire  the  Danes  spread  inland  over  the 

1  See  the  coloured  map. 

*  A  list  of  surnames  compiled  from  the  parish  registers  of  this  district, 
and  compared  with  the  names  in  the  Landnamabok  of  Iceland,  would  pro- 
bably prove  of  great  ethnological  interest  and  value. 


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1 68  The  Northmen. 

contiguous  counties.  The  Danelagh,  or  Danish  district, 
by  agreement  between  Alfred  and  Guthrum,  renewed  by 
Eadmund  and  Anlaf  in  941,  was  divided  from  the  Saxon 
kingdom  by  a  line  passing  along  the  Thames,  the  Lea, 
and  the  Ouse,  and  then  following  the  course  of  Watling 
Street,  the  Roman  road  which  runs  in  a  straight  line 
from  Lonck)n  to  Chester.^  North  of  this  line  we  find  in 
the  local  names  abundant  evidence  of  Danish  occupancy, 
while  to  the  south  of  it  hardly  a  single  name  is  to  be 
found  denoting  any  permanent  colonization.  The 
coloured  map  will  show  the  manner  in  which  the  Danish 
local  names  radiate  from  the  Wash.  In  Leicestershire, 
Rutland,  Northamptonshire,  and  Yorkshire,  the  Danish 
names  preponderate  over  those  of  the  Anglo-Saxon 
type  ;  while  Cambridgeshire,  Huntingdonshire,  Bedford- 
shire, and  the  adjacent  counties,  protected  by  the  fens, 
present  scarcely  a  single  Danish  name.^ 

We  have,  however,  the  Danish  village-names  of 
HEYTHROP,  and  COCKTHORPE  in  Oxfordshire.  DACORUM 
Hundred,  in  Herts,  is  called  Danais  in  Domesday :  it 
contains  the  hamlets  of  ELSTROP,  AYSTROPE,  CAUSE- 
WELL,  HAMWELL,  and  a  place  called  DANEFURLONG; 
and  on  the  borders  of  the  hundred,  close  to  the  dividing 
line  of  Watling  Street,  are  KETTLEWELL,^  CHISWILL, 
and  DANESEND.*  It  will  be  seen  also  how  the  Danish 
names  cluster  round  each  of  the  Danish  fortresses  of 

1  Roger  de  Hoveden,  p.  423 ;  St.  John,  Four  ConqtustSy  voL  i.  p.  354  ; 
Robertson,  Scotiaftd  under  her  Early  Kings^  vol.  ii.  p.  273  ;  Turner, 
Anglo-Saxons^  vol.  i.  p.  378 ;  Worsaae,  Daties  and  Norwegians^  p.  21. 

'  Toft,  in  Cambridgeshire,  is  almost  the  only  instance. 

'  An  unmistakably  Norse  name.  In  the  Landnamabok  Ketell  occurs 
repeatedly  as  a  personal  name. 

^  Gough*s  Camdin^  vol.  ii.  p.  67. 


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Scotland,  169 

Leicester,  Derby,  Stamford,  Nottingham,  Lincoln,  and 

.  As  we  leave  Yorkshire  and  approach  Durham  and 
Northumberland  the  Norse  names  rapidly  diminish  in 
frequency,  and  north  of  the  Tweed  they  almost  entirely 
disappear.  The  few  that  we  find  are  usually  only 
stations  on  the  coast,  as  ALNWiCK  and  BERWICK.  The 
names  of  a  few  bays  and  headlands'^  prove  that  the 
Northmen  were  familiar  with  the  navigation  of  the  coast, 
while  the  absence  of  any  Norse  names  of  villages  or 
farms  proves  that  the  soil,  for  some  reason,  was  left  in 
the  undisturbed  possession  of  the  Saxons  or  the  Celts. 
In  Fife  we  find  by  once  or  twice,  and  thorpe  appears 
once  in  the  form  oi  threap.^  The  map  proves  conclusively 
that  the  district  between  the  Tees  and  the  Forth  is  one 
of  the  most  purely  Saxon  portions  of  the  island,  thus 
remarkably  corroborating  the  historical  fact  that  in  the 
eleventh  century  even  the  Lothians  were  reckoned  as  a 
part  of  England.*  • 

But  as  we  approach  the  north-eastern  extremity  of 
Scotland  a  new  phenomenon  presents  itself.  We  find  a 
lai^e  number  of  Norse  names ;  they  are,  however,  no 
longer  Danish  as  heretofore,  but  exclusively  Norwegian. 
We  find,  in  fact,  that  the  local  nomenclature  bears 
decisive  witness  to  the  historical  fact  that,  down  to  a 
comparatively  late  period,*  the  Shetlands,  the  Orkneys, 
the  Hebrides,  and  the  Isle  of  Man,  were  not  dependencies 

*  On  the  Danish  burghs,  see  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegians^  P-  3^  » 
Kemble,  Saxons  in  England^  vol.  ii.  p.  320. 

*  E.g,  Alnwick,  Berwick,  the  Firths  of  Forth,  Tay,  and  Moray,  Black- 
ness, Borrowstowness,  Fifeness,  Buttonness,  Burleness. 

'  See  Chalmers,  Caledonia^  vol,  i.  p.  487. 

*  See  Palgrave,  Nornidndy  and  England^  vol.  iv.  p.  346. 

*  A.D.  1266, 


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170  The  Northmen. 

of  the  Crown  of  Scotland,  but  jarldoms  attached  to  the 
kingdom  of  Norway, 

It  may  seem  strange  to  us  that  the  extreme  north- 
western corner  of  Great  Britain  should  be  called  SUTHER- 
LAND.^    No  inhabitants  of  Scotland  could  have  bestowed 
so  inappropriate  a  name.     And,  accordingly,  we  find 
that  the  Gaelic  peasantry  call  the  county  Catuibh.^   The 
name  of  Sutherland  was  evidently  given  by  a  people 
living  still  further  to  the  north,      Sutherland,  in  short, 
was  the  mainland  to  the  south  of  the  Orkney  jarldom, 
Here,    as    well    as    in    Caithness,   we    find    numerous 
Norwegian    names,   such    as    BRORA,    THURSO,   WICK, 
SKEROAR,  Loch  SKERROW,  and  SANDWICK  bay.     The 
barren  uplands  were  left  to  the  Gael ;  while  in  the  more 
fertile  straths  and  glens  we  find  the  Norse  suffixes  -dale, 
-seter,  and  -ster.    Names  like  LOCH  LAXFORD*  or  STRATH 
HELMSDALE,  in  which  a  Celtic  synonym  is  prefixed  to 
the  Norse  word,  seem  to  point  to  the  recovery  by  the 
Celts  of  that  preponderance  of  which,  for  a  time,  they 
had  been  deprived. 

In  the  Shetlands  every  local  name,  without  exception, 
is  Norwegian.  The  names  of  the  farms  end,  as  in 
Norway,  in  -seter  or  -ster,  and  the  hills  are  called  -kow, 
'hoy,  and  -holL  The  names  of  the  small  bays  have  the 
Norwegian  suffix  -voe,  as  WESTVOE,  AITHSVOE,  LAXVOE, 
and  HAMNAVOE.*  We  find  also  burrafiord,  saxaford. 
LERWICK,  and  SANDWICK.    In  the  whole  of  the  Orkneys 

1  See  p.  75,  supra. 

9  This  word,  and  the  first  syllable  of  Caithness,  are  probably  vestiges  of 
an  Ugrian  occapation,  which  preceded  the  arrival  of  the  Celts.  In  the 
Lapp  language  ketje  means  an  end  or  extremity.  See  Robertson,  Early 
KingSy  vol.  i.  p.  33 ;  Worsaae,  Danes,  p.  253. 

•'  I.e.  Salmon  fjord. 

^  Worsaae,  Danes,  p.  230. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

TJu  Sketlands  and  Orkneys.  171 

there  are  only  two,  or  perhaps  three,  Celtic  names.^ 
The  names  of  the  islands  of  which  the  group  is  composed 
present  the  Norwegian  suffix,  a^  island.  We  have  SANDA 
(sand  island),  STRONSA  (stream  island),  and  WESTRA 
(west  island) ;  and  often,  as  in  the  case  of  RONALDSA 
and  EGILSA,  we  find  the  name  of  the  first  Norwegian 
chief  who  found  here  a  safe  island  home.^ 

It  was  the  practice  of  the  Vikings  to  retire  during  the 
winter  months  to  one  of  the  small  islands  off"  the  coast, 
and  to  issue  forth  again  on  the  return  of  summer  to 
recommence  their  piracies.^  The  names  of  the  in- 
numerable islets  of  the  Hebrides  bear  curious  testimony 
to  the  prevalence  of  this  practice.  The  small  islands, 
with  few  exceptions,  bear  Norse  appellations,  while  the 
local  names  on  the  mainland  are  almost  wholly  Celtic* 
.  The  name  of  LEWIS  is  the  Norwegian  Ijod-hus?  the 
wharf  or  landing-place ;  and  in  this  island  we  find  bays 

1  One  of  these  is  the  name  of  the  group.  In  the  word  Orkney  the 
terminal  syllable  ey  is  the  Norse  for  island.  The  n  which  precedes  is,  I 
imagine,  a  vestige  of  the  Gaelic  innis  or  inch^  an  island.  Ore  is  probably 
from  the  Gaelic  orcy  a  whale.  Diefenbach,  Celtka^  voL  i.  p.  41.  Milton 
speaks  of  "  the  haunt  of  seals  and  ores.'*  Dr.  Guest  and  Chalmers  think 
that  the  root  is  the  Cymric  word  orch^  which  means  a  border  or  limit. 
Guest,  On  GentUe  Names^  in  Phil,  Proc.  vol.  i.  p.  9. 

*  The  Faroe  Islands  are  wholly  Norwegian.  We  have  the  islands  of 
SAN  DOE,  MEGGANAES,  HESTOE,  VAAGOE,  NAALSOE,  and  the  chief  town  is 

'  Skene,  History  of  the  Highlanders y  vol.  i.  p.  91. 

*  There  are  three  islands  called  Bemera,  two  called  Scalpa,  two  called 
Pabbay.  "We  have  also  the  islands  of  Skarpa,  Tarransay,  Giliisay,  Barra, 
Sundera,  Watersay,  Mingalay,  Sanderay,  Plottay,  Uidhay,  Eriskay,  Fiaray, 
Wiay,  Grimsay,  Rona,  Calvay,  Lingay,  and  Hellesay.  Nearer  to  the  coast 
we  find  Rona,  Fradda,  Raasay,  Soa  (twice),  Longa,  Sanday,  Canna,  Ulva, 
Gommeray,  Stafia  (cf.  Stafafell,  in  Iceland),  lona,  Colonsay,  Oronsay, 
Kerrcra,  Skarba,  Jura,  Islay,  Gigha,  Cara,  Cumbray,  Ailsa,  and  many 

*  Ansted  and  Latham,  Channel  Islands^  p.  333;  Innes,  Orig.  Par, 
Possibly,  however,  the  root  is  lod^  a  bundle  of  fishing  lines. 


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172  The  Northmen. 

called  SANDwrcK  and  NORWICK.  UIG  was  anciently 
Wig,^  and  HARRIS  is  a  corruption  of  Harige.^  BROAD- 
FORD  bay,  in  Skye,  is  a  name  identical  with  BREIDA 
FIORD  in  Iceland,  and  there  are  also  the  capes  of  TROT- 
TERNISH  and  VATTERNISH  (water-ness).  The  first 
portion  of  this  name  contains  the  characteristic  Norse 
word  vatfty  which  appears  in  the  names  of  no  less  than 
ten  of  the  Hebridean  lakes — -as,  for  example,  in  those  of 

The  Norsemen  called  the  Hebrides  the  SUDREYJAR, 
or  Southern  Islands.  The  two  sees  of  the  Sudreyjar  and 
of  the  Isle  of  Man  were  united  in  the  eleventh  century, 
and  made  dependent  on  the  Archbishop  of  Trondhjem, 
in  Norway,  by  whom,  till  the  year  1334,  the  Episcopi 
Sudorenses  were  always  consecrated.  The  Anglican 
Bishop  of  SODOR  and  Man  still  retains  his  titular  supre- 
macy over  those  "  southern  isles  "  which  have  so  long  been 
under  the  pastoral  care  of  a  presbyterian  Church. 

In  the  south  of  Scotland  the  only  Scandinavian  settle- 
ment on  the  mainland  was  in  Dumfriesshire.  Here  we 
find  more  than  a  dozen  names  with  the  suffix  by,  and 
others  ending  in  garths  beck,  and  thwaite.  In  the  neigh- 
bouring counties  of  Kirkcudbright  and  Wigton  there  are 
also  a  few  outlying  names  of  the  same  class. 

The  Isle  of  Man,  which  at  one  time  formed  a  portion 
of  the  kingdom  of  Norway,  must  have  contained  a 
considerable  Norwegian  population,  as  appears  from  the 
Norse  names  of  the  villages,  such  as  COLBY,  GREENABV, 
DALBY,    BALEBY,    KIRBY,    SULBY,    and    JURBY.      On    the 

^  Innes,  Orig,  Par,  vol.  ii.  p.  385. 

2  lb.  p.  376. 

'In  Iceland  there  are  lakes  called  Langer-vatn,  Apa-vatn,  Groena-vatn, 
Fiski-vatn,  Torfa-vatn,  Sand-vatn,  &c.  On  Norse  names  in  the  Scottish 
Isles,  secWorsaae,  Danes,  pp.  218 — 276;  Barry,  Hist,  of  Orkney i^  p.  232. 


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Sodor  and  Man.  1 73 

coast  we  find  the  bays  of  PERWICK,  FLESWICK,  GREEN- 

DRESWICK,  the  capes  of  LANGNESS  and  LITTLENESS, 
and  the  islands  of  EYE,  HOLM,  the  CALF,  and  RONALDS  AY ; 
while  SNEEFELL  (snow  hill),  the  highest  mountain  in  the 
island,  bears  a  pure  Norwegian  name.^  The  distribution 
of  these  Norse  names  is  very  noteworthy.  It  will  be 
seen  by  a  reference  to  the  coloured  map  that  they  are 
confined  mainly  to  the  south  of  the  island,  a  circumstance 
for  which  I  was  at  a  loss  to  account,  till  I  discovered  the 
historical  fact  that  when  Goddard  of  Iceland  conquered 
Man  he  divided  the  fertile  southern  portion  among  his 
followers,  while  he  left  the  natives  in  possession  of  the 
northern  and  more  mountainous  region,  where,  conse- 
quently, Celtic  names  still  prevail.^ 

In  the  same  way  that  the  Danish  names  in  England 
are  seen  to  radiate  from  the  Wash,  so  the  Norwegian 
immigration  seems  to  have  proceeded  from  Morcambe 
B^y  and  that  part  of  the  coast  which  lies  opposite  to  the 
Isle  of  Man.  Cumberland,  Westmoreland,  Lancashire, 
and  Dumfriesshire  contain  a  very  considerable  number 
of  Scandinavian  names,  but  comparatively  few  of  a 
distinctively  Danish  cast.  The  lake  district  seems  to 
have  been  almost  exclusively  peopled  by  Celts  and 
Norwegians.  The  Norwegian  suffixes,  'gilly  -garth, 
-haugh,  'thwaite^  -force^  and  -fell,  are  abundant ;  while 
the  Danish  forms,  -tliorpe  and  -toft,  are  almost  unknown ; 
and  the  Anglo-Saxon  test-words,  -ham,  -ford,  -worth,  and 
-ton,  are  comparatively  rare.^ 

Of  the  other  test-words  we  find  ey  in  WALNEY  and 

^  See  p.  5,  supra  ;  and  Worsaae,  Danes,  p.  279. 
'  Train,  Isle  of  Man^  vol.  i.  p.  78. 
*  See  pp.  158,  159,  supra. 


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174  '  ^'^^  Northmen, 

FOULNEY,^  and  holm  in  LINGHOLM  and  SILVERHOLM  on 
Windermere,  and  in  RAMPSHOLME  on  Ulleswater.  Ness 
occurs  in  the  names  of  BOWNESS,  SHINBURNESS,  SCAR 
NESS,  and  FURNESS: — wick  in  KESWICK  on  Derwent- 
water,  and  in  BLOWICK  on  Ulleswater.  The  Norwegfian 
word  stackr,  a  columnar  rock,  was  appropriately  ap- 
plied to  the  mountains  which  bear  the  names  of  STAKE, 
the  STICKS,  PIKE  o'  STICKLE,  and  the  HAY  STACKS  (the 
high  rocks). 

More  than  150  different  personal  names  of  the  Icelandic 
type  are  preserved  in  the  local  topography  of  the  lake 
district.  According  to  the  last  census  ^  there  are  now 
only  sixty-three  surnames  in  Iceland,  of  which  the 
commonest  are  Kettle,  Halle,  Ormur,  and  Gils.  In 
Cumberland  and  Westmoreland  these  are  preserved  in 
the  local  names,   KETTLEWELL,   HALLTHWAITE,  ORMA- 

THWAITE,  and  GELLSTONE,  By  far  the  most  common 
Christian  names  in  Iceland  are  Olafur  (borne  by  992 
persons),  Einer  (by  ^7^\  and  Bjarni  (by  869).  These 
are  found  in  ULVERSTON,  ENNERDALE,  and  BARNEY- 
HOUSE.  We  find  the  name  of  Hrani  (now  Rennie)  in 
BUTTERGILL  ;  Geit^  in  gateswater,  gatesgarth,  and 

GATESGILL  ;  and  Skogul  in  SKEGGLES  WATER.* 

The  Norse  haugr,  a  sepulchral  mound,  is  often  found 
in   the   names   of  mountains  crowned   by  conspicuous 

^  The  suffix  <7,  which  denotes  a  river  as  well  as  an  island,  appears  in  the 
river  names  of  the  Greta,  Liza,  Wiza,  Rotha,  Bretha,  Rathay,  Calda,  as 
well  as  in  the  Ea,  and  the  Eamont.     See  Ferguson,  Northmen^  p.  113. 

'  Symington,  Icdandy  p.  182. 

*  Ferguson,  Northnun  in  Cumberland^  pp.  105,  130. 

*  Ferguson,  Northmen,  pp.  128 — 135.     See  the  Landnamaboky  passim. 


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The  Lake  District — Cheshire.  175 

tumuli.  The  name  of  the  old  Viking  who  lies  buried 
here  is  often  preserved  in  the  first  portion  of  such  local 
names.  Thus,  SILVER  HOW,  BULL  HOW,  SCALE  HOW, 
and  BUTTEHLIP  HOW,  are,  probably,  the  burial-places  of 
the  forgotten  heroes,  Solvar,  Boll,  Skall,  and  Buthar 

In  Cheshire,  with  one  remarkable  local  exception,  we 
find  no  vestiges  of  Norse  colonists.  But  the  spit  of  land 
called  the  Wirral,  between  the  Dee  and  the  Mersey, 
seems  to  have  allured  them  by  its  excellent  harbours, 
and  the  protection  afforded  by  its  almost  insular  cha- 
racter.* Here,  in  fact,  we  find  geographical  conditions 
similar  to  those  which  gave  rise  to  the  two  isolated 
Norse  colonies  at  the  mouths  of  the  Stour  and  the 
Yare,^  and  the  result  is  no  less  remarkable.  In  this  space 
of  about  twelve  miles  by  six  there  is  scarcely  a  single 
Anglo-Saxon  name,  while  we  find  the  Norse  villages 
GREASBY.  We  find  also  the  Norse  names  of  SHOTWlCK, 
and  in  the  centre  of  the  district  is  the  village  of  THING- 
WALL,  a  name  which  indicates  the  position  of  the  meeting 
place  of  the  Thing,  the  assembly  in  which  the  little 
colony  of  Northmen  exercised  their  accustomed  privileges 
of  local  self-government* 

The  Vikings  cruised  around  the  coasts  of  North  Wales, 
but  we  find  no  trace  of  settlements.     The  names  of  the 

*  Fei^son,  Northmen  in  Cumberland^  p.  55. 

*  We  read  of  a  large  body  of  Scandinavian  invaders  who  took  refuge 
here.     Turner,  Anglo-Saxons^  vol.  t  p.  397. 

'  See  pp.  165,  166,  supra. 
4  See  Chapter  XII. 


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1  ^(>  The  Northmm, 

show  their  familiar  acquaintance  with  the  dangerous 
points  on  this  rockbound  coast ;  while  PORT  DYN  NOR- 
WIG,  the  "  Port  of  the  Norway  Man,"  near  Bangor,  may 
probably  indicate  a  haven  which  they  frequented. 

There  is  a  curious  exception  to  the  broad  assertion 
that  has  been  made  ^  as  to  the  non-existence  of  Norse 
names  to  the  south  of  Watling  Street.  The  sea-rovers, 
with  infallible  instinct,  seem  to  have  detected  the  best 
harbour  in  the  kingdom,  and  to  have  found  shelter  for 
their  vessels  in  the  fjords  of  the  Pembrokeshire  coast 
— the  deep  land-bound  channels  of  MILFORD,  HAVER- 
FORD,^  WHITEFORD,*  and  SKERRYFORD,  and  the  neigh- 
bouring creeks  of  WATHWICK,  LITTLE  WICK,  OXWICH, 
and  MUGGLESWICK  BAY.  The  dangerous  rocks  and 
islands  which  fringe  this  coast  likewise  bear  Norwegian 
names;  such  are  the  STACK  Rocks,  STACKPOLE  Head, 

Island,    SKOKHOLM    Island,    SKERRYBACK,    SKERPOINT, 

the  NAZE,  STRUMBLE  Head,  the  WORM'S  Head,  NASH 
(Naze)  Point,  and  DUNGENESS  (Dangemess).  Most  of 
the  names  on  the  mainland  are  Celtic,  but  the  neigh- 
bouring islands  bear  the  Norse  names  of  CALDY  (Cold 
Island),  BARRY  (Bare  Island),  SULLY  (Ploughed  Island), 

1  From  the  Norse  <frmr^  a  serpent.  The  Wurmshead  in  South  Wales 
presents  the  Saxonized  form  of  the  same  word.  In  Stanfield's  admirable 
picture  of  this  rock  we  seem  to  see  the  sea  serpent  raising  its  head  and  the 
half  of  its  huge  length  above  the  waves. 

^  See  p.  1 68,  supra, 

'  Havenfjord.     So  there  is  a  Hafnaf jord  in  Iceland. 

*  "Whiteford  Sands  show  that  the  estuary  of  the  Burry  must  hay  received 
from  the  Norsemen  the  appropriate  name  of  Hvit-jjora, 


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The  Pembrokeshire  Settlement  177 

LUNDY  (Grove  Island),  SKOKHOLM  (Wooded  Island), 
DENNEY  (Danes'  Island),  RAMSEY,  SKOMER,  BURRY 

No  less  than  twenty-four  of  the  headlands  on  the 
Pembrokeshire  coast  are  occupied  by  camps,  which  we 
may  regard  as  the  first  beginning  of  a  Scandinavian 
occupation  of  the  soil.  Round  the  shores  of  Milford 
Haven  a  little  colony  of  permanent  settlers  was  estalished 
in  the  villages  of  FREYSTROP  (Freysthorpe),  STUDDA, 
Vikings  who  founded  this  Welsh  colony,  Harold,  Bakki, 
Hamill,  Grim,  Hiarn,  Lambi,  Thomi,  Thor,  Gorm, 
Brodor,  Solvar,  Hogni,  and  Buthar  have  left  us  their 
HILL,  and  BUTTER  HILL,  several  of  which  may  be  the 
burial-places  of  those  whose  names  they  bear.® 

There  is,  occasionally,  in  Pembrokeshire,  a  difficulty 
in  distinguishing  between  the  Norse  names  and  those 
which  are  due  to  the  colony  of  Flemings  which  was 
established  in  this  district  during  the  reign  of  Henry  I. 
"  Flandrenses,  tempore  Regis  Henrici  primi  ...  ad 
occidentalem  Walliae  partem,  apud  Haverford,  sunt 
translati."*    These  colonists  came  from  a  portion  of 

1  A  Urge  body  of  Danes  took  refuge  in  Flatholm  in  the  year  918.  St 
John,  Four  Conquests^  vol.  i.  p.  322. 

'  The  last  syllable  in  these  names  wonld  seem  not  to  be  the  Anglo-Saxon 
ion^  but  was  probably  derived  from  the  memorial  stone  erected  over  the 
grave  of  some  departed  hero. 

'  See  Ferguson,  NorthnuHy  pp.  10^  66,  68. 

^  Higden's  Ckronkle,  apud  Gale,  Seriptores,  voL  iii.  p.  21a 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 78  The  Northmen, 

Flanders  which  was  submerged  by  an  irruption  of  the 
sea  in  the  year  1 1 10.  LEWESTON,  RICKESTON,  ROBESTON, 
TON  belong  to  a  class  of  names  which  we  find  nowhere 
else  in  the  kingdom — names  given,  not  by  Saxon  or 
Danish  pagans,  but  by  Christianized  settlers,  men  bearing 
the  names,  not  of  Thurstan,  Gorm,  or  Grim,  but  of 
Lewes,  Richard,  Robert,  Walter,  and  others  common  in 
the  twelfth  century.^  The  names  of  the  village  of 
FLEMINGSTON,  and  of  the  VIA  FLANDRICA,  which  runs 
along  the  crest  of  the  Precelly  mountains,  afford  ethno- 
logical evidence  still  more  conclusive,  and  TUCKING  Mill 
(Clothmaking  Mill)  shows  the  nature  of  the  industry 
which  was  imported. 

This  Pembrokeshire  settlement  was,  probably,  at  first, 
little  more  than  a  nest  of  pirates,  who  sallied  forth  to 
plunder  the  opposite  coast  of  the  Channel,  and  to  prey 
upon  any  passing  merchant  craft.  That  the  Somerset- 
shire coast  was  not  unknown  to  them  we  see  from  the 
Norse  names  of  WICK  Rock  at  one  entrance  of  Bridge- 
water  Bay,  and  HOW  Rock  at  the  other.  The  sands 
which  lie  in  the  estuary  of  the  Yeo  are  called  Langford 
grounds — an  indication  that  this  "  long  fiord "  was 
known  to  the  Northmen  by  the  appropriate  name  of 

The  chief  port  of  Scilly  bears  the  name  of  GRIMSBY, 
and  ST.  AGNES,  the  name  of  the  most  southern  island,  is 
a  corruption  of  the  old  Norse  name  Hagenes.  On  the 
mainland  of  Cornwall  only  one  station  of  the  North- 

1  Sec  Cliffc,  South  Wales^  p.  257;  Lappenberg,  Angh-Narman  Kings, 
p.  545;  Giraldus  Cambrensis,  Itin,  ]ib.  i.  cap.  ii;  and  the  notes  of 
H.  LIuyd,  Camden,  and  Sir  R.  C.  Hoare  upon  the  passage. 


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Devonshire.  I79 

men  can  be  discovered,  but  the  position  is  admirably 
adapted  for  refitting  ships,  and  obtaining  necessary  sup- 
plies. Near  the  Lizard  Point  a  deep  inlet  bears  the 
name  of  HELFORD,  and  the  village  at  its  head  is  called 
GWEEK,  evidently  a  corruption  of  Wick.^ 

In  Devonshire  there  are  two  or  three  clusters  of  Norse 
names.  These  present  the  characteristic  suffix  by  in 
a  form  nearly  approaching  to  the  old  Norse  form  byr^ 
which  is  preserved  in  the  boer  of  the  Icelandic  farms.^ 
In  North  Devon  we  find  ROCKBEER  and  BEAR,  both  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  fjord  of  bideford.  On  the 
left  bank  of  the  estuary  of  the  Exe,^  in  South  Devon, 
we  have   another  cluster  of   such    names,   comprising 

the  villages   of  AYLESBERE,  ROCKBERE,  LARKBEER,  and 

HOUNDBERE.  We  find  also  'byestock  and  thorp, 
EXWICK  and  COWICK,  the  NESS  at  Teignmouth,  the 
SKERRIES  close  by,  and  a  place  called  NORMANS  (i.e. 
Northman's)  CROSS.  Here  a  portion  of  the  Roman  road 
to  Exeter  takes  the  Danish  name  STRAIGHTGATE.  The 
Northmen  penetrated  up  the  estuary  of  the  Tamar  as 
well  as  up  that  of  the  Exe.  In  the  Saxon  Chronicle 
(a.D.  997)  we  read  of  a  descent  of  the  Danes  at  Lidford ; 
and  in  this  neighbourhood  we  find  LANGABEER,  BEARDON, 
and  THURSHELTON,  as  well  as  BURN  and  BEARA  (byr 
water),  both  on  the  banks  of  brooks.     At  the  mouth  of 

1  See  the  review  of  the  ist  edition  of  Words  and  Places  in  the  Times  o 
March  26,  1864. 

*  E,g.  Ossaboer,  in  Iceland.  In  Essex  and  Suffolk  we  find  Buers  and 
Bures.     See  p.  157,  supra.  . 

>  On  the  numerous  Danish  incursions  into  Devonshire  see  Strinnholm, 
JVikinffsiige,  p.  57;  Turner,  Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  i.  pp.  542,  591,  601  j 
vol.  ii.  pp.  306^  312,  317.  In  877  the  Danes  were  in  possescsion  of  Exeter. 
St  John,  Four  Conquests^  vol  I  p.  266. 

N   2 


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1 80  The  Northmen, 

the  Otter,  again/  we  find  the  villages  of  BEER,  BERE- 
WOOD,  and  BOVY2  in  beer.  Near  Poole  Harbour^  we 
have  East  HOLME,  BERE  Regis,  and  SWANWICK.  There 
was  another  Swanwick  on  Southampton  Water,  which 
has  been  corrupted  to  SWAN  AGE.  In  the  Saxon  Chronicle 
(A.D.  877)  we  read  of  the  defeat  of  a  Danish  fleet  at 
Swanawic  on  the  south  coast ;  and  it  has  beea  con- 
jectured, with  some  probability,  that  a  chief  bearing  the 
common  Danish  name  of  Sweyn  may  have  been  in 
command,  from  whom  we  derive  the  name  of  "  Sweyn's 
all  in  Hampshire,  exhibit  the  suffix  which  is  so  charac- 
teristic of  Danish  settlements.  At  holmsdale,  in 
Surrey,  we  find  an  isolated  Danish  name.  At  this  spot 
the  crews  of  350  ships,  who  had  marched  inland,  were 
cut  off  by  Ethelwulf,  in  the  year  852,*  and  it  is  probable 
that  the  survivors  may  have  settled  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. Further  to  the  north  we  find  THORPE,  near 
Chertsey.  There  seem  to  be  traces  of  the  Danes  at 
BERWICK  and  seaford  near  Beachy  Head,  and  at  HOLM- 
STONE  *  and  WICK  in  Romney  Marsh,  as  well  as  at  the 
point  of  DUNGENESS,  or  "  Danger  Cape."     Finally,  we 

1  The  Danes  landed  at  Seaton  in  937.     See  Saxon  ChromcU. 

'  This  approximates  to  the  Norman  form  bomf.     See  pp.  157,  186. 

s  We  frequently  read  of  Danish  descents  in  Dorset  See  Turner,  Anglo- 
Saxons^  vol.  ii.  pp.  306,  312 ;  Strinnholm,  Wikingziigty  p.  55 ;  St  John, 
Four  Conquests^  vol.  L  p.  443. 

*  See  Cough's  Camden^  vol.  i.  p.  329.  Sweyn  was  a  common  Danish 
name.  There  are  three  swantons  in  Norfolk.  At  swanescomb,  near 
Greenhithe,  there  are  several  barrows ;  and  here,  it  has  been  thought, 
Sweyn,  king  of  Denmark,  landed. 

*  St  John,  Four  Coftquests,  voL  i.  p.  227.  Cf.  Turner,  Angio-Saxons^ 
vol.  i.  p.  590. 

*  Here  a  battle  was  fought  between  Danes  and  Saxons.  The  Danes  had 
a  fortress  in  Romney  Marsh.    Turner,  Angh-Saxons^  yoL  i.  p.  387. 


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Ireland,  i8r 

find  them  on  the  Kentish  coast  at  SANDWICH,  the  sandy- 
bay — a  name  which  occurs  also  in  Iceland,  in  Norway, 
in  the  Orkneys,  in  the  Hebrides,  and  in  the  Shetlands. 
Sandwich  in  Kent  was  one  of  the  favourite  stations  for 
the  Danish  fleets ;  they  were  there  in  the  years  851  and 
1014,  as  we  learn  from  the  Saxon  Chronicle. 

The  Northmen  would  appear  to  have  established 
themselves  in  Ireland  rather  for  purposes  of  trade 
than  of  colonization.     Their  ships  sailed  up  the  great 

fjords^  of  WATERFORD,  WEXFORD,^  STRANGFORD,  and 
CARLINGFORD,  and  anchored  in  the  bays  of  LIMERICK 
and  WICKLOW.  In  Kerry  we  find  the  name  of  SMER- 
WICK,  or  "butter  bay,"  then  apparently,  as  now,  a 
trading  station  for  the  produce  of  the  surrounding  dis- 
trict The  name  of  COPLAND  Island,  near  Belfast, 
shows  that  here  was  a  trading  station  of  the  Norse  mer- 
chants, who  trafficked  in  English  slaves*  and  other 
merchandize.  'As  we  approach  Dublin  the  numerous 
Norse  names  along  the  coast — LA^BAY*  I§land,  DALKEY 
Island,  -Ireland's  EYE,  the  SKERRIES,  the  Hill  of  HOWTH, 
and  LEIXLIP,  the  "  salmon  leap,"  on  the  Liffey — prepare 
us  to  learn  that  the  Scandinavians  in  Publin  were  go- 
verned by  their  own  laws  till  the  thirteenth  century,  and 
that,  as  in  London,  they  had  their  own  separate  quarter 
of  the  city,  guarded  by  walls  and  gates — OXMANTOWN, 
that  is,  Ostmantown,  the  town  of  the  men  from  the 
East*  ... 

The   general  geographical    acquaintance  which   the 

1  To  the  south  of  Wexford  is  the  Barony  of  FORTH  (fjord). 

*  See  Goldwin  Smith,  Irish  History  and  Irish  Character,  p.  48. 

'  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegians,  pp.  323,  349.  The  Ostmen  pos- 
sessed the  four  cities  of  Dublin,  Waterford,  Limerick,  and  Cork.  There 
were  Ostman  kings  of  Limerick,  Dublin,  and  Waterford.  Lappenberg, 
Anglo-Norman  Kings,  p.  64;  Strinnholm,  Wikingziige,  p.  57. 


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1 82 

The  Northmen. 

Northmen  had  with  the  whole  of  Ireland  is  shown  by 
the  fact  that  three  out  of  the  four  Irish  provinces, 
namely,  LEINSTER,  MUNSTER,  and  ULSTER,  present 
the  Norse  suffix  ster^  a  place,  which  is  so  common  in  local 
names  in  the  Shetlands  and  in  Norway.^ 

In  order  to  estimate  with  some  exactitude  the  pro- 
portionate amount  of  the  Scandinavian  element  in  the 
different  parts  of  England,  the  following  table  has  been 
carefully  compiled.  It  gives  the  proportion  of  Norse 
names  to  the  acreage  of  the  several  counties-^the 
proportion  in  Kent  being  taken  as  the  unit  of  compu- 
tation. The  names  in  those  counties  which  are  printed 
in  italics  exhibit  a  Norwegian  rather  than  a  Danish 

Intensity  of  the  Scandinavian  element  of  population, 
as  indicated  by  village  names : — 

Lancashire    •    •    •    •      28 

Durham 30 

West  Riding    "...      60 
Nottingham .    •    •    .      62 

Norfolk 76 

Northampton    ...      83 

Rutland 83 

North  Riding    ...  11 1 

Cumberland ....  124 

Westmoreland  .     .     •  125 

East  Riding ....  126 

Lincolnshire      .    •     .  165 

Leicestershire    •     .    .  169* 

The  actual  number  of  names  is — in  Lincolnshire, 
about  300;  in  Leicestershire,  Westmoreland,  Cumber* 

1  See  p.  170^  si^a. 

*  In  several  particulars  this  table  will  be  found  to  differ  from  that  given  by 
Mr.  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegiansy  p.  71. 

I,  I  have  excluded  sufl&xes  common  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  and  the  Noise 
languages.  2.  I  have 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



Glamorgan   .    •    •    . 


















Pembroke      .... 


Northumberland    .    . 


Derbyshire   .... 



Relative  Intensity  of  the  Scandinavian  Element,     1 83\ 



land,  and  each  of  the  Ridings  about  lOo;  in  Norfolk,  v 

Northampton,  Notts,  and  Lancashire,  about  50 ;  in  Dur-  > 

ham  and  Northumberland,  about  20 ;  in  Suffolk,  Derby, 
Cheshire,  Rutland,  and  Pembroke,  about  a  dozen ;  in 
Bucks,  Bedford,  and  Warwick,  not  more  than  half  that 

From  the  character  of  the  Norse  names  upon  the  map 
of  the  British  Isles,  we  may  class  the  districts  affected  by 
Scandinavian  influence  under  three  general  divisions : — 

I.  Places  visited  only  for  trade  or  booty.  These  fringe 
the  coast,  and  are  the  names  of  bays,  capes,  or  islands. 
The  surrounding  villages  have  Saxon  or  Celtic  names. 
To  this  class  belong,  mostly,  the  names  along  the 
estuaries  of  the  Thames  and  Severn,  and  along  the 
coasts  of  Kent,  Sussex,  Essex,  North  Wales,  Ireland,  and 
Eastern  Scotland. 

II.  Isolated  settlements  amid  a  hostile  population. 
These  are  found  in  places  which  are  nearly  surrounded 
by  water,  and  which  are  furnished  with  good  harbours. 
In  this  class  we  must  include  the  settlements  near  Har- 
wich, Yarmouth,  Birkenhead,  and  Milford. 

III.  The  Danelagh  or  Danish  kingdom,  where  the 
Norse  element  of  the  population  was  predominant    Yet 

2.  I  baye  excluded  names  on  the  coast  not  denoting  colonization. 

3.  I  have  calculated  the  proportion  of  names  to  the  acreage  of  each 
county,  instead  of  giving  the  absolute  number  of  names. 

The  latter  mode  of  computation  is  deceptive.  An  example  will  make 
this  plain.  From  Mr.  Worsaae's  table  it  appears  that  the  Scandinavian 
names  in  Lincolnshire,  a  very  large  county,  are  three  times  as  numerous  as 
those  in  Leicestershire,  a  much  smaller  one,  whereas,  in  reality,  the  Norse 
element  is  actually  less  intense  in  Lincolnshire  than  it  is  in  Leicestershire. 
In  fact,  portions  of  Lincolnshire  are  almost  destitute  of  Norse  names :  for 
example,  the  Fens,  which  in  their  nomenclature  are  neither  Saxon  nor 
Danish,  but  English,  having  been  reclaimed  at  a  period  when  the  distinction 
between  Dane  and  Saxon  had  died  away.     See  the  coloured  map. 


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1 84  T}ie  Northmen, 

even  here  the  names  are  clustered,  rather  than  uniformly 
distributed.  Such  clusters  of  names  are  to  be  found 
near  Stamford,  Sleaford,  Horncastle,  Market  Rasen, 
Melton  Mowbray,  Leicester,  Ashby-de-la-Zouch,  New- 
ark, Lincoln,  Grimsby,  York,  and  Bridlington. 

The  Scandinavians  who  settled  in  France  have  left 
few  memorials  of  their  speech  in  our  French  dictionaries 
— few  permanent  conquests  have  had  so  slight  an  in- 
fluence on  the  language  of  the  conquered  nation.  The 
conquerors  married  native  women,  and  their  sons  seem 
only  to  have  learned  the  language  spoken  by  their 
mothers ;  so  that,  except  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Bayeux,  where  the  Norman  speech  was  grafted  on  the 
nearly-related  and  firmly-established  language  of  the 
Saxon  shore,  the  sons  of  the  soil  at  no  time  spoke  a 
Scandinavian  dialect.^  But  the  map  of  Normandy  sup- 
plies abundant  traces  of  the  Scandinavian  conquest. 
The  accompanying  sketch-map  shows  the  distribution 

1  A  few  Norse  words  still  survive  in  the  dialect  of  Nonnandy.    Thus 
we  have — 

In  Nonnandy. 

In  Iceland. 



















These  are  not  the  terms  used  either  in  French  or  Danish.  The  French 
expressions  would  be  dejeiiner,  poche,  voisin,  habile,  moribond,  and  cabane; 
and  the  modem  Danish  would  be  frokost,  lomme,  nabo,  tlink,  dodsens,  and 
hytte.  See  Etienne  Borring,  Sur  la  Limite  Miridionale  de  la  ATonarchU 
Da  noise,  p.  4.  In  modem  French  there  are  a  few  nautical  terms  of  Danish 
origin.  See  Diez,  Kom,  Gram,  vol.  i.  p.  51.  Cf.  Max  Miiller,  Lectures, 
2nd  series,  p.  264. 


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£^  TOT 



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The  Northmen  in  France.  185 

of  these  names,  and,  as  has  been  already  observed,  it 
proves  how  carefully  the  Scandinavians  avoided  all 
encroachment  on  the  district  already  occupied  by  Saxon 

We  find  the  names  of  the  original  Scandinavian 
settlers  are  thickly  scattered  over  the  land.  We  have 
seen  that  in  England  the  former  abodes  of  the  North- 
men— Grim,  Biorn,  Harold,  Thor,  Guddar,  and  Haco  ^ — 
go  by  the  names  of  Grimsby,  Bumthwaite,  Harroby, 
Thoresby,  Guttersby,  and  Hacconby :  so  in  Normandy 
these  3ame  personal  appelations  occur  in  the  village- 
names,  and  we  find  GRIMONVILLE,  BORNEVILLE,  HEROU- 

The  Norse  gardr^  an  inclosure,  or  yard,  occurs  in  Nor- 
mandy at  FISIGARD,  AUPPEGARD,  and  EPEGARD — 
names  which  we  may  compare  with  Fishguard  in  Pem- 
brokeshire, Applegarth  in  Yorkshire,  and  iEblegaard  in 
Denmark.  Tofty  which  also  means  an  inclosure,  takes 
the  form  tot  in  Normandy,  as  in  YVETOT,  Ivo*s  toft; 
PLUMETOT,  flower  toft ;  lilletot,  little  toft ;  ROUTOT, 
Rodtot,  or  red  toft ;  CRIQUETOT,  crooked  toft ;  BERQUE- 
TOT,  birch  toft;  HAUTOT,  high  toft;  LANGETOT,  long 
toft  We  have  also  Pr^tot,  Tournetot,  Bouquetot, 
Grastot,  Appetot,  Garnetot,  Ansetot,  Turretot,  He- 
bertot,  Cristot,  Brestot,  Franquetot,  Raffetot,  Houdetot, 
and  others,  about  one  hundred  in  all.  Toft  being  a 
Danish  *  rather  than  a  Norwegian  suffix,  would  incline 

1  AU  these  names  are  found  in  the  Landnamahok  of  I<;eland. 

*  See  Depping,  vol.  ii.  p.  339;  Palgrave,  voL  i.  p.  702;  Ferguson, 
p.  128 ;  AVoTsaae,  p.  69 ;  Gerville ;  Petersen.  This  suffix  vUU  has  been 
usually  supposed  to  be  the  Romance  word  vUlci,  It  is  far  more  probable, 
however,  that  it  is  the  Teutonic  weiUr,  a  single  house.     See  p.  159,  supra. 

'  Moreover,  in  Denmark  we  often  find  combinations  identical  with  some 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1 86  The  Northmen^ 

us  to  suppose,  from  its  frequent  occurrence,  that  the 
conquerors  of  Normandy  were  Danes  rather  than  Nor- 
wegians ;  and  the  total  absence  of  thwaitey  the  Norw^ian 
test-word,  tends  to  strengthen  this  supposition. 

The  suffix  by^  so  common  in  Danish  England,  gene- 
rally takes,  in  Normandy,  the  form  bcBuf,  bufy  or  bue, 
as  in  the  cases  of  CRIQUEBUF  (Crogby,  or  crooked-by), 
MARBCEUF  (Markby),  QUITTEBEUF  (Whitby,  or  white- 
by),  DAUBEUF  (Dale-by),  CARQUEBUF  (Kirkby),  QUILLE- 
BEUF   (Kil-byl),   ELBCEUF,  PAINBEUF,    and   LINDEBEUF. 

The  form  bufy  or  basuf,  seems  very  remote  from  the  old 
Norse  boer;  but  a  few  names  ending  in  btie,  such  as 
LONGBUE  and  'roURNEBUE,^  and  still  more  the  village 
of  BURES,  exhibit  the  transitional  forms  through  which 
the  names  in  buf  may  probably  have  passed.  HAMBYE 
and  COLOMBY  are  the  only  instances  of  the  English  form 
which  I  can  find. 

The  village  of  LE  TORP  gives  us  the  word  thorpe^ 
which,  however,  more  usually  appears  in  the  cor- 
rupted form  of  torbcy  tourf,  or  tourbey  as  in  the  case  of 

The  name  of  the  castle-crowned  rock  of  FALAISE 
reminds  us  of  \h^  fells  of  Cumberland.* 

The  name  of  the  river  DIEPPE,  which  was  afterwards  * 
given  to  the  town  which  was  built  beside  it,  is  iden- 
tical with  that  of   the    Diupa,   or   **deep  water"    in 

of  those  just  enumerated.  Such  are  Blumtofte,  Rodtofte,  Langetofte,  and 
Grastofte.     See  Le  Prevost,  Recherchts^  pp.  41,  64. 

1  Norse  kdlda^  German  quelU,  a  well  or  river-source.  La  Roquette, 
Reckenkes^  p.  46 ;  Ferguson,  Nortknun^  p.  1 19. 

'  Cf.  Taamby,  in  Denmark. 

»  See  Leo,  An^Saxon  NameSy  pp.  43 — 50.     Cf.  the  German yS/sryi. 

*  Petersen,  p.  49. 

'  In  the  tenth  century. 


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Normandy.  187 

Iceland  ;  and  it  may  be  compared  with  "  The  Deeps " 
near  Boston.^ 

From  the  Norse  beckr  (Danish  bcsc),  a  brook,  we  have 
CAUDEBEC,  the  "  cold  brook,"  the  same  name  as  that  of 
the  Cawdbeck  in  the  Lake  District,  and  the  Kaldbakr 
in  Iceland.  The  name  of  the  BRIQUEBEC,  the  **  birch- 
fringed  brook,"  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Birkbeck  in 
Westmoreland.  The  HOULBEC,  the  "brook  in  the 
hollow,"  corresponds  to  the  Holbeck  in  Lincolnshire, 
anO  the  Holbek  in  Denmark.  The  name  of  bolbec  we 
may  compare  with  Bolbek  in  Denmark ;  and  the  name 
of  FOULBEC,  or  "  muddy  brook,"  is  identical  with  that  of 
the  Fulbeck  in  Lincolnshire. 

The  Danish  0,  an  island,  is  seen  in  Eu,  Cantaleu, 
Jersey,  Guernsey,  and  Aldemey. 

The  suffix  'Jleur^  which  we  find  in  HONFLEUR  and 
other  names,  is  derived  from  the  Norse  Jliot,  ^  a  small 
river  or  channel,  which  we  have  in  Purfleet,  Northfleet, 
and  many  other  English  names.  The  phonetic  resem- 
blance between  Jleur  2XiA  fleet  may  seem  slight,  but  the 
identification  is  placed  beyond  a  doubt  by  the  fact 
that  HARFLEUR  was  anciently  written  Herosfluet  ;  while 
Rqger  de  Hovenden  calls  BARFLEUR  by  the  name  of 
Barbeflet,  and  Odericus  Vitalis  calls  it  Barbeflot.  VITTE- 
FLEUR  is  the  "white  river,"  and  FIQUEFLEUR  seems  to 
be  a  corruption  of  Wickfleet,  "  the  river  in  the  bay."  * 

Holme,  a  river  island,  appears  in  the  names  of  TUR- 

^  Palgrave^   Normandy  and  England^  vol  ii.  p.  Ill;   La  Roquette, 


^  Danish  yS<«/,  English /Wl  See  Petersen,  Recherches^  p.  38 ;  Depping, 
ExpAliiicnSt  vol.  ii.  p.  341. 

s  Havre  may  be  either  from  the  Norse  hif/n^  a  haven,  or  from  the  Celtic 
aber,  a  river's  mouth.  See  Adelung,  MithridaUs^  vol.  ii.  p.  41  ;  Diefen- 
bach,  Celikoj  i.  p.  23, 


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1 88  The  Northmen. 

HULME,  NIHOU,^  and  LE  HOULME,  near  Rouen.  Cape 
de  la  HOGUE,  Cape  HOC,  and  Cape  le  HODE,  may  be 
compared  with  the  Cape  near  Dublin,  called  the  Hill  of 
Howth.  This  is  the  old  Norse  haugr^  a  sepulchral 
mound,  the  same  word  which  appears  in  the  haugJts  of 
Northumberland.  LES  DALLES,  OUDALES,  CRODALE, 

TAL,  and  BRUQUEDALLE,  remind  us  of  the  dales  of 
Westmoreland  and  the  North  Riding. 

ESCOVES  *  seems  to  be  the  Icelandic  skogVy  and  corre- 
sponds to  the  English  shaw^  a  wood,  or  shady  place. 
BosCy  a  wood,  or  bushy  place,  is  a  very  common  suffix  in 
Normandy,  as  in  the  names  VERBOSC,  bricquebosq, 
and  BANDRIBOSC.  Holty  a  wood,  occurs  in  the  name 
TERHOULDE,  or  Theroude.^  The  Calf  of  Man  is  re- 
peated in  LE  CAUF.* 

Beyond  the  district  of  Norse  colonization  we  have  a 
few  scattered  names  of  bays  and  capes,  indicating  occa- 
sional visits  of  the  Vikings.  Such  are  Cape  GRINEZ,  or 
Greyness,  near  Calais  ;  WYK  in  Belgium ;  QUANTOVIC ; 
VIGO  Bay  in  the  North  of  Spain,^  arid  possibly  VICO  in 
the  bay  of  Naples.  The  BERLINGAS,  a  group  of  rocky 
islets  forty  miles  north-west  of  Lisbon,  would  appear, 
from  the  name,  to  have  been  a  station  of  the  North- 

1  Granted  to  one  Niel,  or  Njal,  A.D.  920.  Gerville,  Noms^  p.  229 ;  La 
Roquette,  p.  48. 

*  Petersen,  p.  50. 

•  Petersen,  p.  50 ;  Depping,  vol.  ii.  p.  344. 

^  On  the  Norse  names  in  Normandy,  see  Depping,  Expiditums  Maritimes 
des  Normands^  vol.  ii.  pp.  339 — ^342 ;  Lappenberg,  England  under  the 
Anglo-Norman  KingSy  pp.  97 — 100;  Borring,  Sur  la  LimiU  Miridianale 
de  la  Monarchie  Danoise:  and  the  essays  of  Palgrave  ;  Petersen;  La 
Roquette ;  Le  Prevost ;  Gerville ;  and  Latham. 

'  A  Danish  fleet  was  destroyed  at  Compostella.  Strinnholm,  Wikingzugey 
vol.  i.  pp.  144,  145 ;  Depping,  vol.  i.  p.  no. 


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The  Northmen  in  Sicily.  189 

men.^  HASTINGUES,  a  river-island  near  Bayonne,  probably 
takes  its  name  from  the  renowned  Viking  Hasting,  who 
was  long  the  terror  of  France,  Spain,  and  Italy,  *  and  the 
He  de  BIERE  in  the  Loire  was  no  doubt  so  called  from 
the  huts  which  the  Danes  erected  upon  it  for  the  accom- 
modation of  their  prisoners.* 

SCARANOS,  on  the  southern  coast  of  Sicily,  *  is  an 
almost  solitary  memorial  of  the  visits  of  the  Vikings  to 
the  Mediterranean.^  With  this  name  we  may  compare 
those  of  Scarnose  on  the  coast  of  Banff,  Scarness  in 
Cumberland,  and  Sheemess  on  the  Thames.  The  SKERKI 
rocks,  also  on  the  Sicilian  coast,,  may  not  improbably 
have  received  from  the  Northmen  the  name  of  the 
Skerries,  or  Scar  Isles,  which  was  so  frequently  given  to 
similar  dangerous  needles  of  sea-washed  rock. 

The  most  easterly  Norse  name  is  KIBOTUS  (Cheve- 
tot),  near  Helenopolis,  on  the  Hellespont.  Here  was 
the  station  of  the  Vaeringer,  or  Varangian  guard  of  the 
Byzantine  Emperors,  who  were  afterwards  reinforced  by 
the  Ingloi,  or  Saxon  refugees,  who  fled  from  the  Norman 

The  Norman  conquest  of  England  has  left  few  traces 

'  This  patronymic  is  fonnd  on  the  Baltic  coast,  in  Friesland,  and  in 
England,  sec  p.  151,  supra. 

•  Crichton,  Scandinavia^  vol.  I  p.  166 ;  Strinnholm,  Wikingziige,  vol.  i. 
p.  26 ;  Depping,  Expiditions  des  Normands,  vol.  L  pp.  122,  132. 

'  See  Strinnholm,  WikingtUge,  vol.  i  p.  34. 

<  On  the  exploits  of  the  Northmen  in  Sicily,  see  the  Saga  of  Harold 
Haidiida,  in  Laing's  Heimskringia^  vol.  iii.  p.  7. 

•  Talbot,  English  Etymologies,  p.  376. 

•  See  Lappenbeig,  Anglo-Norman  Kings,  p.  114.  We  find  the  name 
of  these  Warings,  or  Varangians,  at  varengefjord  in  Norway,  varenge- 
viLLE  in  Normandy,  wibringerwaard  on  the  coast  of  Holland,  and  at 
many  places  in  England.  See  p.  129,  supra.  On  the  etymology  of  the 
name  see  Strinnholm,  WikingtUge,  voL  i  pp.  301,  312. 


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\  go  The  Northmen . 

on  the  map.  There  was  in  no  sense  any  coloniza** 
tion,  as  in  the  case  of  the  previous  Saxon  and  Danish 
invasions;  nor  was  there  even  such  a  general  trans- 
ference of  landed  property  as  took  place  in  Normandy, 
and  which  is  there  so  fully  attested  by  the  local 
names.  The  companions  of  the  Conqueror  were  but  a 
few  thousands  in  number,  and  they  were  widely  dis- 
persed over  the  soil.  A  few  Norman-French  names, 
however,  may  be  still  pointed  to  as  memorials  of  the 
conquest^  Of  these  RICHMOND*  in  Yorkshire,  and 
MONTGOMERY  *  on  the  Welsh  border,  are  the  most  con- 
spicuous. At  MALPAS  was  a  castle  built  by  the  first 
Norman  Earl  of  Chester  to  guard  the  "  bad  pass  "  into 
the  valley  of  the  Dee.*  MONTFORD,  or  Montesfort,  in 
Shropshire,  and  MOLD  in  Flintshire,  anciently  Mont- 
hault  *  (Mons  Altus)  were  also  frontier  fortresses ;  MONT- 
ACUTE  Hill,  in  Somerset,  has  Mortaine's  Norman  castle 
on  its  summit,  and  a  Norman  abbey  at  its  foot  The 
commanding  situation  of  BELVOIR  castle  justifies  its 
Norman  name.  At  BEAUMONT*  near  Oxford,  was  a 
palace  of  the  Norman  kings ;  and  at  FLESHY  (plaisir)  in 
Essex,  the  seat  of  the  High  Constables  of  England,  the 

^  The  only  Anglo-Nonnan  su£Bixes  seem  to  be  clere^  manor^  and  courts  as 
in  HIGHCLERE,  BEAUMANOIR,  and  HAMPTON  COURT.  We  have  also  a  few 
names  like  chester-le-street,  bolton-le-moor,  and  laughton-en-I£- 


'  Thierry,  Conquest,  p.  90.  Henry  IV.  transferred  to  his  Surrey  palace 
the  name  of  his  Yorkshire  earldom. 

*  The  same  story  is  told  in  another  language  by  the  Welsh  name  of 
Montgomery— Tre-faldwyn,  or  Baldwin's  Town.  See  Borrow,  Wild  WaUs^ 
vol.  iii.  p.  97. 

^  Ormerod,  Hist  of  Chester^  voL  ii.  p.  328 ;  Chamock,  Local  Elymol. 

p.  173. 

*  Cambro-Britoftf  voL  i.  p.  136. 

*  Cough's  Camden,  voL  ii.  p.  21. 


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Vestiges  of  the  Norman  Conquest  19I 

ruins  of  the  Noraian  ke6p  are  still  visible.^  BEAUCHAMP- 
OTTON,near  Castle  Hedingham,  bears  the  name  of  Ottone, 
the  skilful  goldsmith  who  fashioned  the  tomb  of  the 
Conqueror  at  Caen.*  We  find  the  Norman  abbeys  of 
RlEVAUX  and  JORVEAUX  in  Yorkshire,  BFAULIEU  in 
Hampshire,  DELAPRE  in  Northamptonshire,  -^nd  the 
Augustinian  Priory  of  GRACEDIEU  in  Leicestershire, 
The  Norman  family  of  St.  Clare,  or  Clarence,  has  be- 
stowed its  name  upon  an  English  town,  an  Irish  county, 
a  royal  dukedom,  and  a  Cambridge  college.*  We  have 
the  names  of  Norman  barons  at  STOKE-MANDEVILLE, 
in  the  county  of  Sussex,  where  the  Conqueror  landed, 
and  where  the  actual  transfer  of  estates  seems  to  have 
taken  place  to  a  greater  extent  than  in  other  counties. 
Sussex  is  the  only  English  county  which  is  divided  into 
rapes,  as  well  as  into  hundreds  or  wapentakes.  While 
the  hundred  seems  to  indicate  the  peaceful  settlements 
of  Saxon  families,  and  the  wapentake  the  defensive  mili- 
tary organization  of  the  Danish  intruders,  the  rape,  as  it 
would  appear,  is  a  memorial  of  the  violent  transference 
of  landed  property  by  the  Conqueror — the  lands  being 
plotted  out  for  division  by  the  hr^,  or  rope,  just  as  they 

^  Gougli's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  pp.  121,  133. 

'  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England^  voL  iv.  p.  2.     ' 

'  See  Donaldson,  English  Ethnography,  p.  60  ;  Yonge,  Christian  Names, 
vol.  L  p.  385.  The  Clarenceaux  King-at-Arms  had  jurisdiction  over  the 
Surroys,  or  men  south  of  the  Trent,  and  the  Norroys*  king  over  those  to 
the  north  of  that  river. 


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192  The  Northmen. 

had  been  by  Rolf  in  Normandy.    Illam  terram   (Nor- 
mandy) suis  fidelibus  funiculo  divisit.^ 

There  are  some  curious  memorials  of  that  influx  of 
Anglo-Norman  nobles  into  Scotland  which  took  place 
during  the  reigns  of  David  I.  and  Malcolm  Canmore.  In 
ancient  records  the  name  of  Maxwell  is  written  in  the 
Norman  form  of  Maccusville.  The  name  of  Robert  de 
Montealt  has  been  corrupted  into  Mowatt  and  MOFFAT ; 
and  the  families  of  Sinclair,  Fraser,  Baliol^  Bruce,  Camp- 
bell, Colville,  Somerville,  Grant  (le  Grand),  and  Fleming, 
are  all,  as  their  names  bear  witness,  of  continental  an- 
cestry.* Richard  Waleys — that  is,  Richard  the  Foreigner 
— ^was  the  ancestor  of  the  great  Wallace,  and  has  left  his 
name  at  RICHARDTUN  in  Ayrshire.  The  ancestor  of  the 
Maule  family  has  left  his  name  at  Maleville,  or  MEL- 
VILLE, in  Lothian.  SETON  takes  its  name  from  a  Nqr- 
man  adventurer  called  Say.  TANKERTON,  in  Clydesdale, 
was  the  fief  of  Tancard,  or  Tancred,  a  Fleming  who 
came  to  Scotland  in  the  reign  of  Malcolm  IV.  And  a 
few  village  names  like  INGLISTON,  NORMANTON,  and 
FLEMINGTON,  afford  additional  evidence  of  the  exten- 
sive immigration  of  foreign  adventurers  which  was 
encouraged  by  the  Scottish  kings. 

1  Dudo,  De  Moribus  Norm,  Ducum,  apud  Duchesne,  Hist  Norm,  ScripL 
p.  85.  The  districts  of  Iceland  are  called  Hreppar.  The  hyde,  the  Saxon 
unit  of  land,  seems  to  have  been  a  portion  measured  off  with  a  thimg^  as 
the  rape  was  with  a  rop€.  See  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England^  vol.  i. 
p.  692;  voL  iii.  p.  395;  Robertson,  Early  Kings^  vol.  ii.  p.  213. 

'  See  Buchanan,  Scottish  Surnames^  pp.  42,  43  ;  Palgrave,  Normandy 
and  England^  voL  iii.  Appendix,  and  vol.  iv.  p.  298 ;  Dugdale,  Chalmers, 
and  the  Charters.  Skene,  History  of  the  Highlanders^  voL  il  p.  280,  &c., 
attempts  to  disprove  the  supposed  Norman  origin  of  the  Campbells  aad 
other  Scottish  families.  He  admits,  however,  the  case  of  the  Grants ; 
vol.  ii.  p.  255. 


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The  Celts.  193 



Prevalerue  of  Celtic  Names  in  £urope— Antiquity  of  River-names—  The  roots 
Avon,  Dur,  Stour,  Esk,  Rhe,  and  Don— Myth  of  the  Danaides— Hybrid 
composition,  and  reduplication  of  synonyms — AdjectrvcU  river-names :  the 
Yare,  Alne,  Ban,  Douglas,  Leven,  Tame,  Aire,  Cam,  and  Clyde— Celtic 
mountain-nantes :  cefn,  pen,  cenn,  dun — Names  of  Rocks —  Valleys — Lakes 
—Dwellings — Cymric  and  Gadhdic  test-words — Celts  in  GalcUia — Celts  in 
Germany,  France,  and  Spain — Euskarian  Names — Gradual  retrocession 
of  Celts  in  England^Amount  of  the  Celtic  element — Division  of  Scotland 
between  the  Pictsand  Gaels — Inver  and  Aber — Ethnology  of  the  Isle 
of  Man. 

Europe  has  been  peopled  by  successive  immigrations 
from  the  East.  Five  great  waves  of  population  have 
rolled  in,  each  in  its  turn  urging  the  flood  which  had 
preceded  it  further  and  further  toward  the  West.  The 
mighty  Celtic  inundation  is  the  first  which  we  can  dis- 
tinctly trace  in  its  progress  across  Europe,  forced  on- 
ward by  the  succeding  deluges  of  the  Romance,  Teu- 
tonic, and  Sclavonic  peoples,  till  at  length  it  was  driven 
forward  into  the  far  western  extremities  of  Europe. 

The  Celts  were  divided  into  two  gfreat  branches,  which 
followed  one  another  on  their  passage  across  Europe. 
Both  branches  spoke  languages  of  the  same  stock,  but 
distinguished  by  dialectic  differences  as  great  or  greater 
than  those  which  divide  Greek  from  Latin,  or  English 
from  German.    There  are  living  tongues  belonging  to 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

194  T^he  Celts. 

each  of  these  branches.  The  first,  or  Gadhelic  branch, 
is  now  represented  by  the  Erse  of  Ireland,  the  Gaelic  of 
the  Scotch  Highlands,  and  the  Manx  of  the  Isle  of 
Man  ;  the  second,  or  Cymric,  by  the  Welsh  of  Wales, 
and  the  Brezonec  or  Armorican  of  Brittany,  which  is 
still  spoken  by  a  million  and  a  half  of  Frenchmen,^ 

Although  both  of  these  branches  of  the  Celtic  speech 
now  survive  only  in  the  extreme  corners  of  western 
Europe,  yet,  by  the  evidence  of  local  names,  it  may  be 
shown  that  they  prevailed  at  one  time  over  a  great  part 
of  the  continent  of  Europe,  before  the  Teutonic  and 
Romance  nations  had  expelled  or  absorbed  the  once 
dominant  Celts.  In  the  geographical  nomenclature  of 
Germany,  Switzerland,  Italy,  France,  Spain,  and  England, 
we  find  a  Celtic  substratum  underlying  the  superficial 
deposit  of  Teutonic  and  Romance  names.  These  Celtic 
roots  form  the  chief  available  evidence  on  which  we  can 
rely  when  investigating  the  immigrations  of  the  Celtic 

We  shall  now  proceed  to  adduce  a  few  fragments  of 
the  vast  mass  of  evidence  which  has  been  collected  by 
numerous  industrious  explorers,  and  which  seems  to 
justify  them  in  their  belief  as  to  the  wide  extension  of 
the  Celtic  race  at  some  unknown  prehistoric  period. 

One  class  of  local  names  is  of  special  value  in  investi- 
gations relating  to  primaeval  history.  The  river-names, 
more  particularly  the  names  of  important  rivers,  are 
everywhere  the  memorials  of  the  very  earliest  races.- 
These  river-names  survive  where  all  other  names  have 

^  Diefenbach,  Celtica^  ii.  part  ii.  p.  162 ;  Meyer,  in  Bunsen's  Philos,  of 
Univ.  History ^  vol.  i.  p.  14$. 

«  See  Forstemann,  in  Kuhn*s  Zeitschrift  fur  Vet^.  Spn  vol.  ix.  p.  284 ; 
Monkhouse,  Etymologies ^ -p.  64;  Miiller,  Markend,  Vaierl,  p.  124;  Scfaott, 
Deut.  Col.  p.  218. 


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River-Nu^Hes.  195 

(Changed — ^they  seem  to  possess  an  almost  indestructible 
vitality.  Towns  may  be  destroyed,  the  sites  of  human 
habitation  may  be  removed,  but  the  ancient  river-names 
are  handed  down  from  race  to  race ;  even  the  names  of 
the  eternal  hills  are  less  permanent  than  those  of  rivers. 
Over  the  greater  part  of  Europe — in  Germany,^  France, 
Italy,  Spain — we  find  villages  which  bear  Teutonic  or 
Romance  names,  standing  on  the  banks  of  streams  which 
still  retain  their  ancient  Celtic  appellations.  Throughout 
the  whole  of  England  there  is  hardly  a  single  river-name 
which  is  not  Celtic.  By  a  reference  to  the  map  prefixed 
to  this  volume  it  will  be  seen  that  those  districts  of  our 
island  which  are  dotted  thickly  with  Anglo-Saxon  and 
Scandinavian  village-names,  are  traversed  everywhere  by 
red  lines,  which  represent  the  rivers  whose  names  are 
now  almost  the  sole  evidence  that  survives  of  a  once 
universal  Celtic  occupation  of  the  land. 

The  Celtic  words  which  appear  in  the  names  of  rivers 
may  be  divided  into  two  classes.  The  first  may  be  called 
the  substantival  class,  and  the  second  the  adjectival. 

The  first  class  consists  of  ancient  words  which  mean 
simply  water  or  river.  At  a  time  when  no  great  inter- 
communication existed,  and  when  books  and  maps  were 
unknown,  geographical  knowledge  must  have  been 
very  slender.  Hence  whole  tribes  were  acquainted  with 
only  one  considerable  river,  and  it  sufficed,  therefore,  to 
call  it  "  The  Water,"  or  "  The  River."  Such  terms  were 
not  at  first  regarded  as  proper  names ;  in  many  cases 
they  only  became  proper  names  on  the  advent  of  a  con- 
quering race.  To  take  an  example — the  word  afon. 
This  is  the  usual  Welsh  term  for  a  river.     On  a  map  of 

1  Almost  every  river-name  in  Germany  is  Celtic.     Leo,    Vorlesungen^ 
voL  i,  p.  198;  Zeuss,  Gram,  Celt,  voL  ii.  p.  760. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

196  The  Celts. 

Wales  we  find  at  Bettws-y-Coed  the  "Afon  LIugwy," 
or,  as  it  is  usually  called  by  English  tourists,  the  "  River 
LIugwy."  So  also  at  Dolwyddelen  we  find  the  Afon 
Lledr,  or  River  Lledr,  and  the  Afon  Dulas  and  the  Afon 
Dyfi  at  Machynlleth.  In  England,  however,  the  word 
avon  is  no  longer  a  common  name  as  it  is  in  Wales,  but  has 
become  a  proper  name.  We  have  a  River  AVON  which 
flows  by  Warwick -and  Stratford,  another  River  AVON 
flows  past  Bath  and  Bristol,  and  elsewhere  there  are 
other  rivers  of  the  same  name,  which  will  presently  be 
enumerated.  The  same  process  which  has  converted  the 
word  afon  from  a  common  name  into  a  proper  name  has 
also  taken  place  with  other  words  of  the  same  class. 
There  is,  in  fact,  hardly  a  single  Celtic  word  meaning 
stream,  current,  brook,  channel,  water,  or  flood,  which 
does  not  enter  largely  into  the  river-names  of  Europe. 

The  second  class  of  river-names  comprises  those  which 
may  be  called  adjectival.  The  Celtic  words  meaning 
rough,  gentle,  smooth,  white,  black,  yellow,  crooked, 
broad,  swift,  muddy,  clear,  and  the  like,  are  found  in  the 
names  of  a  large  proportion  of  European  rivers.  For 
example,  the  Celtic  word  garw,  rough,  is  found  in  the 
names  of  the  GARRY,  the  YARE,  the  YARROW,  and  the 


We  may  now  proceed  to  enumerate  some  of  the  more 
important  names  which  belong  to  either  class. 

I.  Avon.  This,  as  we  have  seen,  is  a  Celtic  word 
meaning  "  a  river."  It  is  written  aon  in  the  Manx  lan- 
guage, and  abhainn  (pronounced  avain)  in  Gaelic  We 
find  also  the  ancient  forms  amhain^  and  auwon.    This 

1  Cognate  to  the  Latin  amnis.  Ultimately  a/on  is  to  be  referred  to  the 
Sanskrit  root  ap^  water,  which  we  see  in  the  names  of  the  Punj-o^,  or  land 
of  the  **five  rivers;"  the  Do-o^,  the  district  between  the  "two  rivers," 


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River-Names — Avon,  197 

word  has  become  a  proper  name  in  the  case  of  numerous 
rivers  in  England,  Scotland,  France,  and  Italy.  The 
Stratford  AVON  flows  through  Warwickshire  and  Wor- 
cestershire. The  Bristol  AVON  divides  the  counties  of 
Gloucester  and  Somerset.  The  Little  AVON,  also  in 
Gloucestershire,  runs  near  Berkeley  Castle.  One  Hamp- 
shire AVON  flows  past  Salisbury  to  Christchurch,  another 
enters  the  sea  at  Lymington.  We  also  have  rivers  called 
AVON  or  EVAN  in  the  counties  of  Devon,  Monmouth, 
Glamorgan,  Lanark,  Stirling,  Banff",  Kincardine,  Dum- 
fries, and  Ross.  We  find  the  IVE  in  Cumberland^  the 
ANNE  in  Clare,  and  an  INN  in  Fife  and  in  the  Tyrol. 
The  AUNE  in  Devon  keeps  close  to  the  pronunciation  of 
the  Celtic  word.  The  AUNEY,  in  the  same  county,  is  the 
Celtic  diminutive  "  Little  Avon,"  which  we  find  also  in 
the  EWENNY  in  Glamorgan,  the  EVENENY  in  Forfar,  the 
INNEY  in  Cornwall,  and  the  ANEY  in  Meath.  The  AWE 
in  Argyll,  and  the  EHEN  in  Cumberland,  are  probably 
corrupted  forms  of  the  word  Avon. 

We  find  it  in  composition  in  the  AVEN-GORM  in  Sligo, 
the  AVEN- BANNA  in  Wexford,  the  BAN-ON  in  Pembroke- 
shire, the  AVEN-BUI  in  Cork,  the  AVEN-MORE  in  Mayo 
and  Sligo,  and  the  ANTON  in  Hampshire,  as  well,  possibly, 
as  in  the  case  of  the  d-ove,i  the  T-OWY,  the  T-aff,  the 
T-AVY,  the  T-AW,  and  the  D-EE,  anciently  the  V>eva? 

A  very  large  number  of  French  river-names^  contain  the 

Ganges  and  Jumna ;  as  well  as  in  the  river-names  of  the  Z-ab^  and  of  the 
Dan-»^-ius,  or  Dan-i/^-e. 

^  Compare  the  name  of  the  Dovebridge  over  the  Avon. 

s  This  initial  d  ox  t  may  be  a  fragment  of  an  ancient  preposition,  as  will 
be  shown  below,  p.  209,  infra.  These  names  are  more  probably  to  be 
referred  to  the  Welsh  dof  gentle ;  or  dyfi^  smooth. 

>  There  are  some  remarks  on  the  Celtic  river-names  of  France  in  a  paper 
by  Kennedy,  in  Philological  Trans,  for  1855,  p.  166;  Betham,  Gae\  pp. 


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198  The  Celts, 

root  afon.  In  Brittany  we  find  the  AFF,  and  two  streams 
called  AVEN.  There  are  two  streams  called  AVON  in  the 
river  system  of  the  Loire,  and  two  in  that  of  the  Seine. 
The  names  of  the  chief  French  rivers  often  contain  a 
fragment — sometimes  only  a  single  letter — of  this  root, 
which  may,  however,  be  identified  by  a  comparison  of 
the  ancient  with  the  modem  name.  Thus,  the  Matr^^ia 
is  now  the  Mar«e,  the  Ax^wa  is  the  Ais«e,  the  Sequ^wa 
is  the  Sei«e,  the  -4«tura  is  the  Eure,  the  Iscauna,  is  the 
Yonne,  the  Sauc^«a  is  the  Sa<7«e,  the  Meduana  is  the 
Mayenne,  the  Dura«ius  is  the  Dord^^^e,  the  Garumna,  is 
the  Garonne,  The  names  of  an  immense  number  of  the 
smaller  French  streams  end  in  on,  onne,  or  one,  which  is 
probably  a  corruption  of  the  root  a/on.  In  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Vosges,  for  instance,  we  find  the  Madon,  the 
Durbi^;/,  the  Angronne,  and  the  NoXogne,  In  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Alpes-basses  we  have  the  Verd^«,  the  Jabr^w, 
the  Auoft,  the  Calavon,  and  the  ^\€one.  In  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Ain  there  are  the  Loud^«,  the  Sevr^«,  the 
Solvaany  and  the  Aift.  Elsewhere  we  have  the  Avetine^ 
the  yUaine,  the  Yienne,  the  Arnon,  the  Ausonne,  the 
Odon,  the  lion,  the  Sevan,  the  Aveyron,  the  Roscod^«, 
the  Maronne,  the  Joxirdanne,  the  Dour^«,  and  scores  of 
similar  names. 

The  same  termination  occurs  frequently  in  the  names 
of  German  streams,  as  for  example,  in  the  case  of  the 
hahn,  anciently  the  hohana,  the  Isen,  anciently  the  Isana, 
the  Mor«,  anciently  the  Merina,  and  the  Arge^i,  anciently 
the  Argana^  while  the  T>rave  and   the  Save  preserve 

194 — 196 ;  Astnic,  Hist  de  LanguedoCy  p.  424  ;  Thierry,  Hist  Gaul,  vol.  ii, 
p.  2 ;  Ferguson,  Rivfr  Nanus^  passim ;  Pott,  Etymohg.  Forsch,  vol  iL  pp. 
103,  528 ;  Salverte,  Essai  sur  les  Noms,  vol.  ii.  p.  289. 
1  Vilmar,  Ortsnamm,  p.  254. 


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River-Names^— Dur.  199 

the  latter  instead  of  the  former  portion  of  the  ancient 

In  Portugal  we  find  the  AVI  A,  and  in  Spain  the  ABONO 
or  AVONO.  The  GUADI-ANA  is  the  Anas  of  Strabo,  with 
the  Arabic  prefix  Wadt 

In  Italy  we  may  enumerate  the  Aventia.,  now  UAvmzsi, 
the  Savo,  now  the  Savone,  the  Ufens,  now  the  Au/ente, 
the  Vomawus,  now  the  Vom^wo,  as  well  as  the  Amas^us, 
the  Fibrous,  and  the  Avens} 

The  names  of  Oundla  (Avondale),  Wandle,  Wands- 
worth, IVanstesid,  Wansford,  Yqtohb.,  and  Avi^on, 
anciently  Avenion,  the  town  on  the  a/on  or  stream  of 
the  Rhod^/^us,  or  Rhone,*  have  all  been  thought  to  con- 
tain the  same  root 

II.  DUR.  Another  word,  diffused  nearly  as  widely  as 
a/on,  is  the  Welsh  dwr,  water.*  Prichard  gives  a  list  of 
forty-four  ancient  names  containing  this  root  in  Italy, 
Germany,  Gaul,  and  Britain.  We  find  the  DOUR  in  Fife, 
Aberdeen,  and  Kent,  the  DORE  in  Hereford,  the  DUIR  in 
Lanark,  the  THUR  in  Norfolk,  the  DORO  in  Queen's 
County  and  Dublin,  the  DURRA  in  Cornwall,  the  dairan 
in  Carnarvonshire,  the  DURARWATER  and  the  DEARGAN 
in  Argyle,  the  DOVER  orDurheck  in  Nottinghamshire,  the 
Glas^/«r,  or  grey  water,  in  Elgin,  the  Kot/ier,  or  red  water 
(Rhuddwr),  in  Sussex,  the  CdLlder,^  or  winding  water, 
in  Lancashire  (twice),   Yorkshire,  Cumberland,   Lanark 

^  Williams,  in  Edinhurgh  Transactions,  vol.  xiii  p.  521 ;  Essays,  p.  70. 

«  Salverte,  Essai  sur  Us  Noms,  vol.  ii.  p.  289. 

'  Brezonec  and  Cornish  dour",  Gaelic  and  Irish  dur,  and  dobhar,  pro- 
nounced doar;  cf.  the  Greek  UJwp.  On  this  root  see  Diefenbach,  Celtica,  i. 
p.  155;  Adelung,  Mithrtdaies,  vol.  ii.  p.  57;  Davies,  Celtic  Researches,  p. 
207 ;  Dnncker,  Orig.  Germ,  p.  55  ;  Chamock,  Local Etym.  p.  93 ;  Ferguson, 
River  Names,  pp.  37,  69;  'Rz.dXof,  Neue  Untersuchungen,  p.  317;  De 
fiellogaet,  Etknoghtic,  vol  i.  p.  218. 

*  Perhaps,  however,  from  the  Norse  kalldr^  cold. 


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iOO  The  Celts. 

:(three  times),  Edinburgh,  Nairn,  Invemiess,  and  Renrrew, 
the  Adder  in  Wilts,  and  two  of  the  same  name  in  Berwick, 
the  Adur  in  Sussex,  the  Adar  m  Mayo,  the  'Hoder  in 
Wiltshire,  the  Cheddar  in  Somerset,  the  cascade  of  Lo^r^, 
the  lakes  of  Windbmere  and  Z>^rwent-water.  The  name 
Derwtnt  is  probably  from  dwr-gwyn^  the  clear  water.^ 
tThere  is  a  river  jD^rwent  in  Yorkshire,  another  in  Derby- 
shire, a  third  in  Cumberland,  and  a  fourth  in  Durham. 
The  Darwin  in  Lancashire,  the  Derwen  in  Denbighshire, 
the  DartTit  in  Kent,  and  the  Dart  in  Devon,  are  con- 
tractions of  the  same  name,^  as  well,  possibly,  as  the 


Dorchester  was  the  city  of  the  Z?»r-otriges,  or 
dwellers  by  the  water,  and  a  second  ancient  city  of 
Dorchester,  in  Oxfordshire,  stands  upon  the  banks  of  the 

In  France*  we  have  the  jD«ranius,  now  the  Z^^rdogne, 
the  An/«ra,  now  the  Eure,  and  the  A^rus,  now  the 
AdouK  The  Alpine  Durance,  anciently  the  Druentia, 
reminds  us  of  Our  English  Derwents.  We  find  the 
THURR  in  Alsace  and  again  in  Switzerland,  the  Durhion 
in  the  Vosges,  the  Durdsin  in  Normandy,  the  Dourdon 
and  the  Dourbie  in  the  department  of  the  Aveyron,  as 
well  as  the  Douron  in  Brittany. 

1  Whitaker,  Htst  Whalley,  p.  8 ;  Chamock,  Local  Efym.  p.  85  ; 
Williams,  Edin.  Trans,  vol.  xiii.  p.  522 ;  Essays^  p.  72  ;  Poste,  BrU, 
Researches^  p.  143.  Feiguson  prefers  Baxter's  etymology,  from  the  Welsh 
derwyn,  to  wind,  Rrver  Names,  p.  141.  I  believe,  however,  that  none  of 
the  Derwents  are  very  tortuous,  though  they  are  all  very  clear. 

s  That  the  Darent  was  anciently  the  Derwent  is  shown  by  the  name  of 
DERVENTio,  the  Roman  station  on  the  Darent.  The  further  contraction 
into  the  form  Dart  is  exhibited  in  the  name  of  Dartford,  the  modem  town 
on  the  same  river.     See  Baxter,  Glossarium,  p.  103. 

8  Pott,  Etym.  Forsch,  vol.  ii.  p.  104 ;  Philolog,  Proc,  vol.  i.  p.  107 ; 
King,  ItcUian  Valleys^  p.  75, 


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River-Names — Stour.  20l 

In  the  North- Western,  or  Celtic  part  of  Spain,  there 
are  the  jDwrius,  now  the  DOURO,  the  Dtien\%  the 
j9«faton,  the  TVrio,  the  7>ra,  the  Twrones,  and  the 

In  Italy  are  the  TORRi;,  the  two  Durias  or  DORAS  in 
Piedmont,  and  the  TURIA,  a  tributary  of  the  Tiber.  In 
the  slightly  changed  form  of  ter  we  find  the  root  dur  in 
the  names  of  the  Tr^^entum,  now  the  Toronto,  the  TVaens 
now  the  T'nbnto,^  as  well  as  the  T'ri^bia,  the  TVrias,  the 
TVrmus,  the  Dnies/^,  and  the  \ster?^ 

In  Germany  we  find  the  OdeTj  the  Dr^s^y  the  Dur- 
bach,  the  Z>«>Tenbach  in  Wiirtemberg,  the  Z^/Vmbach 
in  Austria,  the  Z?«>Tenbronne  near  Eppingen,^  and  the 
city  of  Marcorf«rum,  now  Dur^n.^ 

Stour  is  a  very  common  river-name.  There  are  im- 
portant rivers  of  this  name  in  Kent,  Suffolk,  Dorset, 
Warwickshire,  and  Worcestershire ;  we  have  the  STOR  in 
Holstein,  the  Stura,  in  Latium,  is  now  the  STORE,  and 
STURA  is  a  very  common  river-name  in  Northern  Italy. 
The  etymology  of  this  name  Stour  is  by  no  means 
certain.    In  Welsh,  words  are  augmented  and  intensified 

1  Compare  the  name  of  the  English  TVent,  anciently  the  Treonta. 

'  Rawlinson,  fferodotus,  vol.  ilL  p.  202.     See  however  p.  202,  infra, 

'  Mone,  CelHsche  Forschungen^  p.  68. 

^  In  ancient  Gaul  we  find  many  names  of  towns  in  which  this  root 
indicates  that  their  sites  were  on  the  banks  of  rivers.  We  may  specify, 
among  others,  Emo</»rum,  Salo^iirum,  Iciodurvaxi,  Divo^Mnim«  Brevio- 
durvaa,  Gano</Knim,  Velatot/iirum,  Anti8so</t/rum,  Octo</t/mm,  Brivo- 
</»nim,  Marco</Mmm,  Duromnxi,  2>Krocatalaunum,  and  Veto</t/rum.  In 
the  valley  of  the  Danube  we  find  Gabano(/»nim,  Bnigo^/i/nim,  Eboi/Mrum, 
Ecto^Mrum,  'Roiodumjjsi ;  and  in  Britain,  2>Kn>vemum,  Z^vrobrivse,  Dur^ 
olevum,  Z)wrolitum,  Z?»rocomovium,  j^n>cobrivium,  and  ZTwrolipsus. 
Pricfaard,  Researcha^  vol.  iii.  pp.  114 — 119.  So  ZURICH,  in  Switzerland, 
is  a  corruption  of  7«ncum,  solothurn  of  Salo</tfrum,  and  winterthur 
of  y'xXfiduinxEBu  Forstemann,  Altdeutsches  Namenbtuh^  vpl.  ii.  p.  446  \ 
Keferstein,  Kelt,  Alt,  voL  ii.  p.  375. 


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202  The  Celts. 

in  meaning   by   means  of  the  prefix  ysy     Thus   we 
have — 


a  lake ; 


a  slough. 


a  bar; 


a  spear. 






to  creak ; 


a  shriek. 


to  scratch ; 


to  scrape. 


a  point ; 


a  spine. 


vapour  (muggy) ; 




light,  fickle ; 




a  peak,  or  point ; 


a  spike. 


a  shoot ; 


a  sprig. 

Stour^  therefore,  may  be  only  the  intensitive  of  dur. 
On  the  other  hand,  it  is  possible  that  by  a  common  pro- 
cess of  reduplication  of  synonyms,  which  will  presently 
be  discussed,  the  word  Stour  may  be  formed  from  a 
prevalent  root — if,  water;  and  dwvy  water.  There  is 
also  a  further  complication,  arising  from  a  Teutonic 
river-root  st-r,  which  has  been  discussed  by  Forstemann, 
a  great  authority.*  He  finds  this  root  in  the  names  of 
more  than  one  hundred  German  streams,  such  as  the 
Elster,  Alster,  Lastrau,  Wilster,  Ulster,  Gelster,  Innerste, 
Agistra,  Halsterbach,  Streu,  Suestra,  Stroo,  Strobeck, 
Laster,  Nister,  and  others. 

III.  ESK.  The  Gaelic  and  Erse  word  for  water  is 
uisge?  This  is  represented  in  Welsh  by  wysg^  a  current, 
and  by  gwy  or  wy^  water.     This  root,  subject  to  various 

^  Some  forty  instances  of  this  augmentation  may  be  found  in  Gamett's 
Essays,  p.  174 ;  Cf.  Dtefenbach,  Celtica,  L  pp.  90 — 96  ;  Chamock,  Local 
Eiynu  pp.  258,  269  ;  Mayhew,  German  Life  and  Manners,  voL  i.  p.  557  » 
Zcuss,  Gram.  Celtica,  vol.  i.  p.  142.  '  On  the  name  Stour,  see  Feiguson, 
River  Names,  p.  58 ;  and  Boudaid,  Num.  Iber,  p.  127,  who  thinks  it  is 
the  Kuskarian  ast-ur,  rock  water. 

"  In  Kuhn*s  Zeitschrift  fiir  Vergleichende  Sprachforsehung,  voL  ix.  pp. 

•  Whisky  is  a  corruption  of  Uisge-boy,  yellow  water. 


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River-Names — Esk.  20% 

phonetic  mutations,  is  found  in  the  names  of  a  vast  num- 
ber of  rivers.*    There  is  an  ESK  in  Don^al,  in  Devon, 
in  Yorkshire,  in  Cumberland,  in  Dumfries,  two  in  For- 
farshire, and  two  in  Edinburghshire.     We  have  an  ESKY 
in  Sligo,  an  ESKER  in  King's  County  and  in  Brecknock, 
an  ESKLE  in  Herefordshire,  and  an  isle  in  Somerset 
^Jthwaite  Water,  and  EaseAdX^,  in  the  Lake  District, 
contain  the  same  root,  as  well  as  the  EWES  in  Northum- 
berland and  Dumfries,  the  ISE  near  Wellingborough,  the 
/fboume,  a  tributary  of  the  Stratford  Avon,  the  ^^w^burn 
in  Yorkshire,  the  -^jAboume  in   Sussex,  and  the  ASH 
in  Hertfordshire  and  Wiltshire.     In  Bedfordshire  and  in 
Hertfordshire  we  have  the  IZ  ;    the  /rchalis  was  the 
ancient  name  of  the  Ivel,  and  the  Tisa  of  the  Te^j.^ 
The  ISIS  contains  the  root  in  a  reduplicated  form,  and 
the  Tam^ji>,  or  THAMES,  is  the  **  broad  Isis."     In  Wales 
we  have  the  river  which  the  Welsh  call  the  WYSG,  and 
the  English  call  the  USK.     This  Celtic  word  was  Ro- 
manized into  Isca,  while  another  Isca  in  Devonshire, 
now  the  EXE,  has  given  its  name  to  -E^reter,  ^'^rmoor,  and 
-Ermouth.     There  is  also  an  EX  in  Hampshire  and  in 
Middlesex.     The  Somersetshire  AXE  flows  by  ^orbridge, 
and  the  Devonshire  AXE  gives  its  name  to  ^jtrminster, 
and  yjjrmouth.     The  ancient  name  of  the  Chelm  must 
have  also  been  the  Axe,  for  Chelmsford  was  formerly 
Trajectus  ad  Axam,  and  Thaxted  has  been  supposed 
to  be  a  corruption  of  The  Ax  Stead.*    The  town  of  Ux- 
bridge  stands  on  the  River  Colne,  a  later  Roman  appel- 

*  Diefenbach,  Celtica^  ii.  part  i.  p.  327 ;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnography^ 
p.  39;  Radlof,  Neue  Uniersuchungen,  p.  2S6.  The  word  has  been  thought 
to  have  some  Norse  affinities.  See  Dietrich,  in  Haupt's  Zeiischrifi^  vol.  v. 
p.  228. 

•  More  probably  from  the  Gadhelic  Aiw,  moisture. 
»  Baxter,  Glossarium^  p.  31. 


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204  The  Celts. 

lation,  which  apparently  superseded  the  Celtic  natne  Ux. 
The  OCK  joins  the  Thames  near  Oxford,  the  OKE  is  in 
Devon,  and  the  Ban^Aurn,  near  Stirling,  has  given  its 
name  to  a  famous  battle-field.  The  few  Gadhelic  names 
in  England  are  found  chiefly  towards  the  Eastern  part 
of  the  island ;  here  consequently  we  find  three  rivers 
called  the  OUSE,i  as  well  as  the  OUSEL,  the  OUSEBURN, 
the  USE  in  Buckinghamshire,  UGG  Mere,  and  OS-EY  Is- 
land. Oseney  *  Abbey  is  on  an  island  near  Oxford.  The 
WISK  and  the  WasAhurn  in  Yorkshire,  the  Guash  in 
Rutland,  the  Wissey  in  Norfolk,  and  the  local  names 
of  IVisMord,  Wislcy,  IVisAsing^r,  I^irborough,  Wiskin 
(water-island)  in  the  Fens,  formerly  an  island ;  Wistovf 
and  -^jbeach,  in  the  fens  of  Huntingdonshire,  JVisheach, 
and  the  WASH,  seem  to  be  derived  from  the  Welsh  wys^ 
rather  than  from  the  Gaelic  uisg-e. 

In  Spain  there  are  the  ESCA  and  the  -E^la,  the  latter 
of  which  we  may  compare  with  the  two  /rlas  in  Scot- 
land, the  /fie  in  Somerset,  and  the  Isle  in  Brittany,  where 
also  we  find  the  /jac,  the  Oust,  the  Cou^^non,  and  the 
Cou^jan ;  and  in  other  districts  of  France  are  the  ESQUE, 
the  ASSE,  the  OSE,  the  Isoli,  the  Ishrt,  the  Otische,  the 
Aisne,  the  Ausonnc,  and  the  Ach^j^. 

There  are  several  French  rivers  called  the  Afes  or 
AfeSE.  The  /jara,  or  EsidL,  has  become  the  OISE,  the 
AxonsL  is  now  the  Aisne,  the  /rcauna  is  the  Fonne,  the 
Liger£f  is  the  Loire,  and  the  (/[rantis  insula  is  the  island 
of  Otiessant  or  £/ihant  The  name  of  the  town  of 
Orange,  near  Avignon,  is  a  corruption  of  Ar^trion.* 

^  The  Huntingdonshire  peasant  to  this  day  calls  the  Ouse  the  Usey,  thus 
preserving  the  ancient  Gaelic  form.     Monkhouse,  Etymologies^  p.  64. 

•  The  n  is  probably  a  relic  of  the  Celtic  innisy  island,  as  in  the  case  of 
Orkney.     See  page  171,  supra» 

'  Salverte,  Essai  sur  les  Noms^  vol.  ii.  p.  ^89. 


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River-Names — Esk.  205 

The  /rella  is  now  the  Fxrel,  the  Scaldi>  is  the  Scheldt, 
the  Vahalir  is  the  Waal.  In  central  Europe  we  have  the 
Alb£r  now  the  Elbe,  the  Tanaw  now  the  Don,  the  l&oxys-' 
thenes  now  the  Dan^jper  or  Dn^Vper,  the'Tyr^  now  the 
Damzxter  or  Dni^Jter,  the  Tibifcus  now  the  Their,  the 
/rter  now  the  Danube,  to  which  may,  perhaps,  be  added 
the  Hyphanif,  the  Hyphasij,  the  Phaser,  the  Tiberir,  the 
Teri>,  the  /raurus,  the  /saphis,  and  the  /roeus. 

Among  German  streams  we  find  the  ISE,  the  AXE,  the 
/fen,  the  /far,  the  iE'wach,  the  -ffjchaz,  the  5ave,  the 
Ahse^  the  -ff/xbach,  the  -ff/jenbach,  the  EistKbzx^  the 
£*Aach,  the  ^jelbach ;  and  a  very  large  number  of  small 
streams  bear  the  names  of  -ff/^Abach,  -^jrAbach,  EschA- 
bach,  and  jE'jrAelbronn  or  ^j^Aelbrunn.  We  find,  also,  the 
-Ejjebom,  the  -ffxterbach,  the  -^^jbach,  and  the  ^tsch> 

The  word  Etsch  is  a  German  corruption  of  the  ancient 
name  Atesis  or  Ath^j^r,  which  the  Italians  have  softened 
into  the  AAige.  In  Italy  we  find  the  'RtAesis,  the  Is  now 
the  /f ja,  the  -^^is  now  the  Fium«ino  (Flumen  iEsinum), 
the  -^.rarus  now  the  IszxOy  the  Natifo  now  the  Natifone, 
the  Gal^KHis  now  the  Gakjo,  the  Ver^xis  now  LVxa,  the 
Os?Lj  which  still  retains  its  name  unchanged,  the  Aus?iX 
now  the  Serchio,  the  ApriAfa  now  the  Aus^,  and  the 
Padwja  a  branch  of  the  Po.*  The  name  of  ISTRIA^ — ^half 
land,  half  water — is  derived  from  the  Celtic  roots,  is^ 
water^  and  ter,  terra  ;  and  Tri^Jte,  its  chief  town,  exhibits 
a  Celtic  prefix  tre^  a  dwelling,  which  will  presently  be 

From  the  closely  related  Welsh  word  gwy  or  wy 

*  See  Donaldson,  r^rw^wwar,  pp.45— 48;  Mone,  Celtische Forschungm^ 
pp.  12,  13,  14,  18 ;  Ferguson,  River  Names^  pp.  31 — ^33. 

*  Arch.  Williams,  in  Edinh,  Trans.  voL  iii.  p.  519  ;  Essays^  p.  69. 

*  Pott,  Eiymol,  ForscK  voL  il  p.  233 ;  Mone,  CdU  Forsch,  p.  224. 


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206  .  The  Celts. 

(water),  we  may  derive  the  names  of  the  wye  in  Wales 
and  in  Derbyshire,  and  of  the  WEY  in  Hampshire,  in 
Dorset,  and  in  Surrey.  The  Llugwy  (clear  water),  the 
Myviwy  (small  water),  the  Qx2xway  (rough  water),  the 
Dowrd^jfte^;/  (noisy  water),  the  YXwy  (gliding  water),  the 
Qonway  (chief  water),  the  Soze^y,  the  Ed«jy,  the  Onwy, 
the  Olway,  the  Vrynwy,  are  all  in  Wales ;  the  Meda^^;' 
is  in  Kent,  and  the  Solwqy  on  the  Scottish  border.  There 
is  an  /vel  (Gmvel)  in  Somersetshire  and  in  Bedfordshire. 
The  Solent  was  anciently  called  Vr  wytA,  the  channel, 
and  the  Isle  of  Wight  was  Ynysyr  wy4h,  the  Isle  of  the 
Channel,  from  which  the  present  name  may  possibly  be 
derived.^  We  find  the  Fl^Abach,  W^j>pach,  and  many 
similar  names  in  Germany,^  In  France  the  Gy,  the  Gu\- 
save,  and  the  Gui\  in  the  department  of  the  Hautes 
Alpes,  and  the  Guiers,  in  the  department  of  the  Ain, 
seem  to  contain  the  same  root.^ 

IV.  Rhe.  The  root  RAe  or  RAin  is  connected  with 
the  Gaelic  rea,  rapid  ;  with  the  Welsh  rAe,  swift ;  r/teJu, 
to  run ;  rAin,  that  which  runs  :*  and  also  with  the  Greek 
p€(o,  the  Sanskrit  ri,  and  the  English  words  run  and 

*  Walters,  inJPhilological  Proceedings^  vol.  L  p.  65.  See,  however,  p.  71, 

«  Mone,  Celtische  Forsch.  pp.  35,  36. 

*  The  Welsh  names  of  many  aquatic  animals  contain  the  root  gvy^  water, 
e,g.  kwyady  a  duck ;  gwydd,  a  goose  ;  ^«/llemot,  &c  Morris,  in  GemtU- 
man's  Magazitte  for  October,  X7S9,  p.  904.  Gmt  is  the  Proven9aI  term  for 
a  duck.     Courson,  Peup.  Bret,  vol.  i.  p.  32. 

*  Rhyn  is  a  promontory,  a  point  of  land  which  runs  out  to  sea.  Pcnrhyn 
near  Bangor,  Rynd  in  Perth,  Rhind  in  Clackmannan,  Rindow  Point  near 
Wigton,  the  Rins  of  Galloway,  Penryn  in  Cornwall,  Rien  in  Clare,  Rinmore 
in  Devon,  Argyle,  and  Aberdeen,  and  several  Rins  in  Kerry,  are  all  pro- 
jecting  tongues  of  land. 

»  So  the  raindeer  is  the  running  deer.  Cf.  Diefenbach,  Celtica^  i.  p.  56  ; 
Orig,  Europ,  p.  408 ;  Pictet,  Orig,  Jndo-Eur.  vol.  i.  p.  136  ;  Zcuss,  Gram- 


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River-Names — Rhe,  207 

Hence  we  have  the  RYE  in  Kildare,  Yorkshire,  and 
Ayrshire,  the  REA  in  Salop,  Warwick,  Herts,  and 
Worcestershire,  the  REY  in  Wilts,  the  RAY  in  Oxford- 
shire and  Lancashire,  the  RHEE  in  Cambridgeshire,  the 
RHEA  in  Staffordshire,  the  WREY  in  Devon,  the  ROY  in 
Inverness,  the  ROE  in  Derry,  the  RUE  in  Montgomery, 
the  ERYN  in  Sussex,  the  Rod^n  in  Salop  and  Essex,  and 
the  Rihh\e  in  Lancashire.  We  also  find  this  root  in  the 
names  of  the  RHINE  (Rhenus),  the  RHIN,  the  REGEN,  the 
REGA  and  the  if/^danau,  in  Germany,  the  Reinsich  and 
the  Reuss  in  Switzerland,  the  Reggc  in  Holland,  the 
RAone  in  France,  the  RigdL  in  Spain,  the  RHA  or  Volga 
in  Russia,  the  ^r/danus,  now  the  Po,  and  the  RAenus, 
now  the  Reno,  in  Italy. 

V.  Don.  Whether  the  root  Don,  or  Dan,  is  connected 
with  the  Celtic  a/on,  or  whether  it  is  an  unrelated  Celtic 
or  Scythian  gloss,  is  a  point  which  has  not  been  decided. 
It  appears,  however,  that  in  the  language  of  the  Ossetes 
— ^a  tribe  in  the  Caucasus,  which  preserves  a  very  primi- 
tive form  of  the  Aryan  speech — the  word  don  means 
water  or  river.^  If  this  be  the  true  meaning  of  the  word 
it  enables  us  to  assign  an  esoteric  explanation  to  certain 
primaeval  myths.^   Thus  Hesiod  informs  us  that  DamMS, 

matica  Cdtka,  voL  i.  p.  13 ;  Astnic,  Languedoc,  p.  448 ;  Betham,  Gad^ 
p.  212. 

^  Amdt,  Europ,  Spr.  pp.  117,  174,  241 ;  Cf.  Hartshome,  Salopia 
AnHqwiy  p.  261 ;  Wheeler,  Gtography  of  Herodotus y  p.  145.  There  is  a 
Gadhelic  word  taiUy  water.  Armstrong  says  don  is  an  obsolete  Gaelic  word 
for  water,  and  that  it  is  still  retained  in  the  Armorican.  Compare  the 
Sclavonic  tonu^  a  river-deep.  Schafarik,  Slaunsche  Altertk.  vol.  i.  p.  498. 
Ultimately,  we  may  probably  refer  don  to  the  conjectural  Sanskrit  word 
udaHy  water — which  contains  the  root  und^  to  wet.  Hence  the  Latin  unda. 
The  Sanskrit  udra^  water,  comes  from  the  same  root  undy  and  is  probably 
the  source  of  the  Celtic  dwr,     Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Eun  vol.  i.  p.  141. 

•  Karl  V.  Miiller,  Mythologies  pp.  185, 312  ;  Pott,  Mytho-Etymologica^  in 


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208  The  Celts. 

the  grandson  of  Poseidon  and  Libya  (XijSa,  moisture), 
relieved  Argos  from  drought :  "ApYo?  dwBpov  iov  Aavim 
irobfiaev  Ivv^pov,  Again,  we  are  told  that  the  fifty 
Danaides,  having  slain  their  husbands,  the  fifty  sons  of 
uEgyptus,  on  the  wedding  night,  were  condemned  to 
carry  water  in  broken  urns  to  fill  a  bottomless  vessel. 
This  myth  receives  a  beautiful  interpretation  as  an 
esoteric  exposition  of  a  natural  phenomenon,  if  we  inter- 
pret the  ancient  gloss  dan^  as  meaning  water.  We  then 
see  that  the  i?^«aides,  daughters  of  Dan,  are  the  waters 
of  the  inundation,  which  overwhelm  the  fifty  provinces 
of  Egypt  in  their  fatal*  embrace,  and  for  a  penalty  have 
to  bear  water  up  the  mountain  sides  in  their  broken 
urns  of  cloud,  condemned  ceaselessly  to  endeavour  to 
fill  the  valley,  a  bottomless  gulf  through  which  the  river 
carries  forth  the  outpourings  of  the  clouds  into  the  sea. 

But  whatever  may  be  the  signification  of  this  root,  we 
find  it  in  a  large  number  of  the  most  ancient  and  im- 
portant river-names. 

On  the  Continent  we  have  the  Danwht}  the  Dandstns^ 
the  Z?tf«aster,  or  i?«iester,  the  -Oa«apris,  Danaisper,  or 
Dnieper,  the  DON,  anciently  the  TamiSf  and  the  Donetz^ 
a  tributary  of  the  Don,  in  Russia,  the  Rha^iiau,  in 
Prussia,  the  Rhodanus  or  Rho«e,  the  Adonis,  the  Kredon 
in  the  Caucasus,  the  Tidone  and  the  Tan'^xo,  affluents  of 
the  Eri^&«us  or  Po,  the  Durdan  in  Normandy,  the  Don 
in  Brittany,  and  the  Mdidon,  the  Yerdon,  the  Ijoudon,  the 
Odon,  and  the  Rosco^»  in  other  parts  of  France. 

Kuhn's  Zeitsekrift  fur  Verglach,  Sprachforsch.  vol.  vii.  pp.  109— ill  ; 
Gladstone,  Homer,  p.  366;  Kelly,  Curiosities,  pp.  142,  212;  Creozer, 
Symbolik,  vol  iiL  p.  480 ;  Preller,  Griechische  Mythologie,  pp.  33—38, 

1  Zeuss,  Gram,  CdU  voL  ii.  p.  994,  thinks  the  root  is  the  Erse  dana^ 
strong.  He  is  followed  by  Foratemann,  Alt-deut,  Namenbuck,  vol.  u. 
p.  409 ;  De  Belloguet,  Eth.  p.  104;  and  Gliick,  Kdt  Namen,  p.  93. 


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River-Names — Don,  209 

In  the  British  Isles  this  wcM'd  is  found  in  the  names 
of  the  DON  in  Yorkshire,  Aberdeen,  and  Antrim,  the 
'B2iVidon  in  Londonderry,  the  DEAN  in  Nottinghamshire 
and  Forfar,  the  DANE  in  Cheshire,  the  DUN  in  Lincoln- 
shire and  Ayrshire,  the  TONE  in  Somerset,  and  probably 
in  the  ^Eden  in  Yorkshire,  Cumberland,  Kent,  Fife,  and 
Roxburgh,  the  DAVON  in  Cheshire  and  Glamorgan,  the 
DEVON  in  Leicestershire,  Perth,  Fife,  and  Clackmannan, 
and  possibly  the  TYNE  in  Northumberland  and  Had- 
dington, the  TEIGN  in  Devon,  the  TIAN  in  the  Island  of 
Jura,  the  TEANE  in  Stafford,  the  TEYN  in  Derbyshire, 
and  the  tvnet  in  Banff.^ 

It  thus  appears  that  the  names  of  almost  all  the  larger 
rivers  of  Europe,  as  well  as  those  of  a  very  great  number 
of  the  smaller  streams,  contain  one  or  other  of  the  five 
chief  Celtic  words  for  water  or  river,  viz. — 

1.  ATon,  or  son. 

2.  Dwr,  or  tcr. 

3.  Uisge,  or  wysk,  wye,  is,  es,  oise,  usk,  esk,  ex,  ax. 

4.  Rhe,  or  rhin. 

5.  Don,  ^dan. 

It  will,  doubtless,  have  been  remarked  that  several 
rivers  figure  more  than  once  in  the  foregoing  lists ;  we 
find,  in   short,  that  two  or  even  three  of  these  nearly 

1  Some  of  these  names  may  be  from  the  Celtic  //« «,  running  water,  or, 
perhaps,  from  Ta^aon^  the  still  river— see  page  216,  infra.  The  names 
of  the  Davon  and  the  Tone  show  how  dwr-avon^  by  crasis,  might  possibly 
become  D'avon,  d-aon^  or  don.  In  many  river-names  we  find  a  d  or  &  t 
prefixed,  which  has  been  thought  to  be  due  to  the  Celtic  preposition  dt\ 
dOf  or  du,  which  means  at.  The  Tees,  the  Taff,  the  Tavon,  are  perhaps 
instances  of  this  usage,  which  we  see  exemplified  in  the  indisputable  cases 
of  Zermat,  Andermat,  Amsteg,  Stanko  {is  rdtf  KS),  Utrecht  (ad  trajectum), 
Armorica,  Aries,  &c  See  pp.  86,  227  ;  and  Whitaker,  J/isi,  Manchester^ 
ToL  i.  p.  220  ;  Hiit  Whalley^  p.  9  ;  Zeuss,  Cram,  Celt,  vol.  ii.  pp.  566,  595, 
597, 626;  Baxter,  Glossarium,  p.  8 ;  Char&ock,  Local  Etym,  p.  269, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


The  Celts. 

synonymous  roots  enter  into  the  composition  of  their 

Thus  it  seems  probable  that  the  name  of  the 

Dan-as-ter,  or 

)  contains  roots 
}      (5)  (3)  (2) 



.     .  (4)  (5)  (I) 

Is-ter     .     . 

.    .  (3)  (2) 


.    .  (4)  (5)  (3?) 


.  (5)  (0(3?) 

Dur-dan     . 

.   (2)  (5) 


.   (2)  (I)  (3  0 

Rhe-n-us   .     . 

.  (4)(0(3») 

I8c-aun>a  . 

.  (3)  (0 


.  (5)  (3) 

Ter-ab-ia  .     . 

.    (2)  (I) 


Tan-ais   . 







Is-en  . 




(1)  (3) 
(5)  (3) 
(3)  (2) 

(2)  (3) 

(3)  (I) 
(3)  (I) 
(3)  (i) 
(2)  (I) 
(I)  (5) 

Some  of  these  cases  may  be  open  to  criticism,  but  the 
instances  <ire  too  numerous  to  be  altogether  fortuitous. 
The  formation  of  these  names  appears  to  be  in  accord- 
ance with  a  law,^  which,  if  it  can  be  established,  will 
enable  us  to  throw  light  on  the  process  of  slow  accretion 
by  which  many  of  the  most  ancient  river-names  have 
been  formed. 

The  theory  supposes  that,  when  the  same  territory  has 
been  subject  to  the  successive  occupancy  of  nations 
speaking  different  languages,  or  different  dialects  of  the 
same  language,  the  earliest  settlers  called  the  river,  on 
whose  banks  they  dwelt,  by  a  word  signifying  in  their 
own  language  "  The  Water,"  or  ",The  River."  '  As  lan- 
guage changed  through  conquest,  or  in  the  lapse  of  ages, 
this  word  was  taken  for  a  proper  name,  and  another 

*  The  existence  of  this  law,  hybrida  composition  as  it  was  termed  by 
Baxter,  who  discovered  it,  has  been  strenuously  denied.  See,  however, 
Donaldson,  Varroniantts,  pp.  46,  47;  New  Cratylus,  p.  14;  Rawlinson, 
Herodotus^  \o\.  iii.  p.  188;  Mone,  Celt  Forsch,  p.  5;  Davies,  n  Phil. 
Trans,  for  1857,  p.  91 ;  Poste,  Brit,  Researches^  p.  144. 


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Reduplication  of  Synonyms.  2 1 1 

word  for  "River"  or  "Water'*  was  superadded.  This 
process  of  superimposition  may  have  been  repeated 
again  and  again  by  successive  tribes  of  immigrants,  and 
thus  ultimately  may  have  been  formed  the  strange 
aggregations  of  synonymous  syllables  which  we  find  in 
so  many  river-names.  The  operation  of  this  law  we  may 
detect  with  certainty  in  the  case  of  names  unaffected,  as 
are  most  of  the  names  which  have  been  cited,  by  the 
phonetic  changes  of  many  centuries.  It  will  be  well, 
therefore,  to  illustrate  this  process  in  the  case  of  some 
familiar  and  more  modern  names,  where  it  must,  beyond 
possibility  of  doubt,  have  taken  place. 

In  the  case  of  the  DUR-BECK  in  Nottinghamshire,  and 
the  DUR-BACH  in  Germany,  the  first  syllable  is  the  Celtic 
dwr,  water.  The  Teutonic  colonists,  who  in  either  case 
dispossessed  the  Celts,  inquired  the  name  of  the  stream, 
and  being  told  it  was  DWR,  the  water,  they  naturally  took 
this  to  be  2l  proper  name  instead  of  a  common  name,  and 
suffixed  the  German  word  beck  or  bach,  a  stream.  In 
the  names  of  the  ESK-WATER  and  the  DOUR- water  in 
Yorkshire,  we  have  a  manifest  English  addition  to  the 
Celtic  roots  esk  and  dwr. 

The  IS-BOURNE,  the  EASE-BURN,  the  ash-bourne, 
the  WASH-BURN,  and  the  OUSE-BURN,  present  the 
Anglian  burne,  added  to  various  common  modifications 
of  the  Celtic  uisge. 

In  the  name  of  WAN-S-BECK-WATER  we  first  find 
ivany  which  is  a  slightly  corrupted  form  of  the  Welsh 
afon.  The  s  is,  perhaps,  a  vestige  of  the  Gadhelic 
uisge.  As  in  the  case  of  the  Durbeck,  the  Teutonic  heck 
-was  added  by  the  Anglian  colonists,  and  the  English 
■word  water  was  suffixed  when  the  meaning  of  Wans- 
beck   had    become   obscure,    and    Wansbeckwater,   or 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

:^I2  The  Celts. 

Jliverwaterriverwater,  is  the  curious  agglomeration  which 
•  has  resulted.! 

The  mountain  at  the  head  of  the  Yarrow  is  called 
MOUNTBENJERLAW.  The  original  Celtic  name  was  Ben 
Yair^  or  "  Yarrow  Head."  The  Angles  added  their  own 
word  Idaw,  a  hill ;  and  the  ftumnt  is  an  Anglo-Norman 
addition  of  still  later  date.* 

In  the  name  of  BRINDON  HILL,  in  Somersetshire,  we 
have  first  the  Cymric  bryn^  a  hill.  To  this  was  added 
dun^  a  Saxonised  Celtic  word,  nearly  synonymous  with 
bryn ;  and  the  English  word  hill  was  added  when  neither 
bryn  nor  dun  were  any  longer  significant  words. 

Pen-dle-HILL,  in  Lancashire,  is  similarly  com- 
poimded  of  three  synonymous  words — ^the  Cymric /w, 
the  Norse  Jwll^  and  the  English  hill?  In  PEN-TLOW 
HILL,  in  Essex,  we  have  the  Celtic/^,  the  Anglo-Saxon 
hlaw,  and  the  English  hilL  SHAR-PEN-HOE-KNOLL,  \xi 
Bedfordshire,  contains  four  nearly  synonymous  elements. 
The  names  of  PiN-HOW  in  Lancashire,  PEN-HILL  in 
Somersetshire  and  Dumfriesshire,  PEN-D-HILL  in  Surrey, 
and  PEN-LAW  in  Dumfriesshire,  are  analogous  com- 

MON-GIBELLO,  the  local  name  of  Etna,  is  compounded 
of  the  Arabic  gebel^  a  mountain,  to  which  the  Italian 
monte  has  been  prefixed. 

Trajan's  bridge,  over  the  Tagus,  is  called  the  LA 
PUENTE  DE  ALCANTARA.  Here  we  have  the  same  pro- 
cess. At  Cantara  means  "The  Bridge"  in  Arabic,  and 
La  Puente  means  precisely  the  same  thing  in  Spanish. 

^  Donaldson,  Varronianus ;  New  CratyiuSy  p.  14. 
•  Garnett,  Essctys  p.  70. 

«  Davies,  in  Pkiloiog,  Trans,  p.  218 ;  Whitaker,  ffitt.  of  WhalUy^ 
pp.  7,  8. 


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RedupliccUwfi  of  Synonyms.  t\% 

In  the  case  of  the  city  of  NAG-POOR  we  have  nagara, , 
a  city,  ^xld  purOy  a  city. 

The  VAL  DE  NANT,  in  Neufchdtel,  presents  us  with, 
the   Celtic  nant  and   the   French    val,   both    identical 
in  meaning.      HERT-FORD  gives  us  the  Celtic  rkyd,  a. 
synonym  of  the  Saxon  ford}      In  HOLM-IN  ISLAND 
there  are  three  synonyms.     We  find,  first,  the  Norse 
kohn;    secondly,    the    Celtic    innis  ;*  and,    lastly,   the 
English  island,     INCH  island  is  an  analogous  name. 
In  the  case  of  the  Isle  of  Shepp^,  Canv^  Island,  Osey 
Island,  and  Rams^  Island,  we  have  the  Anglo-Saxon  i 
ea^  which   is   identical   in    meaning   with  the   English 

In  like  manner,  we  might  analyse  the  names  of  the 
Hill  of  Howth,  the  Tuskar  Rock,  Smerwick  Harbour, 
Sandwick  Bay,  Cape  Griznez,  Start  Point,  the  Aland- 
Islands,  Hampton,  Hamptonwick,  Bourn  Brook  in 
Surrey,  the  Bach  Brook  in  Cheshire,  the  Oehbach^  in 
Hesse,  Knock-knows,  Dal-field,  KinnAird  Heady  the 
King-horn  River,  Hoe  Hill  in  Lincoln,  Mal-don  (Celtic 
maol  or  moely  a  round  hill)  Maserfield  (Welsh  maesy  a 
field),  Romn-ey  Marsh  (Gaelic  ruimney  a  marsh),  Alt 
Hill  (Welsh  allt,  a  cliff),*  and  many  others. 

In  short,  it  would  be  easy  to  multiply,  almost  without 
end,  unexceptional  instances  of  this  process  of  aggrega- 
tions of  synonyms ;  but  the  cases  cited  may  probably 
suffice  to  make  it  highly  probable  that  the  same  process 
has  prevailed  among  the  Celtic  and  Scythian  tribes  of 
central  Europe,  and  that  this  law  of  hybrid  composition, 
as  it  is  called,  may,  without  extravagance,  be  adduced  in 

I  Baxter,  Ghssariumy  p.  69. 

«  Old  High  German,  aha^  water.     See  Vilmar,  Ortsnametty  p.  258, 

*  Davies,  in  Philohg.  Trans,  for  1857,  p.  91. 


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214  T^he  Celts. 

explanation  of  such  names  as  the  Rha-dan-au,  or  the 
Dn-ies-ter,  and  with  the  highest  probability  in  cases  like 
the  Ax-ona  or  the  Dur-dan. 

It  now  remains  briefly  to  consider  the  second  or 
adjectival  class  of  river-roots. 

Two  have  been  already  mentioned.  From  the  Welsh 
garWyXOM.^}  we  obtain  the  names  of  the  GARA  in  Sligo 
and  Hereford,  the  GARRY  in  Perth  and  Inverness,  the 
YARE  in  Normandy,  in  Norfolk,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight, 
and  in  Devon,  the  GARWAY  in  Carmarthen,  the  GAR- 
NERE  in  Clare,  the  GARNAR  in  Hereford,  the  YARRO 
in  Lancashire,  the  YARROW  and  the  YAIR  in  Selkirk,* 
the  GARVE  and  the  Ross,  the  GARONNE, 
the  GERS,  and  the  GIRON  in  France,  and  the  GUER  in 

From  the  Gaelic  ally  white,  we  obtain  al-aouy  *' white 
afon."  The  Romans  have  Latinized  this  word  into 
Alauna.^  In  Lancashire  the  Alauna  of  the  Romans  is 
now  the  LUNE.*  There  is  another  LUNE  in  Yorkshire. 
We  find  a  River  ALLEN  in  Leitrim,  another  in  Denbigh, 
another  in  Northumberland,  and  a  fourth  in  Dorset. 
There  is  an  ALLAN  in  Perthshire,  and  two  in  Roxburgh- 
shire. The  ALAN  in  Cornwall,  the  ALLWEN  in  Merioneth, 
the  ELWIN  in  Lanark,  the  ELLEN  in  Cumberland,  the 
ILEN  in  Cork,  and  the  ALN  or  AULN,  which  we  find  in 
Northumberland,    Cumberland,    Hampshire,  Warwick, 

^  Gaelic  and  Irish,  garbh, 

*  Compare  the  name  of  the  monastery  of  Jarrow,  where  Beda  lived. 

'  See  Diefenbach,  Celtica^  ii.  part  i.  p.  310. 

^  Z^Mcaster,  anciently  Ad  Alaunam,  is  the  ccLstra  on  the  Lvine.  The 
name  of  ^i/cestcr,  which  stands  on  the  Aln,  the  Warwickshire  Alauna,  is 
written  Ellencaster  by  Matthew  Paris.     See  Baxter,  Chssariumy  p.  xo. 


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River-Names^^Alny  Douglas^  Leven,  215 

Roxbui^h,  and  Berwickshire,  are  all  modifications  of  the 
same  name,  as  well  as  the  AULNE  and  the  ELL^E  in 
Brittany.  The  name  of  the  ELBE  is  probably  connected 
with  the  same  root- 
To  the  Gaelic  and  Erse  batiy  white,  we  may  refer  the 
BEN  in  Mayo,  the  BANK  in  Wexford,  the  BANE  in  Lin- 
coln, the  BAIN  in  Hertford,  the  AVEN-BANNA  in  Wexford, 
the  Banon  (Ban  Afon)  in  Pembroke,  the  bana  in 
Down,  the  Bandon  in  Cork  and  Londonderry,  the 
Banney  in  Yorkshire,  the  Banaic  in  Aberdeen,  the  Ban- 
oc-burn  in  Stirling,  the  BAUNE  in  Hesse,  and  the  Banitz 
in  Bohemia. 

The  word  d/tu,  black,  appears  in  five  rivers  in  Wales, 
three  in  Scotland,  and  one  in  Dorset,  which  are  called 
DuXzs,  There  are  also  two  in  Scotland  and  one  in 
Lancashire  called  the  Dou^^s^  and  we  have  the  DouI^ls 
in  Radnor,  and  the  DowIqs  in  Shropshire. 

From  llevn,  smooth,  or  from  /inn,  a  deep  still  pool,  we 
obtain  the  names  of  Loch  LEVEN  and  three  rivers  called 
LEVEN  in  Scotland,  beside  others  of  the  same  name  in 
Gloucestershire,  Yorkshire,  Cornwall,  Cumberland,  and 
Lancashire.  To  one  of  these  words  we  may  also  refer 
the  names  of  Loch  LYON  in  Perth,  the  River  LYON  in 
Inverness,  the  LOIN  in  Banff,  the  LEANE  in  Kerry,  the 
LINE  in  Cumberland,  Northumberland,  Nottingham, 
Peebles,  and  Fife,  the  lane  in  Galloway,  the  LAIN  in 
Cornwall,  and  perhaps  one  or  more  of  the  four  LUNES 
which  are  found  in  Yorkshire,  Durham,  and  Lancashire.^ 
Deep  pools,  or  lynns,  have  given  names  to  LINCOLN, 

^  The  Diggles,  also  in  Lancashire,  is  a  corruption  of  the  same  name. 
"Whitaker,  Hisf.  IVhalley,  p.  9. 

*  We  know  that  the  Lune  is,  in  one  case,  a  contracted  form  of  Alauna, 
the  white  river.     See  p.  214,  supra. 


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2l6  The  Celts. 


The  word  tam,  spreading,  quiet,  still,  which  seems  to 
be  related  to  the  Welsh  taw  and  the  Gaelic  tavy  appears 
in  the  names  of  the  Tamt,s\s  or  THAMES,  the  TAME  in 
Cornwall,  Cheshire,  Lancashire,  Stafford,  and  Bucks,  the 
TAMAR  in  Devon,  the  TEMA  in  Selkirk,  the  TEME  in 
Worcester,  and  perhaps^  in  those  of  the  TAW  in  Devon 
and  Glamorgan,  the  TA  Loch  in  Wexford,  the  TAY 
(anciently  the  Tavus)  in  Perth  and  Waterford,  the  TAVY 
in  Devon,  and  the  TAVE  in  Wales.  Pliny  tells  us, 
Scythae  vocant  Maeotim  Temarundam, —  the  "Broad 

The  widely-diffused  root  ar  causes  much  perplexity. 
The  ARAR,  as  Caesar  says,  flows  "incredibili  lenitate;" 
while,  as  Coleridge  tells  us,  the  ARVE  and  the  ARVEIRON 
''  rave  ceaselessly."  We  find,  however,  on  the  one  hand, 
a  Welsh  word  arafy  gentle,  and  an  obsolete  Gaelic  word 
drr,  slow,  and  on  the  other  we  have  a  Celtic  word  arw^ 
violent,  and  a  Sanskrit  root  arby  to  ravage  or  destroy. 
From  one  or  other  of  these  roots,  according  to  the 
character  of  the  river,  we  may  derive  the  names  of  the 
ARW  in  Monmouth,  the  ARE  and  the  AIRE  in  Yorkshire, 
the  AYR  in  Cardigan  and  Ayrshire,  the  ARRE  in  Corn- 
wall, the  ARRO  in  Warwick,  the  ARROW  in  Hereford  and 
Sligo,  the  ^ray  in  Argyle,  the  Ara-^m  and  the  Ara-- 
gadeen  in  Cork,  the  ERVE,  the  ARVE,  the  OURCQ,  the 

1  Zeuss  derives  the  name  of  the  Lacus  Lemanus  from  this  root  Gratn^ 
Celt.  voL  i.  p.  lOo;  De  Belloguet,  Ethnoghtie^  vol.  i.  p.  249. 

«  Sec  p.  209,  suprc^ 

"  Donaldson,  Vamm.  p.  51.  We  find  a  Sanskrit  word,  tdmarot  water. 
The  ultimate  root  seems  to  be  tam^  languescere.  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Eurxjp, 
p.  142. 


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River-Names — Tame^  Atre^  Cam,  Clyde,         217 

arc;  the  Arnege,  and  the  ^f  veiron,  in  France,  the  Argz, 
and  three  rivers  called  ArwdL  in  Spain,  in  Italy  the  Amo 
and  i?ra,  in  Switzerland  the  AAR  and  the  -^Hbach,  in 
Germany  the  OHRE,  AHR,  Isar,  Auraich,  Orrty  Er\  Erldi, 
A  A,  Orldiy  Argexiy  and  several  mountain  streams  called 
the  ARE ;  besides  the  well-known  ancient  names  of  the 
O^rus,  the  -Praxes,  the  AR-AR-AR,  the  Nap^ns,  the  -4ras, 
and  the  Jax^rtes.^ 

The  word  cam?  crooked,  we  find  in  the  CAM  in 
Gloucester  and  Cambridgeshire,  the  CAMIL  in  Cornwall, 
the  CAMLAD  in  Shropshire,  the  CAMBECK  in  Cumber- 
land, the  CAMLIN  in  Longford,  and  the  camon  in  Tyrone. 
MORCAMBE  BAY  is  the  crooked-sea  bay,  and  CAMDEN  is 
the  crooked  vale.  We  have  also  the  rivers  KAMP  and 
CHAM  in  Germany,  and  the  KAM  in  Switzerland. 

To  the  Gaelic  cliih,  strong,  we  may  refer  the  CLYDE 
and  the  CLUDAN  in  Scotland,  the  CLWYD,  the  CLOYD, 
and  the  CLYDACH,  in  Wales,  the  CLYDE  and  several 
other  streams  in  Ireland,  and,  perhaps,  the  CLITUMNUS 
in  Italy.* 

There  are  many  other  clusters  of  river-names  which 
invite  investigation,  but  of  which  a  mere  enumeration 

*  See  Latham,  Germania^  ?•  13  >  Rawlinson,  Herodotus^  vol.  iii.  p.  202 ; 
Mone,  Cdt.  Forsch.  p.  204;  Prichard,  Researches,  vol.  iii.  p.  132 ;  Gliick, 
Kleit,  Nanunj  p.  58  ;  Radlof^  Neue  Untersuckungen,  p.  2S5  ;  De  Belloguet, 
Ethnoginiey  vol.  i.  p.  Il6  ;  Forstemann,  Ortsnametiy  p.  32. 

s  Diefenbach,  CelHca,  i  p.  i  la  This  word  was  adopted  into  English^ 
though  it  is  now  obsolete.  So  Sicinius  Velutus  says  of  the  crooked  reasoning 
of  Menenius  Agrippa,  "This  is  clean  kam;"  to  which  Brutus  replies, 
*'  Merely  awry."  Coriolanusy  Act  iii.  scene  I  The  root  appears  in  the 
phrase,  arms  in  kembo,  or  a-kimba  To  cam,  in  the  Manchester  dialect,  is 
to  cross  or  contradict  a  peison,  or  to  bend  anything  awry.  Kennett, 
Parochial  Antiquities,  Glossary,  s.  v.  Camera ;  Whitaker,  Hist,  Manchester, 
▼oL  il  p.  274;  Davies,  iji  Philolog,  Proc,  voL  vL  p.  129 ;  Halliwell,  Archaic 
Glossary,  s.  v. ;  Gliick,  Kdt,  Namen,  p.  34. 

•  Williams,  Essays,  p.  71,  prefers  the  Welsh  clyd,  warm. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

2li8  The  Celts. 

must  suffice.^  Such  are  the  groups  of  names  of  which 
the  NEATH,  the  SOAR,  the  may,  the  DEE,  the  TEES,  the 
CHER,  the  KEN,  the  FROME,  the  COLNE,  the  IRKE,  the 
LID,  thCL  LEA,  the  MEUSE,  the  GLEN,  and  the  SWALE, 
may  be  taken  as  types.  It  is  indeed  a  curious  fact,  that 
a  unique  river-name  is  hardly  to  be  found.  Any  given 
name  may  immediately  be  associated  with  some  dozen 
or  half-dozen  names  nearly  identical  in  form  and 
meaning,  collected  from  all  parts  of  Europe.  This 
might  suffice  to  show  the  great  value  of  these  river- 
names  in  ethnological  investigations.  Reaching  back  to 
a  period  anterior  to  all  history,  they  enable  us  to  prove 
the  wide  diffusion  of  the  Celtic  race,  and  to  trace  that 
race  in  its  progress  across  Europe. 

For  antiquity  and  immutability,  the  names  of  mountains 
and  hills  come  next  in  value  to  the  names  of  rivers.* 
The  names  of  these  conspicuous  landmarks  have  been 
transmitted  from  race  to  race  very  much  in  the  same 
way,  and  from  the  same  causes,  as  the  names  of  rivers. 

The  modern  Welsh  names  for  the  head  and  the  back 
are  pen  and  cefn.  We  find  these  words  in  a  large  num- 
ber of  mountain-names.     The  Welsh  cefn?  (pronounced 

*  On  river-roots  see  Fei^son,  River  Names  of  Europe ;  Baxter,  Glos- 
sarium;  Chalmers,  CaledoniOj  vol.  i. ;  Forstemann,  Altdeutsches  Namenbuck, 
vol.  ii,  ;  Deutschen  Ortsnamen^  pp.  31—37;  Whitaker,  History  of  Man- 
chester^ vol.  i.  p.  220 ;  History  of  Whalley^  PP-  8, 9 ;'  Betham,  Gad^  pp.  205 — 
215;  Vilmar,  Ortsnamen^  p.  254;  Church  of  England  Quarterly,  No.  73, 
p.  153  ;  Schott,  Deutsch.  Col,  pp.  219,  225  ;  Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Eur,  part  i. 
pp.  119,  134—145;  and  the  works  of  Pott,  Amdt,  Gliick,  Diefenba<^  De 
Belloguet,  Williams,  Davies,  Latham,  Rawlinson,  Donaldson,  &c. 

'  **Helvellyn  and  Skiddaw  rise  as  sepulchral  monuments  of  a  race  that 
has  passed  away." — Palgrave,  English  Commonwealth^  vol.  L  p.  451. 

■  See  Diefenbach,  Cdtica^  i.  p.  104 ;  Gliick,  Kelt,  Namen^  p.  51  ; 
Boudard,  Numat,  Ibir,  p.  121  ;  Morris,  in  Gentleman* s  Mag,  for  1789, 
p.  905. 


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Names  of  Mountains.  2  icf 

keven)  a  back,  or  ridge,  is  very  common  in  local  names 
in  Wales,  as  in  the  case  of  CEFN  COED  or  CEFN  BRYN. 
In  England  it  is  found  in  the  CHEVIN,  a  ridge  in  Wharf- 
dale  ;  in  CHEVIN  Hill  near  Derby ;  in  KEYNTON,  a  name 
which  occurs  in  Shropshire,  Dorset,  and  Wilts;  in 
CHEVENING,  on  the  great  ridge  of  North  Kent ;  in 
CHEVINGTON  in  Suffolk  and  Northumberland ;  also  in 
CHEVY  Chase,  and  the  cheviot  Hills ;  in  the  Gehenna 
Mens,  now  LES  CEVENNES,  in  France;  and  in  Cape 
CHIEN,  in  Brittany. 

The  Welsh /^,^  a  head,  and  by  metonymy,  the  usual 
name  for  a  mountain,  is  widely  diffused  throughout 
Europe.  The  south-easterly  extension  of  the  Cymric 
race  is  witnessed  by  the  names  of  the  PENN-INE  chain  of 
the  Alps,  the  A-PENN-INES,  a  place  called  PENNE, 
anciently  Pinna,  in  the  high  Apennines,  and  Mount 
PINDUS,  in  Greece.  The  ancient  name  of  PENILUCUS, 
near  Villeneuve,  is  evidently  a  Latinized  form  of  Pen-y- 
llwchy  the  head  of  the  lake.*  We  find  PENHERF  and 
the  headland  of  PENMARCH  in  Brittany,  and  there  is 
a  hill  near  Marseilles  which  is  called  LA  PENNE.     In  our 

1  From  the  root/««,  originally  a  head  or  point,  come  probably,  pinnacle, 
penny  (?),  pin,  spine,  and  the  name  of  the  pine-tree.  It  is  curious  that  the 
Cymric  pyr^  a  fir,  bears  the  same  relation  to  the  name  of  the  Terences 
HaaXpina  does  to  those  of  the  Apennines  and  Pennine  Alps.  Compare  the 
Pyem  mountains  in  Upper  Austria,  and  the  Femer  in  Tyrol.  In  the  case 
of  many  of  the  Pjrrenean  giants  the  topmost  pyramid  of  each  is  called  its 
**penne."  Pena  is  the  name  for  a  rock  in  Spanish,  and  in  \\sX\2Sipenna 
is  a  mountain  summit.  Diez,  Etym,  Worterb.  p.  258.  Cf.  Quarterly 
Jieuitw^  vol.  cxvi.  p.  12.  On  the  root/^,  see  Diefenbach,  Cdtica^  i.  p.  170; 
Orig,  Eur,  p.  397 ;  Keferstein,  Kelt,  Alt.  vol.  ii  p.  186 ;  Adelung,  MUhri' 
eiatcs,  vol.  iL  p.  67 ;  Forbes,  Tour  of  Mont  Blanc,  p.  210 ;  Zeuss,  Gram* 
Cdi.  vol.  i  p.  77  ;  Wedgwood,  in  PkUolog,  Proceeds  vol.  iv.  p.  259  ;  Davies, 
sbid,  vol.  vi.  p.  129  ;  De  Belloguet,  EthnogMiey  vol.  i.  p.  73. 

*  Hobertson,  Early  Kings^  vol.  iL  p.  229. 


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220  The  Celts. 

own  island,  hills  bearing  this  name  are  very  numerous. 
We  have  PENARD,  penhill,  and  pen  in  Somerset, 
Upper  and  Lower  PENN  in  Staffordshire,  and  PANK 
Castle  near  Bridgenorth.  The  highest  hill  in  Bucking- 
hamshire is  called  PEN.  One  of  the  most  conspicuous 
summits  in  Yorkshire  is  called  PENNIGANT.  INKPEN 
stands  on  a  high  hill  in  Berkshire.  We  have  PENDLETON 
and  PENKETH  m  Lancashire,  PENSHURST  in  Sussex ;  in 
Cumberland  we  find  PENRITH,  the  head  of  the  ford ;  and 
in  Herefordshire,  PENCOID,  the  head  of  the  wood.  In 
Cornwall  and  Wales  the  root  pen  is  of  perpetual  occur- 
rence, as  in  the  cases  of  penrhyn  and  PENDENNIS  {Pen. 
Dinas)  in  Cornwall,  and  penmaenmawr,  Pembroke,* 
and  penrhos,  in  Wales. 

In  Argyleshire  and  the  northern  parts  of  Scotland  the 
Cymric  pen  is  ordinarily  replaced  by  ben  or  cenn^  the 
Gaelic  forms  of  the  same  word. 

This  distinctive  usage  oi  pen  and  befi  in  local  names 
enables  us  to  detect  the  ancient  line  of  demarcation 
between  the  Cymric  and  Gadhelic  branches  of  the  Celtic 
race.  We  find  the  Cymric  form  of  the  word  in  the 
Gram-//tf«-s,  the  pentland  Hills,  the  pennagaul  Hills 
and  PENPONT  in  Dumfries,  the  PEN  of  Eskdalemuir, 
PEN  CRAIG  in  Haddington,  PENWALLY  in  Ayrshire,  and 
PENDRICH  in  Perth.  On  the  other  hand  the  Gaelic  ben^ 
which  is  conspicuously  absent  from  England,^  Wales, 
and  south-eastern  Scotland,  is  used  to  desigjnate  almost 
all  the  higher  summits  of  the  north  and  west,  as,  for 
instance,  BENNEVIS,  BENLEDI,  benmore,  benwyvis, 
benlomond,  bencruachan,  and  many  more,  too 
numerous  to  specify. 

*  Pen-bro,  Jthc  head  of  the  land 

*  Ben  Rhydding,  in  Yorkshire,  is  a  name  of  veiy  recent  concoction. 


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Hill-Names— pen^  dun.  221 

The  Gadhelic  cenn,  a  head^  is  another  form  of  the 
same  word.  It  is  found  in  KENMORE,i  CANTIRE,  KIN- 
NAIRD,  and  KINROSS,  in  Scotland,  KINSALE  and  KEN- 
MARE  in  Ireland,  in  the  English  county  of  KENT,  KENNE 
in  Somerset,  KENNEDON  in  Devonshire,  KENTON  in 
Middlesex,  KENCOT  in  Oxforddiire,  and  KENCOMB  in 

The  position  of  ancient  Celtic  strongholds  is  frequently 
indicated  by  the  root  dun,  a  hill  fortress,  a  word  which  is 
closely  related  to  the  modern  Welsh  word  dinas}  The 
features  of  such  a  natural  stronghold  are  well  exhibited 
at  SION  in  Switzerland,  where  a  bold  isolated  crag  rises 
in  the  midst  of  an  alluvial  plain.  Like  so  many  other 
positions  of  the  kind,  this  place  bears  a  Celtic  name. 
The  German  form  SITTEN  is  nearer  than  the  French 
SION  to  the  ancient  name  Sedunnm,  which  is  the  Latin* 
ized  form  of  the  original  Celtic  appellation.  In  a 
neighbouring  canton  the  ancient  "Ehr^unwva  has  become 
YYERDUN,  a  place  which,  as  well  as  THUN  (pronounced 
Toon),  must  have  been  among  the  fortress-cities  of  the 
Celts  of  Switzerland.   In  Germany,  Campo^&^um  is  now 

1  Kemnore,  the  ''great  sammit,*'  from  the  Gaelic  mor,  or  the  Welsh 
m4rwr,  great.  This  name  is  found  also  in  Switzerland.  There  is  a  mountain 
called  the  kamor  in  Appenzell,  and  another  called  the  kammerstock 
between  Uri  and  Glaros.  Mont  CENis  was  anciently  Mons  Cinisius. 
GENEVA  is  probably  cenn  a/on,  the  head  of  the  river.  See  Mone,  Celtisckc 
ForscAung€Hy  p.  27. 

*  Gliick,  KelL  Namen^  p.  139 ;  Diefenbacfa,  CdtUa,  i  p.  157 ;  Orig. 
Eur,  pp.  325 — 328 ;  Adelung,  Mithridates,  vol.  ii,  p.  57  ;  Holtzmann,  Kelten 
und  Gertnanen^  p.  ic»  j  Menage,  Origines,  pp.  264-— 267 ;  Forstemann,  Alt- 
dmtsches  Nanunhuch^  vol.  iL  p.  442  ;  Cambro-Briton^  voL  iii.  p.  43.  From 
the  Celtic  the  root  has  penetrated  into  Italian  and  Spanish  as  duna,  into 
English  as  down,  and  into  French  as  dune.  The  Dhunsoil^e  Himalayas, 
as  Kjarda  Dhun,  Dehra  Dhun,  &c  seem  to  be  related  words.  Diez,  Etym, 
Worterh.  p.  129 ;  Lassen,  Indische  Alterth,  voL  L  pp.  xlv.  4S. 


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222  Tlie  Celts. 

KEMP-TEN,  and  Tarorf«»um,  in  the  modern  form  of 
DOR-N-STADT,  preserves  only  a  single  letter  of  the  Celtic 
dim.  The  same  is  the  case  with  Q^xxodunyim  (carraigh- 
dun,  the  rock  fort),  now  KHAR-N-BURG  on  the  Danube  ; 
while  Idunwvci^  on  the  same  river,  is  now  I-DIN-O.  THUN- 
DORF  and  DUN-ESTADT  also  witness  the  eastern  exten- 
sion of  the  Celtic  people.^  In  Italy  we  find  nine  ancient 
names  into  which  this  Celtic  root  enters,  as  Vim/wium, 
AtifidLy  and  Re//«a.^  But  in  France,  more  especially, 
these  Celtic  hill-forts  abounded.  Augustorfa«um  is  now 
AU-TUN,  and  jyiWodunum  is  LOU-DUN  near  Poictiers. 
Lugrf««um,  on  the  Rhone,  is  now  LYONS  ;  Tuugdunxim 
or  Lugorf/;/um,  in  Holland,  is  now  leyden  ;  and  Lugi- 
dunwm,  in  Silesia,  is  now  GLOGAU.  The  rock  of  LaOn, 
the  stronghold  of  the  later  Merovingian  kings,  is  a 
contraction  of  TuBMdunum,^  Novio</««um,  the  "  new  fort," 
is  a  common  name :  one  is  now  NOYON,  another  nevers, 
another  NYON,  another  JUBLEINS.  Melorf««um  {fneall- 
dun^  the  hill  fort),  now  MELUN,  Verorf««um,  now  VER- 
DUN, and  Uxellorfif^«um  in  Guienne,  were  also  Celtic 

In  England  there  seem  to  have  been  fewer  Celtic 
fortresses  than  in  France.  Lonrf««um  or  Lon^irV^ium, 
the  fortified  hill  on  which  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  now 
staads,  is  now  LON-DON.      LEX-DON,  near  Colchester, 

^  See  Mone.  Cdhsche  Farschungen^  p.  68.  The  ancient  name  of  Belgrade 
was  Segodunum,  Sagha-dun^  equivalent  to  Hapsburg,  or  Hawks*-hill, 
Leo,  Vorlesungetty  vol.  i.  p.  195. 

*  Williams,  Edinburgh  Proceedings,  voL  xiii.  p.  532 ;  Essays,  p,  8ou 
Coxtona  is  evidently  Caer-dun. 

*  Palgrave,  England  and  Normandy,  vol.  ii.  p.  7 ;  Kennedy,  in  PhOolog, 
Trans,  for  1 855,  p.  170 ;  Salverte,  Essai  sur  Us  Noms,  vol.  ii.  pp.  265,  266. 
See  p.  227,  infra, 

*  Gliick,  Kdt.  Nam,  p.  139. 


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Celtic  Strongholds.  223 

seems  to  have  been  Legionis  dunum  ;^  and  Camulo- 
dunum  is  probably  MAL-DON,  in  Essex.^  Sovhiodunum, 
now  Old  SARUM  ;  Branno^/««um,  now  Brancaster ;  Mori- 
dunum,  now  CARMAR-THEN  ;  Kigiodunum,  perhaps 
Ribblechester ;  Moridunum^  probably  Seaton  ;  and  Tao- 
dunum,  now  DUN-DEE,  were  all  British  forts  which  were 
occupied  by  the  Romans.  The  same  root  dun  is  found 
also  in  DUNSTABLE,  DUNMOW,  and  DUNDRY  Hill  in 
Somerset  In  Scotland  we  have  dumblane,  Dumfries, 
DUNKELD,  the  "fort  of  the  Celts,"  and  Dumbarton,  the 
"fort  of  the  Britons."  In  Ireland  we  find  DUNDRUM, 
LAVIN,  and  scores  of  other  names,  which  exhibit  this 
word.  It  was  adopted  by  the  Saxons  from  the  Celts* 
and,  in  accordance  with  the  genius  of  their  language,  it 
is  used  as  a  suffix  instead  of  as  a  prefix,  as  is  usually 
the  case  in  genuine  Celtic  names.  We  have  instances 
in  the  names  of  HUNTINGDON,  FARRINGDON,  and 

The  Celtic  languages  can  place  the  substantive  first 
and  the  adjective  last,  while  in  the  Teutonic  idiom  this 
is  unallowable.  The  same  is  the  case  with  substantives 
which  have  the  force  of  adjectives.  Thus  the  Celtic 
Strathclyde  and  Abertay  corresponds  to  the  Teutonic 
forms  Clydesdale  and  Taymouth.  This  usage  often 
enables  us  to  discriminate  between  Celtic  and  Saxon 
roots  which  are  nearly  identical  in  sound.  Thus,  Balbeg 
and  Strathbeg  must  be  from  the  Celtic  deg;  little;  but 
Bigholm  and  Bighouse  are  from  the  Teutonic  6i£,  great, 
Dairy,  Dalgain,  Dalkeith,  Daleaglis,  Dolberry  in  Somer- 
set, and  Toulouse  must  be  from  the  Celtic  dol,  a  plain ; 

*  Baxter,  G/ossarium,  p.  174. 

'  Horsley,  Brit,  Rom.  p.  31 ;  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  pp.  122, 135. 


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224  The  Celts. 

while  Rydal,  Kendal,  Mardale,  and  Oundle,  are  from  the 
Teutonic  daky  a  valley.^ 

The  Welsh  word  brytiy  a  brow*  or  ridge,  is  found  in 
BRANDON,  in  Suffolk,  which  is  the  Anglicized  form  of 
Dinas  Bran,  a  common  local  name  in  Wales.  A  ridge 
in  Essex  is  called  BRANDON.  BREANDOWN  is  the  name 
of  a  high  ridge  near  Weston-super-Mare.  BRENDON 
Hill  forms  part  of  the  great  ridge  of  Exmoor.  BIRN- 
WOOD  Forest,  in  Buckinghamshire,  occupies  the  summit 
of  a  ridge  which  is  elevated  some  300  feet  above  the 
adjacent  country.  BRAINTREE  in  Essex,  and  BRINTON 
and  BRANCASTER  in  Norfolk  (anciently  Brannodunum), 
contain  the  same  root,  which  is  found  in  numerous 
Swiss  and  German  names,  such  as  brannberg,  BRAN- 
DENBURG, BRENDENKOPF,  and  the  BRENNER  in  the 

Penrhos,  a  name  which  occurs  in  Wales  and  Corn- 
wall, contains  a  root — rkos,  a  moor* — ^which  is  liable  to 
be  confused  with  the  Gaelic  ros^  which  signifies  a  promi- 
nent rock  or  headland.  ROSS  in  Hereford  and  in  North- 
umberland, ROSNEATH  by  Loch  Long,  and  ROSDUY  on 
Loch  Lomond,  are  all  on  projecting  points  of  land. 
Every  Rigi  tourist  will  remember  the  projecting  preci- 
pice of  the  ROSSBERG,  in  Canton  Schwytz,  whose  partial 
fall  overwhelmed  the  village  of  Goldau.     There  are  six 

1  See  Zeuss,  Grammatica  Cdtica,  vol.  ii.  pp.  824,  825,  862 ;  Chalmen^ 
CaUdoniay  vol.  L  p.  492 ;  Robertson,  Early  Kings^  voL  ii.  p.  244.  ' 

•  Cf.  the  Sanskrit  bhrd^  eyebrow.  The  English  word  brow^  the  Scotch 
brae^  and  the  old  German  brdwa,  all  seem  to  be  connected  with  this  root. 
See  Diefenbach,  Cdiica,  I  p.  178 ;   Vtrgl,  Wifrterb,  vol.  i.  pp.  316— 518^ 

»  Mone,  Cdtische  Forschungen^  pp.  15,  16. 

^  The  rusk  is  the  characteristic  moorland  plant  The  Latin  rus  is  a 
cognate  word,  and  indicates  the  undrained  moorland  condition  of  the 


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Names  of  Rocks,  225 

other  mountains  of  the  same  name  in  Germany."^  To  the 
same  source  we  may  probably  refer  the  names  ^  of  Monte 
ROSA,  Piz  ROSATSCH,  ROSEG,  and  ROSENLAUI  in  Switzer- 
land, and  ROSTRENAN  in  Brittany.  In  our  own  islands 
we  find  this  root  in  the  names  of  WROXETER,  ROSLIN, 

Craig,  a  rock,  so  common  in  Welsh  names,  is  found  in: 
CRICK  in  Derbyshire  and  Northampton,  and  CRICKLADK: 
in  Wilts.  In  Ireland  this  word  takes  the  form  carraig- 
as  in  the  case  of  CARRICKFERGUS.  The  root  is  probably 
to  be  found  in  the  name  of  the  three  ranges  called 
respectively  the  GRAIAN/  the  CARNIC,  and  the  KARA- 
VANKEN  Alps.  The  prefix  Kar  is  very  common  near. 
.Botzen.*  In  Savoy  it  takes  the  form  crau.  This  form 
also  appears  in  the  name  of  a  rocky  district  between: 
Aries  and  Marseilles,  which  is  called  LA  CRAU.* 

Toty  a  projecting  rock,  is  found  in  the  names  of  Mount 
TAURUS,  TORBAY,  and  the  TORS  of  Devonshire  and 
Derbyshire.^  The  higher  summits  of  the  TYROL  ace 
called  Die  Tawrren. 

1  Mone,  Celtische  Forschungen^  p.  127. 

•  Some  of  these  may  be  the  "  red  "  mountains.  The  red  hue  of  Monte 
Rosso,  a  southern  outlier  of  the  Bemina,  is  very  markedly  contrasted  with 
the  neighbouring  '*  black  peak  "  of  Monte  Nero. 

•  Petronius  tells  us  that  this  name  means  a  rock.  See  Diefenbach,  Celtkay 
L  p.  104  ;  Adelung,  Mithridates,  voL  iL  p.  54 ;  Keferstein,  Kelt.  Alt,  vol.  iu 
p.  186 ;  Radlof^  Neue  Untersuchungen,  p*  312  ;  De  Belloguet,  Ethnoginie^ 
voL  i.  p.  249. 

^  Gilbert  and  ChurchUl,  Dolomite  Mountains^  p.  84. 

'  According  to  Pliny,  the  Scythian  name  of  Caucasus  was  Grau-casis. 

•  We  find  YES  tor,  fur  tor,  hey  tor,  mis  tor,  hessary  tor,  brent 
TOR,  HARE  TOR,  and  LYNX  TOR,  in  Devon ;  and  row  tor,  mam  tor, 
ADYN  TOR,  CHEE  TOR,  and  OWLAR  TOR,  in  Derbyshire,  hentoe,  in  Lan- 
cashire, is  a  corruption  of  Hen  Tor.  See  Diefenbach,  CeUica^  ii.  pt.  i.  ppi 
337,  34^ 


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226  The  Celts. 

The  word  ard^  high,  great,  which  forms  the  first 
portion  of  the  name  of  the  legendary  King  Arthur,^ 
occurs  in  some  200  Irish  names,^  as  ARDAGH,  ARDGLASS, 
and  ARDFERT.  In  Scotland  we  have  ARDROSSAN,  ar- 
MEANAGH,  ARDNAMURCHAR,  and  ARDS.  The  name  of 
ARRAJg,  the  lofty  island,  has  been  appropriately  bestowed 
on  islands  off  the  coast  of  Scotland  and  Ireland,  and  it 
attaches  also  to  a  mountain  in  Wales.  The  LIZARD 
Point  is  the  high  cape.*  In  combination  with  the  word 
den,  a  wooded  valley,  it  gives  us  the  name  of  the  Forest 
of  ARDEN  in  Warwickshire  and  in  Yorkshire,  and  that 
of  the  ARDENNES,  the  great  forest  on  the  borders  of 
France  and  Belgium.  AUVERNE  is  probably,  or 
fearann,  the  "high  c6untry."* 

The  word  cwm^  is  very  frequently  used  in  Wales, 
where  it  denotes  a  cup-shaped  depression  in  the  hills. 
This  word,  in  the  Saxonized  form  combe^  often  occurs 
in  English  local  names,  especially  in  those  counties  where 
the  Celtic  element  is  strong.  In  Devonshire  we  have 
combes  among  the  Mendip  hills  are  very  numerous.  The 
Celtic  county  of  Cumberland  has  been  supposed  to 
take  its  name  from  the  combes  with  which  it  abounds.^ 

1  Yonge,  Christian  Nanus y  vol.  iL  p.  125. 

■  Sullivan,  Dictionary  of  Derivations t  p.  282. 

>  Baxter,  Glossarium,  p.  186. 

*  Thierry,  Hist,  GauL  vol.  L  pp.  xxxvi.  5 ;  Keferstein,  Kdt.  Alt,  voL  ii. 
p.  295. 

B  A  comb,  a  measure  for  com,  and  the  comb  of  bees,  are  both  from  this 
root,  which  is  found  in  several  local  dialects  in  the  Celtic  parts  of  France, 
Spain,  and  Italy,  as,  for  example,  the  Piedmontese  combo,  Diez,  Etym^ 
Wort.  p.  107  ;  Diefenbach,  Ccltica,  I  p.  112 ;  GlUck,  Kdt,  Namat,  p.  28  ; 
Kemble,  Cod,  Dipt.  vol.  iii.  p.  xvi. 

<  Professor  Leo,  however,  maintains  the  Anglo-Saxon  combe  was  not 
adopted  from  the  Celtic  cwm,    AnglO'Saxon  Names,  p.  83. 

f  See,  however,  p.  71,  supra. 


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Combe.  227 

Anderson,  a  Cumberland  poet,  says  of  his  native 
county : — 

"  There's  Cvrnwhitton,  C»/»whinton,  CWmranton, 
CWmrangan,  Ciy/mrew,  and  O/mcatch, 
And  xnony  mair  Cums  i'  the  County, 
But  nin  wi'  Ci^mdivock  can  match."  ^ 

High  WYCOMBE  in  Buckinghamshire,  COMBE  in  Oxford- 
shire, APPLEDURCOMB,  GATCOMB,  and  COMPTON  Bay,  in 
the  Isle  of  Wight,  facomb  and  COMBE  in  Hampshire, 
and  COMPTON,*  GOMSHALL,  and  COMBE,  in  Surrey,  are 
instances  of  its  occurrence  in  districts  where  the  Celtic 
element  is  more  faint  than  in  the  west :  and  abroad  we 
find  the  root  in  the  name  of  the  Puy  de  BELLECQMBE 
in  Cantal,  and  not  improbably  even  in  the  name,  of 

The  Welsh  Zfee/^A,  a  lake,  morass,  or  hollow,  corresponds 
to  the  Scotch  loch  and  the  Irish  lough.  This  word  con- 
stitutes the  first  syllable  of  the  common  ancient  name 
Lugdunum,  which  has  been  modernized  into  LYONS 
and  LEYDEN.  We  can  trace  the  first  portion  of  the 
Romanized  Celtic  name  Luguballium  in  the  medieval 
Caerluel  which  superseded  it,  and  which,  with  little 
change,  still  survives  in  the  modern  form  CARLISLE.  The 
lake  which  fills  a  remarkable  bowl-shaped  crater  in  the 
Eifel  district  of  Germany  is  called  LAACH.  We  find  the 
same  root  in  Lukotekia,  Lukotokia,  or  Lutetia,  the 
ancient  name  of  Paris.* 

^  Sullivan,  Dictionary  of  Derivations^  p.  286. 

'  There  are  twenty-three  parishes  of  this  name  in  England. 

*  Old  Paris  was  confined  on  the  island  which  divides  the  Seine  into  two 
branches.  The  name  seems  to  be  from  llwck^  and  toki^  to  cut.  Prichard, 
Researches^  vol.  iii.  p.  132.  From  the  related  Welsh  word  llaith^  moist,  we 
have  the  nameof  arles,  anciently  Arelate,  the  town  ''on  the  marsh.''  See 
p.  86,  supra;  Gliick,  Kdt,  Namen,  pp.  30,  114, 115  ;   Pott,  Etyni,  Forsch, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

228  The  Celts. 

The  Cymric  prefix  tre^  a  place  or  dwelling,^  is  a  useful 
test-word,  since  it  does  not  occur  in  names  derived  from 
the  Gaelic  or  Erse  languages.*  It  occurs  ninety-six 
times  in  the  village-names  of  Cornwall/  more  than 
twenty  times  in  those  of  Wales ;  and  is  curiously  distri- 
buted over  the  border  counties.  We  find  it  five  times  in 
Herefordshire,  three  times  in  Devon,  Gloucester,  and 
Somerset,  twice  in  Shropshire,  and  once  in  Worcester, 
Yorkshire,  Lancashire,  Cumberland,  and  Northumber- 
land.*  It  is  frequent  in  Brittany,  it  occurs  some  thirty 
times  in  other  parts  of  France,  and  twice  or  thrice  iil 
the  Celtic  part  of  Spain.*  TREVES,  anciently  Augusta 
TV^irorum,  TROYES,  anciently  Civitas  Tricassium,  and 
TRICASTIN,   near  Orange,   exhibit  this  widely-diffused 

voL  ii.  pp.  42,  536 ;    Astruc,  HisU  Langucdoc,  p.  424 ;   Menage,  Origuus^ 

p.  57  ;  Davies,  CelHc  Researches^  pp.  221,  500;   Radlof,  Neue  Untersuck- 

ungeHf  p.  290;  De  Belloguet,  Ethnoginie^  voL  i.  p.  115. 
^  The  Tref  or  Hamlet  was  the  primary  division  of  a  British  sept 
'  It  is  related  to  the  Irish  treabh^  a  clan,  and,  more  distantly,  to  the 

Latin  tribus,  Mone,  Celtische  Farsch,  p.  204;  Leo,  Voriesungefty  voL  i.  p.  149; 

Diefenbach,  CelHca^  i.  pp.  146,  147 ;  Williams,  Essays^  p.  85 ;   GerviUe^ 

Noms^  p.  22$  ;  Latham,  Germania^  p.  98 ;  Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Europ.  vol.  iL 

p.  291 ;  Gliick,  KelL  Namen,  pp.  39,  40. 

*  More  than  a  thousand  times,  if  we  include  hamlets  and  single  home- 
steads. Hence  it  entere  into  a  vast  number  of  Cornish  territorial  surnames. 
There  is  an  old  adage  which  says : — 

"  By  Tre,  Pol,  and  Pen, 
You  may  know  the  Cornish  men." 

*  We  have,  for  example,  such  names  as— Trefonen,  Tre-evan,  Tretire, 
Trevill,  andTrewen,  in  Herefordshire;  Trebroader,  in  Shropshire;  Tie- 
borough  in  Somerset ;  Treton  in  Yorkshire ;  Trebroun  in  Berwickshire; 
Trehom  in  Cunningham,  in  Ayrshire  ;  Tretown  in  Fifeshire ;  Tr^;allon  in 
Kirkcudbright ;  Treuchan  in  Perthshire.  Such  names  as  Uchiltre  in  Ayr- 
shire, Wigtonshire,  and  Linlithgow ;  Wavertree  in  Lancashire  ;  Braintree 
in  Essex ;  Oswestry  in  Shropshire ;  and  Coventry  in  Warwickshire,  may, 
or  may  not,  contain  this  root.  The  substantive  in  Celtic  names  is  usually, 
but  not  invariably,  the  prefix.     See  p.  223,  supra, 



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Names  of  Dwellings,  229 

Cymric  root  The  tribe  of  the  'DnrotrigtSj  the  dwellers 
by  the  water,  have  given  a  portion  of  their  name  to 
DORSET,  and  the  A/r^bates  have  bestowed  theirs  upon 
ARRAS  and  ARTOIS.  In  Italy  we  find  the  name  Treba, 
now  TREVI,  Trebula,  now  TREGLIA,  TRESSO,  TREVISO, 
TREBBIA,  and  TRIESTE,  besides  TRIENT  in  the  Italian 
Tyrol,  and  other  similar  names  in  the  most  Celtic  part 
of  Italy,  near  the  head  of  the  Adriatic. 

Bod,  a  house,  is  very  common  in  Cornwall,*  and  appears 
also  in  Wales.  Ty  means  a  cottage,  and  is  universally 
prevalent  in  Wales,  though  it  enters  into  few  important 
names.  In  Cornwall  it  takes  also  the  forms  Chy  and  Ky,^ 
and  in  Brittany  it  appears  as  Qui  and  Cae? 

Llan^  an  inclosure,  and  hence,  in  later  times,  the  sacred 
inclosure,  or  church,  is  also  a  useful  Cymric  test-word. 
It  occurs  ninety-seven  times  in  the  village-names  of 
Wales,  thirteen  times  in  those  of  Cornwall,  in  Shrop- 
shire and  in  Herefordshire  seven  times,  in  Gloucester- 
shire four  times,  and  in  Devon  twice.  It  is  also  found 
in  the  Cymric  part  of  Scotland,*  and  is  very  common  in 

The  original  meaning  of  Ian  was  probably  not  an  in- 
closure, but  a  level  plain,^  such  as  the  LANDES,  the  vast 
sandy  flats  near  Bayonne,  or  the  LLANOS,  the  sea-like 
plains  of  South  America.     In  a  mountainous  country 

^  E,g,  BODMIN,  the  stone  house. 

•  E,g,  CHYNOWETH,  the  new  house,  kynance,  the  house  in  the  valley. 
Pryce,  Arch,  Comu-Brit,  sub  voc. 

»  E,g,  QUIBERON. 

4  E.g.  LANARK  and  LANRICK. 


•  Cf.  Talbot,  Eng.  Ety.  p.  55 ;  Pryce,  Arch.  Cornu-Brit.  s.  v.  Our 
words  lawn  and  land  come  from  the  same  ultimate  root  Compare  how- 
ever the  Per^an  Idn,  a  yard.     Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ.  vol.  ii.  p.  19. 


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230  The  Celts. 

like  Wales  such  level  spots  would  be  the  first  to  be 
inclosed,  and  it  is  easy  to  perceive  the  process  by  which 
the  transition  of  meaning  might  be  effected.  The  root, 
in  its  primary  meaning,  appears  in  the  name  of  MI-LAN, 
which  stands  in  the  midst  of  the  finest  plain  in  Europe. 
The  Latin  name  Medioiizwum,  probably  embodies,  or 
perhaps  partly  translates,  the  ancient  enchorial  word^ 
The  Celtic  word,  mauy  a  district,  is  probably  to  be 

sought    in    MAINE,    MANS,    MANTES,  and    MAYENNE    in 

France,  in  MANTUA  in  Italy,  in  LA  MANCHA  and  MANXES 
in  Spain,  in  England  in  MANSFIELD,  in  Mancunium,  now 
MANCHESTER,  in  Manduessedum,  now  mancester,  as 
'  well  as  in  MONA,  the  MENAI  Straits,  the  Isle  of  MAN,  and 
several  Cornish  names.* 

Nant^  a  valley,  is  a  conmion  root  in  the  Cymric  dis- 
tricts of  our  island,  as  in  NANT-FRANGON,  the  beavers* 
valley,  in  Carnarvonshire;  or  NANTGLYN  in  Denbighshire, 
NAN  BIELD  is  the  name  of  a  steep  pass  in  Westmore- 
land, and  NANTWICH  stands  in  a  Cheshire  valley.  In 
Cornwall  we  find  NANS,  NANCEMELLIN,  the  valley  of  the 
mill,  PENNANT,  the  head  of  the  valley,  and  TRENANCE, 
the  town  in  the  valley.  It  is  also  found  in  NANTUA  in 
Burgundy,  NANCY  in  Lorraine,  NANTES  in  Brittany,  and 
the  VAL  DE  NANT  in  Neufchitel.  All  Chamounix 
tourists  will  remember  NANT  BOURANT,  NANT  d'arpe- 

1  Niebuhr,  Lectures  on  Geography  and  Ethnology^  vol.  ii.  p.  235.  Leo, 
Vorlesungen,  vol.  i.  p.  194,  makes  Milan  meiden  llan^  the  great  temple. 
Adelung,  Mithridates,  vol.  ii.  p.  64,  thinks  the  first  syllable  is  mtdu^  a  low 
place.  See  Salverte,  Essai  sur  Us  Noms,  vol.  il  p.  279 ;  De  Belloguct, 
Ethnoginie^  vol.  L  p.  222, 

>  See  PhUolcg.  Proceed,  p.  118.  Mona  and  the  Isle  of  Man  are  perhaps 
from  the  Welsh  mon^  separate.  Cf.  the  Greek  ijuiyos,  Cambro-BritoH^ 
vol.  ill  p.  170 ;  Notes  and  Queries,  2d  series,  voL  ii.  p.  ao. 


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Valleys  and  Plains.  23 1 

NANGY,  and  the  other  nants  or  valleys  of  Savoy,  which 
were  once,  as  this  word  proves,  possessed  by  the  same 
people  who  now  inhabit  the  valleys  of  North  Wales.^ 

The  ancient  kingdom  of  GWENT  comprised  the  coun- 
ties of  Monmouth  and  Glamorgan,  and  Monmouth  still 
locally  goes  by  this  name.  A  Newport  newspaper  is 
called  the  Star  of  Gwent  The  word  denotes  an  open 
champaign  country,  and  the  uncouth  Celtic  word  was 
Latinized  by  the  Romans  into  Venta.  Venta  Silurum 
is  now  CAER-WENT  in  Monmouthshire,  Venta  Belgarum 
IS  now  WIN-CHESTER,  and  Bennaventa  is  now  DA- 
VENT-RY.  The  Veneti  were  the  people  who  inhabited 
the  open  plain  of  Brittany,  and  they  have  left  their  name 
in  the  district  of  LA  VENDUE  and  the  town  of  VANNES. 
The  vast  plain  at  the  mouth  of  the  Po,  where  Celtic 
names  abound,  has  from  the  earliest  times  been  called 
VENETIA,*  a  name  which  may  probably  be  referred  to  the 
same  root,  as  well  perhaps  as  Benev-entum,  now  BENE- 
VENTO,  and  Treventum,  now  TRIVENTO.' 

Most  of  the   Celtic  roots  which  we  have  hitherto 

1  Smith,  DicL  tf  Gr,  and  Rom,  Geogr,  subvoc.  Nantuates;  Diefenbach, 
Cdtica^  L  p.  82 ;  Court  de  Gebelin,  Monde  Prim.  p.  xxiv  ;  Thierry,  Hist, 
Gaul.  vol.  ii.  p.  34 ;  Adelung,  MithridaUs^  vol.  ii.  p.  64 ;  De  Belloguet, 
Ethnoghtie^  vol.  i.  p.  211.  The  singular  way  in  which  this  root  nant  is 
confined  to  Wales  and  the  region  of  the  High  Alps,  has  suggested  the 
doubt  whether  it  be  an  original  C3rmric  gloss,  or  not  rather  one  adopted 
from  an  earlier  Liguro-Iberian  wave  of  population.  See  Robertson,  ScoU 
land  under  her  Early  Kings,  voL  ii.  p.  223. 

>  Vannes  and  Venetia  may  possibly  be  from  vtnna,  a  fisherman.  See 
however  p.  79,  supra.  Mommsen  thinks  the  Veneti  of  the  Adriatic  were 
not  Celts,  but  Illyrians.     Hisi,  Rome,  voL  ii  p.  76. 

•  See  Guest  on  Early  Settlements  in  South  Britain,  in  Proceedings  of  Arch, 
Instii,  ioT  1849,  p.  33  ;  Guest  in  Philolog,  Pr.  vol  L  p.  10 ;  Archdeacon 
Willjanis,  Ed,  Trans,  p.  535 ;  Essays,  p.  82  ;  Cambro- Briton,  vol.  i.  pp. 
I7ff  i^ ;  Dtefenbach,  Celtica,  u.  pt  i  p.  343 ;  Mone,  Gesch,  Heidenth, 
voL  IL  p.  424. 


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232  The  Celts. 

.considered  are  distinctively  Cymric  rather  than  Gaelic 
or  Erse.  Such  are  cefn^  bryn^  cwniy  llan,  tre,  nanty  and 
gwenU  Dun  and  llwch  are  common  to  both  branches 
of  the  Celts,  while  the  Gaelic  betty  centiy  and  carraig 
.are  closely  related  to  the  Cymric/^  and  craig. 

The  next  root  to  be  considered  is  decisively  Gadhelic, 
and  is,  therefore,  very  useful  as  a  test-word  in  discrimi- 
nating between  the  districts  peopled  by  the  two  great 
branches  of  the  Celtic  stock. 

The  word  magh}  a  plain  or  field,  is  found  in  more 
than  a  hundred  Irish  names,  such  as  MAGH-ERA,  MAY- 
NOOTH,  AR-MAGH.  On  the  Continent  it  is  found  in 
many  ancient  and  modem  names.^  In  Germany  we  find 
^a^etoburgum,  now  mag-DEBURG  ;  J/iTg-ontiacum,  now 
MAI-NTZ,  and  other  names ;  ^  and  in  north-eastern 
France  this  root  was  equally  common.* 

The  chief  Cymric  roots  are  found  scattered  over 
Spain,  Northern  Italy,  Switzerland,  and  Southern  Ger- 
.many  ;  but  the  root  maghy  the  Gadhelic  test-word,  seems 

^  Sanskrit,  maht,  terra.  The  Welsh  form  is  maesy  as  in  Maes  Gannon, 
Mesham,  Maesbury,  Maseriield,  Masbrook,  Woodmas.  The  maes  or 
MEUSE  is  the  river  of  meadows.  The  English  mathy  and  to  mowy  and  the 
Latin  meto  are  cognate  words.  See  Diefenbach,  Cdtica^  i.  p.  77  ;  Mone, 
CeUische  Farschungettj  p.  228  ;  Sullivan,  Diet,  of  DeriuationSy  p.  291  ; 
Astruc,  Hist  LanguedoCy  p.  437  ;  Pictet,  Orig,  Jndo-Europ.  vol.  iL  p.  loi ; 
Gliick,  Kdt  Namerty  pp.  123 — 125 ;  Zeuss,    Gramtnatica  Cdtica,  toL  i 

p.  5. 

'  The  suffix  inagus  occurs  forty-seven  times  in  Prichard's  lists.  Researches^ 
vol.  iiL 

'  E.g.  Marcoma^us,  now  yLKrmagen,  Noviom^^us  (Newfidd),  now 
Ni^Tf^^n,  RigoxM^us  (Kingsfield),  now  Rheinm^^n,  Borbetovn^fus,  now 
Worms,  and  Dumomj^us,  a  place  near  Cologne. 

^  We  have  it  in  Kotoxvd^us,  now  Rouen,  Noiom^us,  now  Nemoun, 
Novioma^us  Lexoviorum,  now  Lisieux,  Cdssaccomagyxsy  now  Beauvais, 
lyjlxomagMs,  now  Angers,  Aiigento/wjifus,  now  Argento^i,  Catorim4^pis» 
now  Chorges,  and  Sermanico/^^us,  now  Chermez. 


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Cymric  and  Gadkelic  Test-words.  235 

to  be  confined  almost  entirely  to  the  district  of  the  lower 
Rhine  and  its  tributaries.  In  Switzerland  it  does  not 
appear,^  and  in  Italy  it  occurs  only  in  the  district  peopled 
by  the  intrusive  Boii.*  In  southern  and  western  France 
it  hardly  occurs  at  all,  and  it  is  found  only  once  or 
twice  in  Britain.'  We  may  therefore  conclude  that  while 
the  Cymry  came  from  the  region  of  the  Alps,  the 
Gadhelic  branch  of  the  Celts  must  have  migrated  from 
the  valleys  of  the  Rhine  and  the  Moselle.  It  seems 
to  have  been  from  this  district  that  the  earliest  historic 
movement  of  the  Celts  took  place.  Three  Celtic  tribes 
burst  through  the  Alps ;  they  pillaged  Rome,  and,  after 
returning  to  lUyria  for  a  while,  they  broke  in  upon 
Greece,  and  plundered  the  treasures  at  Delphi.*  They 
settled  for  a  time  in  Thrace,  where  we  have  local  traces 

^  The  Swiss  form  maty  a  meadow,  which  appears  in  zermat  and 
AN  DERM  AT,  is  found  Only  in  the  Cymric,  and  not  in  the  Gaelic  portions  of 
Great  Britain.     E^.  MATHERN  in  Monmouth  and  in  Hereford. 

*  We  have  Rigo^M^s  near  Tniin,  Bodinoom<^us  on  the  Po,  and 
Camelioma,,fiis  near  Placentia. 

s  We  have  Mag\D!oxaL,  now  Dunstable.  Close  to  the  town  is  an  ancient 
earthwork,  called  the  Maiden  Bower,  or  the  Maidning  Bourne,  which 
seems  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  Celto- Saxon  name  Mageburg.  See 
Gough*6  Camden,  vol.  ii.  pp.  49,  55.  The  original  name  of  Csesarom^i^us 
was  probably  Dunomagus,  as  is  indicated  by  the  modem  name  dunmow. 
Sitoimi^ais  is,  perhaps,  Thetford.  The  position  of  these  places  is  a  strong 
conoboration  of  the  opinion  held  by  many  Celtic  scholars,  that  East  Anglia 
was  Gaelic  rather  than  Cymric.  See  various  Papers  by  the  Rev.  J.  Davies, 
in  the  Transactions  of  the  Pkilologiccd  Society  ;  and  Davies,  Cdtic  Researches, 
p.  203. 

^  See  Contzen,  Wanderungen  der  KeUen^  pp.  97 — 262  ;  Conybeare  and 
Howson,  Life  of  St,  Paul,  vol  i.  p.  2S4 ;  Zeuss,  Die  Deutschen^  pp.  .180— 
1S4 ;  Rawlinson,  Herodotus,  vol.  iii.  p.  190 ;  Arnold,  History  of  Rome, 
ToL  L  p.  522 ;  Niebuhr,  History  of  Rome,  voL  iL  p.  524 ;  Ij&tham, 
Germania,  pp.  83,  98 ;  Prichard,  Eastern  Origin  of  Celt.  Nat.  pp.  104 — 
1 10 ;  Lindsay,  Progression,  p.  62  ;  Duncker,  Orig,  Germ,  pp.  36 — 39 ; 
Keferstein,  Kdt,  Alt,  vol  ii.  p.  348 ;  Radlo^  Neue  Untersuchungen,  pp. 


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234  The  Celts. 

of  a  still  earlier  abode  of  a  Celtic  people,  and  then 
crossing  the  Bosphorus,  they  took  possession  of  the 
central  parts  of  Asia  Minor,  to  which  they  gave  the  name 
of  Galatia,  the  land  of  the  Gael,  and  where  they  long  re- 
tained their  Celtic  speech,*  and  the  ethnical  peculiarities 
of  their  Celtic  blood.*  Here,  curiously  enough,  we  again 
encounter  this  root  magy  which  is  found  so  abundantly  in 
the  district  from  which  they  emigrated.  In  the  Galatian 
district  we  find  the  names  of  ^(O^gydus,  Afa^bula, 
Mag^ki^i,  Afygdale,  Magnesia,  (twice),  and  the  Jkfygdones, 
In  Thessaly,  where  these  Celts  settled  for  a  time,  we 
also  find  two  of  these  names,  ^^j^esia,  and  the  district 
of  AfygdoniaL,  which  lay  on  the  banks  of  the  Axius,  a 
Celtic  river-name.*  Magaba,  is  on  the  Halys,  which  is  a 
Celtic  word,  meaning  salt  river.  In  Lycia,  according  to 
Strabo,  there  was  an  enormous  rocky  summit,  steeply 
scarped  on  every  side,  called  Kpo^o?.* 

^  Galatas  .  .  .  propriam  lingaam  eandem  pene  habere  quam  Treviros. 
Jerome,  Commentary  on  the  Epistle  to  the  Galatians^  Prooemium. 

s  We  see,  from  many  indications  in  St.  Paul's  Epistle,  that  the  "foolish 
Galatians,"  who  were  so  easily  "bewitched,"  were  like  the  rest  of  the 
Gaelic  race — ^fickle,  enthusiastic,  fond  of  glory  and  display,  and  at  the  same 
time  lively,  witty,  eloquent,  and  full  of  good  sense  and  good  feeling.  The 
Galatians,  like  all  other  Celtic  peoples,  made  admirable  soldiers,  and  OTcr- 
threw  the  invincible  phalanx  of  Macedonia.  We  recognise  in  them  the 
same  military  qualities  which  have  made  the  charge  of  the  Highland  dans 
and  of  the  Irish  regiments  so  terrible,  and  which  have  rendered  so  fiunofua 
the  brilliant  Celtic  mercenaries  of  France  and  Carthage. 

*  These  Thessalian  names,  occurring  as  they  do  in  Homer  and  Hero- 
dotus, must  be  attributed  to  the  earlier  Celtic  occupancy  of  this  region. 

^  Diefenbach,  Celtica,  i.  p.  104.  There  are  many  other  Celtic  names  ia 
Galatia  and  the  neighbouring  parts  of  Bithynia  and  Magnesia  ;  such  as  the 
Rivers  iEsius,  iEsyros,  and  iEson,  which  apparently  contain  the  root  a^ 
water.  See  p.  203,  supra,  Abr-os-tola  seems  to  contain  the  root  aier  as 
well  See  p.  245,  infra,  Vindia,  Cinna,  and  Brianise  caU  to  mind  the  roots 
gwmtt  cenn^  and  bryn.  See  pp.  231,  221,  224,  supra.  Armorium  reminds  us 
of  Armorica.     Olen^  in  Galatia,  reminds  us  of  Olenseum  in  Britain,  and 


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Celts  in  Galatia.  235 

The  accumulative  evidence  furnished  by  these  Celtic 
names  has  been  exhibited  in  a  very  imperfect  manner, 
but  enough  has  probably  been  adduced  to  lead  irresis- 
tibly to  the  conclusion  that  large  portions  of  Italy,  Spain, 
France,  Switzerland,  and  Germany,  were  at  some  period 
inhabited  by  the  race  which  now  retains  its  speech  and 
its  nationality  only  in  a  few  of  the  western  comers  of 
Europe — Ireland,  the  Scotch  Highlands,  the  Isle  of  Man, 
Wales,  and  Brittany. 

The  following  may  be  offered  as  a  brief  summary 
of  the  results  disclosed  by  the  evidence  of  these  Celtic 

There  is  no  ground  for  any  probable  conjectures  as  to 
the  time  and  place  at  which  the  division  of  the  Celts  into 
their  two  great  branches  may  be  supposed  to  have  taken 

In  central  Europe  we  find  traces  of  both  Cymry  and 

The  most  numerous  people  of  primaeval  Germany 
were  of  the  Gadhelic  branch.  They  were  not  only  the 
most  numerous,  but  they  were  also  the  earliest  to  arrive. 
This  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  throughout  Germany 
we  find  no  Cymric,  Sclavonic,  or  Teutonic  names  which 
have  undergone  phonetic  changes  in  accordance  with  the 
genius  of  the  Erse  or  Gaelic  languages.  Hence  it  may 
be  inferred  that  the  Gaels,  on  their  arrival,  found 
Germany  unoccupied,  and  that  their  immigration  was 
therefore  of  a  peaceful  character. 

Olin  in  GanL  Agannia  reminds  us  of  Agennum  in  Gaul.  An  Episcopus 
Taviensis  came  from  Galatia  to  attend  the  Nicene  Council.  We  have 
also  the  apparently  Celtic  names  Acitorizacum,  Ambrenna,  Eccobriga, 
Landrosia,  Roslogiacum,  and  the  River  Siberis.  Diefenbach,  Cdtica^  ii 
pt.  L  pp.  256,  313,  &C. ;  Thierry,  Histoiredes  Gaulois^  vol.  L  pp.  145,  seq, ; 
De  Belloguet,  EthnoginU^  vol  L  p.  249. 


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^S6  .     The  Celts, 

Next  came  the  Cymry.  They  came "  as  conquerors, 
and  in  numbers  they  were  fewer  than  the  Gaels  whom 
they  found  in  possession.  This  we  gather  from  the 
fact  that  there  are  comparatively  few  pure  Cymric 
names  in  Germany,  but  a  large  number  of  Gadhelic 
names  which  have  been  Cymricized.  From  the  topo- 
graphical distribution  of  these  names  we  infer  that  the 
Gaels  arrived  from  the  east,  and  the  Cymry  from  the 

The  large  number  of  Cymric  names  in  northern  Italy,* 
and  the  fact  that  several  of  the  passes  of  the  Alps  *  bear 
Cymric  names,  seem  also  to  indicate  the  quarter  whence 
the  Cymric  invasion  proceeded. 

Lastly  came  the  Germans  from  the  north — ^they  were 
conquerors,  and  fewer  in  number  than  either  the  Cymry 

^  See  Meyer,  in  Bunsen's  Phil,  of  Univ.  Hist  vol.  i.  p.  148  ;  and  Mone, 
Celtische  Forschungen,  In  the  lists  given  by  Keferetein  (vol.  it  pp.  i — loi) 
there  are  about  2,400  German  words  which  bear  more  or  less  resemblance 
to  their  Celtic  synonyms.  The  resemblance,  in  many  cases,  is  only  what  is 
due  to  the  common  Aryan  source ;  but,  from  other  instances,  we  may  fairly 
infer  the  existence,  for  a  time,  of  a  Celtic  remnant  among  the  Teutonic 
conquerors.  On  Celtic  names  in  Germany  see  Leo,  Vorlemngm,  vol.  i.  p. 
194,  seq.  ;  Mahn,  Namm  Berlin  und  JCdln^  p.  7  ;  Keferstein,  JCdt  Alt. 
vol.  ii. ;  Mone,  Celtische  Forschungen,  passim ;  MiiUer,  Marken  d.  Vttterl. 
pp.  117 — 128  ;  Duncker,  Origines  Germ.  pp.  44 — 7a 

■  We  find  the  roots  llan^  gwent^  a/on,  is,  stour,  chvr,  tre^  ter.  Sec  pp. 
229,  231,  &c ;  Williams,  in  vol.  xiii.  of  Trans,  of  Royal  Society  of  Edin. 
passim;  Latham,  note  to  Prichard's  Eastern  Origin,  pp.  121 — 133.  A 
large  number  of  words  are  common  to  the  Celtic  and  LAtin  languages 
— lists  will  be  found  in  Keferstein,  Kdt.  Alterth,  vol.  ii.  pp.  102 — 172; 
Newman,  RegcU  Rome,  pp.  1 7 — 25  ;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnograp^^ 
p.  37 ;  and  see  Diez,  Etym.  Worterbuch,  passim.  Compare,  for  instance, 
the  words  sagitta  and  saighead,  lorica  and  luireach,  tdum  and  tailm, 

'  Celtic  names  are  very  numerous  in  the  Alp^.  See  Meyer,  Ortsnamen; 
Schott,  Deut.  Pied.  Col.  pp.  216,  225;  Keferstein,  Kelt.  Alt.  vol.  ii.  p.  375  ; 
Latham,  in  Prichard's  Eastern  Origin,  p.  84,  seq. ;  Zeuss,  Deutschen,  pp. 


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Celts  in  Germany  and  France.  237 

or  the  Gael.    They  have  Germanized  many  Gadhelic 
names  which  had  previously  been  Cymricized.^ 

The  names  of  northern  and  central  France  are  still 
more  decisively  Celtic  than  those  of  Germany.^  In 
Brittany  the  Armorican,  a  language  closely  allied  to  the 
Welsh,  is  still  spoken,  and  the  local  names,  with  few  ex- 
ceptions, are  derived  from  Cymric  roots,  and  are  in  a 
much  purer  and  more  easily  recognisable  form  than  in 
other  parts.  But  we  find  that  the  same  names  which 
occur  in  Brittany  are  also  scattered  over  the  rest  of 
France,  though  more  sparingly,  and  in  more  corrupted 
forms.  Brandes  «  has  compiled  a  list  of  more  than  three 
hundred  Breton  names,  which  also  occur  in  other  parts 
of  France.*    In  the  north-east  of  France  we  find  a  few 

^  See  Mone,  CelHsche  Forschungen,  p.  172. 

'  Though  the  Celtic  tongue  was  spoken  m  France  down  to  the  sixth 
century,  very  few  Celtic  words  have  found  their  place  in  the  French  lan- 
guage. A  good  many,  however,  linger  in  the  provincial  dialects.  A  list 
will  be  found  in  Courson,  Histoire  des  Peuples  Bretons^  vol.  1.  pp.  31—41. 
But  without  the  evidence  of  local  names  we  should  have  no  conception  of 
the  real  amount  of  the  Celtic  element  in  France.  See  Milman,  Hist.  LaU 
Christianity t  voL  vi.  p.  340  ;  Diez,  Gram,  Rom,  Spr,  vol.  i.  p.  80 ;  Addung, 
Mithridates^  vol.  il  p.  35.  On  Celtic  names  in  France,  see  Diefenbach, 
Cdtica;  Gliick,  Kdtischen  Namen ;  De  Belloguet,  Ethnoghtie  Caulois ; 
Kennedy,  mPhilolog.  Trans,  for  1855,  p.  166 ;  and  two  silly  books — Astruc, 
Hist.  Nat,  de  Languedoc^  pp.  422 — ^457,  and  Court  de  Gebelin,  Monde 
Primitiff  vol.  v,  pp.  xx — ^xxv. 

'  Das  Ethnographische  Verhaltniss  der  Kdten  und  Germanen,  pp.  257 — 
261.  Courson,  Histoire  des  Peuples  Bretons,  vol.  i.  pp.  42 — ^45,  gives  a 
similar  list  Cf.  Souvestre,  Les  Demiers  Britons,  vol.  ii.  p.  164,  on  the  two 
races  inhabiting  respectively  the  mountains  and  the  plains. 

*  Thus  we  have  avon  four  times,  bryn  nine  times,  tre  thirty  times,  as 
well  as  Uan,  is,  ar,  dwr,  garw,  &c  The  theory  has  been  advanced  that 
the  Bretons  of  Brittany  were  a  colony  from  Cornwall  or  Devon.  No  doubt 
there  was  a  great  amount  of  intercourse.  The  Cornwall  and  Devon  of 
France  afforded  refuge  to  the  emigrants  expelled  by  the  Saxons  from 
the  Cornwall  and  Devon  of  England ;  but  the  local  names  of  France 
prove  conclusively  that  the   Bretons  were  once    more  widely  spread. 


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238  The  Celts. 

Gaelic  and  Erse  ^  roots,  which  are  altogether  absent  from 
the  local  nomenclature  of  the  west,  a  fact  which  suggests 
that  the  Gaels  of  Germany  may  have  crossed  this  part 
of  France  on  their  way  to  the  British  Isles. 

But  in  south-western  France— the  region  between  the 
Garonne  and  the  Pyrenees — ^the  Celtic  names,  which  are 
so  universally  diffused  over  the  other  portions  of  the 
kingdom,  are  most  conspicuously  absent  The  names 
which  we  find  in  this  district  are  not  even  Indo-Euro- 
pean,^ but  belong  to  quite  another  family  of  human 
speech — the  Turanian,  which  includes  the  languages 
which  are  now  spoken  by  the  Turks,  the  Magyars,  the 
Finns  and  Lapps  of  Northern  Europe,  and  their  distant 
congeners,  the  Basques,  who  inhabit  the  western  portion 
of  the  Pyrenees.  These  Spanish  mountaineers,  who  now 
number  three-quarters  of  a  million,  seem  to  be  the  sole 
unabsorbed  remnant  of  the  powerful  nation  which  once 
occupied  the  greater  portion  of  Spain,  the  half  of 
France,  the  whole  of  Sardinia  and  Corsica,  and  large 
portions  of  Italy.  Whether  these  Iberians,  or  Euska- 
rians  as  they  are  called,  were  the  earliest  inhabitants  of 
Spain,  or  whether  they  were  preceded  by  Celtic  tribes, 
is  still  a  disputed  question  among  ethnologists.  It  is 
doubtful  whether  they  crossed  into  Spain  by  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar,  or  whether  they  crept  along  the  coast  of 
the  Mediterranean  from  Liguria,  and  penetrated  by  the 
north-eastern  defiles  of  the  Pyrenees.*  The  whole  sub- 
See  Palgrave,  Eng,  Com,  voL  L  p.  382 ;  Turner,  Angto-Saxonsj  voL  iL 
p.  213. 

^  The  Glossa  Malperga^  recently  disinterred  by  Leo,  contains  the  laws  of 
a  Belgian  tribe,  written  in  a  hmguage  nearly  akin  to  Irish. 

*  Pott,  Art.  Jndo-Germ.  Sprach-Stammy  in  Ersch  und  Gruber,  p.  250 ; 
Arndt,  Europ,  Spr,  pp.  19 — 23  ;  Brace,  Races  of  Old  Worlds  p.  252. 

'  The  absence  of  Iberic  names  from  Easterti  Europe  and  Asia  seem  to 


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Euskarians.  239 

ject  of  the  ancient  ethnology  of  Spain  has  been  dis- 
cussed in  an  admirable  and  exhaustive  manner  by  Baron 
Wilhelm  von  Humboldt,  in  his  work  entitled  "  Priifung 
der  Untersuchungen  uber  die  alter  Bewohner  Hispa- 
niens."^  The  materials  of  this  investigation  consist 
chiefly  of  the  ancient  names  which  are  found  in  Pliny, 
Ptolemy,  Strabo,  and  the  Itineraries.  These  names  he 
endeavours  to  trace  to  Celtic  or  Euskarian  roots,  and 
compares  them  with  the  Basque  names  now  found  in  the 
Asturias.  One  of  the  most  prevalent  words  is  asta^  a 
rock,  which  we  have  in  ASTURIA,  ASTORGA,  asta,  ASTE- 
Other  names.  The  root  ura^  water,  occurs  in  ASTURIA,^ 
Iturria,  a  fountain,  is  found  in  the  names  ITURISSA, 
acteristic Euskarian  terminations  are  «m,  pa,  etani, 
etania^  gis,  ilia,  and  ula.  The  characteristic  initial  syl- 
lables are  al,  ar,  as,  bae,  bi,  bar,  ber,  cal,  ner,  sal,  si,  tai, 
and  tu.  These  roots  are  found  chiefly  in  eastern  and 
northern  Spain,  in  the  valley  of  the  Tagus,  and  on  the 

make  it  probable  that  the  Iberians  crossed  from  Africa,  and  spread  over 
Spain,  and  thence  to  France,  the  Italian  coast  land,  and  the  Mediterranean 
Islands.  The  Celts  seem  to  have  been  the  conquering,  and  the  Iberians 
the  conquered  people.  Pott,  Indo-Germ.  Spr,  p.  25.  See,  however, 
Nicbuhr,  Hist.  Rome,  vol  ii.  p.  520.  There  appear  to  be  a  few  Euskarian 
names  in  Thrace.     Humboldt,  Priifung,  pp.  118— 120. 

^  On  Iberic  names  see  also  Zeuss,  Die  DetUschen  und  die  Nachharstdmme, 
pp.  160 — 164 ;  Prichard,  Researches  into  the  Physical  History  0/ Mankind, 
voL  iiL  p.  20 — 48 ;  Diefenbach,  Celtica,  iL  pp.  I — 52  ;  Robertson,  Scotland 
under  her  Early  Kings^  vol.  iL  p.  221 ;  Adelung,  Mithridates,  vol.  ii.  pp. 
12—30.  The  work  by  S.  F.  W.  Hoffmann,  Die  Iberer  im  Westen  und 
Osten,  I  have  not  been  able  to  procure. 

<  On  the  name  Asturia  see  Humboldt,  Priifung,  pp.  23, 30 ;  Diefenbach, 
Cdtica,  ii.  part  i.  p.  312,  and  L  p.  27. 

■  See  p.  55,  su^a. 


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240  The  Celts. 

southern  coast,  while  in  Galicia,  in  the'  valleys  of  the 
Minho  ^  and  the  Guadiana,  and  in  southern  Portugal,  the 
names  are  purely  Celtic,^  and  there  seems  to  have  been 
no  infusion  of  an  Euskarian  element.  Various  fortresses 
in  the  Iberic  district  bear  Celtic  names,  while  in  the 
mountainous  district  of  central  Spain  a  fusion  of  the 
two  races  would  seem  to  have  taken  place,  probably  by 
a  Celtic  conquest  of  Iberic  territory,  and  the  Celtiberians^ 
as  they  are  called,  separated  the  pure  Celts  from  the  pure 

In  Aquitania  proper  *  there  is  hardly  a  single  Celtic 
name — all  are  Iberic  or  Romance.  In  Italy  Iberic 
names  are  not  uncommon,^  and  it  has  been  thought  that 
some  faint  traces  of  a  Turanian,  if  not  of  an  Iberic  po- 
pulation are  perceptible  in  the  names  of  north-western 
Africa,  of  Sicily,  and  even  of  the  extreme  west  of 

In  the  British  Isles,  the  Gaelic,  the  Erse,  the  Manx, 
and  the  Welsh,  are  still  living  languages.  Just  as  in 
Silesia  and  Bohemia  the   Sclavonic  is  now  gradually 

1  The  Mynnow  or  Mynwy,  on  which  Monmouth  stands,  is  the  same 

<  Dr.  Latham  has  noticed  the  significant  fact  that  the  Celtic  roots  mag 
and  duriy  which  occur  so  abundantly  in  other  districts  peopled  by  the  Celts, 
are  not  found  in  Spain.  This  may  indicate  that  the  Spanish  Celts  woe 
separated  from  their  kinsfolk  at  an  early  period. 

»  On  Euskarian  names  in  France  see  Humboldt,  Prufung^  pp.  91 — 95. 

4  We  find  uria  in  Apulia,  astura  near  Antium,  asta  in  Liguria,  as  w^ 
as  liguria,  basta,  biturgia,  and  others  which  are  compounded  with  the 
Euskarian  roots,  asta^  a  rock,  ura^  water,  and  ilia  or  ulitiy  a  dty.  Hum- 
boldt, Prufungy  pp.  Ill— 118. 

0  Professor  Keyser,  of  Christiania,  has  endeavoured  to  prove  a  wide 
extension  of  Iberic  tribes  over  the  extreme  Western  shores  of  Europe. 
See  Prichard,  Report  on  Ethnology  to  Brit.  Assoc,  in  1847,  p.  246 ;  Meyer, 
ib, ;  Wilson,  Frehist.  Annals^  P«  ll  ;  Robertson,  Early  Kings,  voL  L 


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Retrocession  of  Celts  in  England.  241 

receding  before  the  German  language,  so  in  the  British 
Isles  a  similar  process  has  been  going  on  for  more  than 
fourteen  centuries.  We  have  documentary  evidence  of 
this  process.  The  ancient  documents  relating  to  the 
parishes  north  of  the  Forth,  exhibit  a  gradually  in- 
creasing proportion  of  Teutonic  names.  In  the  Taxatio 
of  the  twelfth  century,  only  2  J  per  cent,  are  Teutonic  ; 
in  the  Chartularies,  from  the  twelfth  to  the  fourteenth 
century,  the  proportion  rises  to  4  per  cent.,  and  in  the 
tax  rolls  of  1554  to  nearly  25  per  cent^  In  the  south 
of  the  island  a  similar  retrocession  of  the  Celtic  speech 
may  be  traced.  Thus  in  the  will  of  Alfred,  Dorset, 
Somerset,  Wilts,  and  Devon,  are  enumerated  as  "  Wealh- 
cynne,"  a  phrase  which  proves  that  these  counties  were 
then  thoroughly  Celtic  in  blood  and  language,  although 
politically  they  belonged  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  common- 
wealth.^ Dr.  Guest  has  shown  that  the  valleys  of  the 
Frome  and  the  Bristol  Avon  formed  an  intrusive  Welsh 
wedge,  protruding  into  the  Saxon  district.'  Athelstan 
found  Britons  and  Saxons  in  joint  occupation  of  the  city 
of  Exeter.  He  expelled  the  former,  and  drove  them 
beyond  the  Tamar,  and  fixed  the  Wye  as  the  boundary 
of  the  Northern  Cymry.  Harold,  son  of  Godwin, 
ordered  that  every  Celt  found  east  of  OfTa's  Dyke  should 
have  his  right  hand  struck  off.*  But  even  so  late  as 
the  time  of  Henry  II.  Herefordshire  was  not  entirely 
Anglicized,  and  it  was  only  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. 
that  Monmouthshire  was  first  numbered  among  the 
English    counties.      In   remote    parts    of   Devon   the 

1  Chalmers,  Caledonia^  vol.  i.  pp.  484,  485. 

*  Palgiave,  English  CommonwecUth^  vol.  i.  p.  41a 
>  Archaolog,  Journal^  vol.  xvi. 

*  Lappenbcrg,  Atiglo-Saxan  Kings,  vol  i.  p.  231. 


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242  The  Celts. 

ancient  Cymric  speech  feebly  lingered  on  till  the  reign 
of  Elizabeth,  while  in  Cornwall  it  was  the  general 
medium  of  intercourse  in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  In 
the  time  of  Queen  Anne  it  was  confined  to  five  or  six 
villages  in  the  western  portion  of  the  county,  and  it  has 
only  become  extinct  within  the  lifetime  of  living  men 
(A.D.  1777)^  while  the  Celtic  race  has  survived  the  ex- 
tinction of  their  language  with  little  intermixture  of 
Teutonic  blood.  In  the  west  of  Glamorgan,  in  Flint, 
Denbigh,  and  part  of  Montgomery,  the  English  language 
has  almost  entirely  displaced  the  Welsh,  and  in  the 
other  border  counties  it  is  rapidly  encroaching.  In  fact, 
we  may  now  see  in  actual  operation  the  same  gradual 
process  which  has  taken  place  throughout  the  rest  of 
Britain.  In  Wales,  the  change  of  language,  now  in  pro- 
gress, is  accompanied  by  very  little  infusion  of  Saxon 
blood.  The  same  must  also  have  been  the  case  at  an 
earlier  period.  In  Mercia  and  Wessex,  at  all  events, 
we  must  believe  that  the  bulk  of  the  people  is  of  Celtic 
blood.  The  Saxon  keels  cannot  have  transported  any 
very  numerous  population,  and,  no  doubt,  the  ceorls,  or 
churls,  long  continued  to  be  the  nearly  pure-blooded  de- 
scendants of  the  aboriginal  Celts  of  Britain.^ 

These  theoretical  conclusions  are  thoroughly  borne 
out  by  the  evidence  of  the  local  names.  Throughout 
the  whole  island  almost  every  river-name  is  Celtic, 
most  of  the  shire-names  contain  Celtic  roots,*  and  a  fair 

1  Gough*s  Camden,  vol  L  p.  15 ;  Halliwell,  Cornwall^  pp.  167 — 174. 
Many  Cornish  words  still  survive,  as  quUquin^  a  frog. 

>  Palgrave,  English  Common,  voL  up.  26 ;  Davies,  in  Philolog,  Trams. 
for  1857,  p.  75  ;  Diefenbadi,  CeUka^  ii.  part  ii.  p.  140. 

s  Cambridge,  ComwaU,  Cumberland,  Devon,  Dorset,  Durham,  Glouoes* 
ter,  Hertford,  Huntingdon,  Kent,  Lancaster,  Lincoln,  Monmouth,  North- 
umberland, Oxford,  Worcester,  and  York,  together  with  all  the  Welsh. 


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Celt  and  Saxon.  243 

sprinkling  of  names  of  hills,  valleys,  and  fortresses,  bears 
witness  that  the  Celt  was  the  aboriginal  possessor  of  the 
soil ;  while  in  the  border  counties  of  Salop,  Hereford, 
Gloucester,  Dorset,  Somerset,  and  Devon,  and  in  the 
mountain  fastnesses  of  Derbyshire  and  Cumberland,  not 
only  are  the  names  of  the  great  natural  features  of  the 
country  derived  from  the  Celtic  speech,  but  we  find  oc- 
casional village-names,  with  the  prefixes  Ian  and  tre^ 
interspersed  among  the  Saxon  patronymics.  A  large 
number  of  the  chief  ancient  centres  of  population,  such 
bear  Celtic  names,  while  the  Teutonic  town  names 
usually  indicate  by  their  suffixes  that  they  originated  in 
isolated  family  settlements  in  the  uncleared  forest,^  or 
arose  from  the  necessities  of  traffic  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  some  frequented  ford.^  These  facts,  taken  together, 
prove  that  the  Saxon  immigrants,  for  the  most  part,  left 
the  Celts  in  possession  of  the  towns,  and  subdued,  each 
for  himself,  a  portion  of  the  unappropriated  waste.  It 
is  obvious  therefore,  that  a  very  considerable  Celtic 
element  of  population  must,  for  a  long  time,  have  sub- 
sisted, side  by  side  with  the  Teutonic  invaders,  without 
much  mutual  interference.  In  time  the  Celts  acquired 
the  language  of  the  more  energetic  race,  and  the  two 
peoples  at  last  ceased  to  be  distinguishable.  Just  in  the 
same  way,  during  the  last  two  centuries,  Anglo-Saxon 
colonists  have  been  establishing  themselves  among  the 
aborigines  of  North  America,  of  the  Cape,  and  of  New 

and  Scotch  shires,  except  Anglesea,  Montgomery,  Haddington,  Kircud- 
bright, Stirling,  Sutherland,  and  Wigton. 

1  E,g.  Buckingham,  Reading,  Derby,  &c. 

s  E,g,  Stafford,  Bedford,  Chehnsford,  &c 

R  2 

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Tfu  Celts, 

Zealand,  and  the  natives  have  not  been  at  once  extermi- 
nated, but  are  being  slowly  absorbed  and  assimilated  by 
the  superior  vigour  of  the  incoming  race. 

To  exhibit  the  comparative  amount  of  the  Celtic,  the 
Saxon,  and  the  Danish  elements  of  population  in  various 
portions  of  the  island,  an  analysis  has  been  made  of  the 
names  of  villages,  hamlets,  hills,  woods,  valleys,  &c^ 
in  the  counties  of  Suffolk,  Surrey,  Devon,  Cornwall,  and 

Per  centage  of 
Names  from  the 






Isle  of 


Celtic    .... 
Anglo-Saxon . 
Norse   .... 


















By  far  the  greater  number  of  Celtic  names  in  Eng- 
land are  of  the  Cymric  type.  Yet,  as  we  have  already 
seen,2  there  is  a  thin  stream  of  Gadhelic  names  which 
extends  across  the  island  from  the  Thames  to  the 
Mersey,  as  if  to  indicate  the  route  by  which  the  Gaels 
passed  across  to  Ireland,  impelled,  probably,  by  the  suc- 
ceeding hosts  of  Cymric  invaders. 

The  Cymry  held  the  lowlands  of  Scotland  as  far  as 
the  Perthshire  hills.^     The  names  in  the  valleys  of  the 

^  River  names  are  excluded  from  the  computation. 

«  E,g.  Dun»«w,  Ouse,  &c.     See  pp.  204,  233,  supra. 

8  On  the  limits  of  the  Cymry  and  Gael  in  Scotland,  see  Gamett,  "On 
the  relation  of  the  Picts  and  Gael,"  in  Philolog.  Proceed,  vol.  i.  and  Essays^ 
pp.  196—204;  Chalmers,  Caledonia^  vol.  i. ;  Robertson,  Scotland  under  her 
Early  Kings,  vol.  ii.  pp.  360—381  ;  Skene,  Hist,  of  the  Highlanders,  voL  i. 
pp.  67—87 ;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnography,  pp.  36,  37  ;  Diefenbach, 
Celtica,  ii.  pt.  ii.  pp.  176,  seq. 


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Estimate  of  tJie  Amount  of  the  Celtic  Element.    245 

Clyde  and  the  Forth  are  Cymric,  not  Gaelic.  At  a  later 
period  the  Scots,^  an  Irish  sept,  crossed  over  into  Argyle, 
and  gradually  extended  their  dominion  over  the  whole 
of  the  north-west  of  Scotland,  encroaching  here  and 
there  on  the  Cymry  who  held  the  lowlands,  and  who 
were  probably  the  people  who  go  by  the  name  of 
Picts.  In  the  ninth  century  the  monarchy  of  the  Picts 
was  absorbed  by  the  Scots.  The  Picts,  however,  still 
maintained  a  distinct  ethnical  existence,  for  we  find 
them  fighting  in  the  battle  of  the  Standard  against 
Stephen.  In  the  next  century  they  disappear  myste- 
riously from  history.* 

To  establish  the  point,  that  the  Picts,  or  the  nation, 
whatever  was  its  name,  that  held  central  Scotland,  was 
Cymric,  not  Gaelic,  we  may  refer  to  the  distinction 
already  mentioned  *  between  ben  and  pen,  Ben  is  con- 
fined to  the  west  and  north  ;  pen  to  the  east  and  south. 
Inver  and  aber  are  also  useful  test-words  in  discrimi- 
nating between  the  two  branches  of  the  Celts.  The 
difference  between  the  two  words  is  dialectic  only ;  the 
etymology  and  the  meaning  are  the  same — a  confluence 
of  waters,  either  of  two  rivers,  or  of  a  river  with  the  sea. 
Aber  occurs  repeatedly  in  Brittany,*  and  is  found  Tn 
about  fifty  Welsh  names,  such  as  ABERDARE,  ABERGA- 
corruption  of  Abermaw.  In  England  we  find  -^^^rford 
in  Yorkshire,   and   Berwick    in    Northumberland    and 

^  In  ancient  records  Scotia  means  Ireland.  North  Britain  was  called 
Nova  Scotia.  In  the  twelfth  century  the  Clyde  and  Forth  were  the 
Southern  boundary  of  what  was  then  called  Scotland.  Palgrave,  EngUsh 
Comnunrwealth^  vol.  i.  p.  420 ;  vol.  iv.  p.  308. 

*  Palgrave,  En^ish  Commonwealth^  vol.  i.  p.  418, 
»  See  p.  220,  supra, 



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246  The  Celts. 

Sussex ;  and  it  has  been  thought  that  the  name  of  the 
HUMBER  is  a  corruption  of  the  same  root.  Invety  the 
Erse  and  Gaelic  form,  is  common  in  Ireland,  where  aber 
is  unknown.  Thus  we  find  places  called  INVER,  in 
Antrim,  Donegal,  and  Mayo,  and  INVERMORE,  in  Gal- 
way  and  in  Mayo.  In  Scotland,  the  invers  and  abers 
are  distributed  in  a  curious  and  instructive  manner.  If 
we  draw  a  line  across  the  map  from  a  point  a  little  south 
of  Inverary,  to  one  a  little  north  of  Aberdeen,  we  shall 
find  that  (with  very  few  exceptions)  the  invers  lie  to  the 
north-west  of  the  line,^  and  the  abers  to  the  south-east 
of  it^  This  line  nearly  coincides  with  the  present 
southern  limit  of  the  Gaelic  tongue,  and  probably  also 
with  the  ancient  division  between  the  Picts  and  the 
Scots.  Hence,  we  may  conclude  that  the  Picts,  a  people 
belonging  to  the  Cymric  branch  of  the  Celtic  stock, 
and  whose  language  has  now  ceased  to  be  anywhere 
vernacular,  occupied  the  central  and  eastern  districts 
of  Scotland,  as  far  north  as  the  Grampians;  while  the 
Gadhelic  Scots  have  retained  their  language,  and  have 
given  their  name  to  the  whole  country.  The  local 
names  prove,  moreover,  that  in  Scotland  the  Cymry  did 
not  encroach  on  the  Gael,  but  the  Gael  on  the  Cymry. 
The  intrusive  names  are  invers^  which  invaded  the  land 
of  the  abers.  Thus  on  the  shore  of  the  Frith  of  Forth 
we  find  a  few  invers  among  the  abers?  The  process  of 
change  is  shown  by  an  old  charter,  in  which  King  David 

1  Inverary,  Inverness,  Inveraven,  Inverury,  Inveroran,  Inveilochy,  Inver- 
cannich,  Inverfankaig,  Invercaslie,  Inverallen,  Inverkeithnie,  Inveramsay, 
Inverbroom,  Invereshie,  Invergarry,  Invemahavon. 

'  Arbroath  or  Aberbrothwick,  Abercom,  Aberdeen,  Aberdour,  Abcr- 
nethy,  Abertay,  Aberledy,  Abergeldie,  Abemyte,  Aberfeldie,  Aberfoyle. 

•  E.g.  Inveresk,  near  Edinburgh,  Inverkeithing  in  Fife,  Inverbervie  in 


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Southern  L  imit  of  the  Gael^Inver  and  A  ber,    247 

grants  the  monks  of  May,  "  Inverin  qui  fuit  Aberin." 
So  Abernethy  became  Invemethy,  although  the  old 
name  is  now  restored.^  The  Welsh  word  uchely  high, 
may  also  be  adduced  to  prove  the  Cymric  affinities  of 
the  Picts.  This  word  does  not  exist  in  either  the  Erse 
or  the  Gaelic  languages,  and  yet  it  appears  in  the  name  . 
of  the  OCHIL  Hills,  in  Perthshire.  In  Ayrshire,  and 
again  in  Linlithgow,  we  find  places  called  OCHIL-TREE  ; 
and  there  is  an  UCHEL-TRE  in  Galloway.  The  suffix  in 
this  case  is  undoubtedly  the  characteristic  Cymric  word 
tre^  a  dwelling.^  Again,  the  Erse  bally^^  a  town,  occurs 
in  2000  names  in  Ireland  ;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
entirely  absent  from  Wales  and  Brittany.  In  Scotland 
this  most  characteristic  test-word  is  found  frequently  in 
the  inver  district,  while  it  never  appears  among  the  abers. 
The  evidence  of  these  names  makes  it  impossible  to 
deny  that  the  Celts  of  the  Scottish  lowlands  must 
have  belonged  to  the  Cymric  branch  of  the  Celtic 

The  ethnology  of  the  Isle  of  Man  may  be  very  com- 
pletely illustrated  by  means  of  local  names.  The  map 
of  the  island  contains  about  400  names,  of  which  about 
20  per  cent,  are  English,  21  per  cent,  are  Norwegian,  and 
59  per  cent,  are  Celtic.  These  Celtic  names  are  all  of 
the  most  characteristic  Erse  type.  It  would  appear  that 
npt  a  single  colonist  from  Wales  ever  reached  the  island, 
which,  from  the  mountains  of  Carnarvon,  is  seen  like  a 

^  See  Kemble,  Saxons  in  England^  vol.  ii.  pp.  4,  5 ;  Chalmers,  Caledonia, 
voL  i.  p.  480 ;  Latham,  Ethnology  of  Brit.  Is.  pp.  80,  8i.  Skene,  History 
of  the  Highlanders,  voL  i.  p.  74,  and  Diefenbach,  Cdtica,  i.  p.  23,  think  that 
too  much  ethnological  importance  has  been  attributed  to  the  distinction 
between  inver  and  aber, 

*  See  p.  228,  supra. 

*  The  root  of  bally  is  found  in  the  words  zmj//,  vallum^  bailey j  &c. 


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248  The  Celts. 

faint  blue  cloud  upon  the  water.  There  are  ninety-six 
names  beginning  with  Balluy  and  the  names  of  more  than 
a  dozen  of  the  highest  mountains  have  the  prefix  SlieUy 
answering  to  the  Irish  Slievh  or  Sliabh,  The  Isle"  of 
Man  has  the  Curraghy  the  Loughs,  and  the  Aliens  of 
Ireland  faithfully  reproduced.  It  is  curious  to  observe 
that  the  names  which  denote  places  of  Christian  worship^ 
are  all  Norwegian ;  they  are  an  indication  of  the  late  date 
at  which  Heathenism  must  have  prevailed.* 

^  In  the  Channel  Islands  the  names  of  all  the  towns  and  villages  are 
derived  from  the  names  of  saints,  indicating  that  before  the  introduction  of 
Christianity  these  islands  were  inhabited  only  by  a  sparse  population  of 
fishermen  and  shepherds.     Cf.  Latham,  Channel  /j.  p.  311. 

'  An  account  of  the  heathen  superstitions  and  legends,  which  still 
linger  in  the  Island,  will  be  found  in  Train,  IsU  of  Man,  voL  ii.  pp. 
114— 184. 


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Historic  Value  of  Local  Natkes.  249 



Contrast  between  Roman  and  Saxon  civilisation^  as  shown  by  Local  Names— 
Roman  roads — "  Gates''* — Bridges  and  fords—  Celtic  bridges -^Deficiency  of 
inns — Cold  Harbour — Saxon  dykes — Roman  walls — Saxon  forts — **Bury^^ 
— Ancient  camps — Chester ^  caster ,  and  caer — Stations  of  the  Roman  Legions 
— Frontier  districts — Castile — The  Mark — Pfyny  Devises — Ethnic  shire* 
names  of  England— Intrusive  colonization. 

There  is  a  striking  contrast  between  the  characteristics 
of  Saxon  and  Roman  names.  The  Saxon  civilization 
was  domestic,  the  genius  of  Rome  was  imperial ;  the 
Saxons  colonized,  the  Romans  conquered.  Hence,  the 
traces  of  Roman  rule  which  remain  upon  the  map  are 
surprisingly  few  in  number.  Throughout  the  whole 
island,  we  scarcely  find  a  single  place  of  human  habi- 
tation denoted  by  a  name  which  is  purely  Roman.^  The 
names  of  our  English  villages,  with  few  exceptions,  are 
Scandinavian  or  Teutonic  ;  while  the  appellations  of  the 
chief  centres  of  population  and  of  the  great  natural  land- 
marks— ^the  rivers  and  the  mountains — are  the  legacy  of 
a  still  earlier  race. 

The  character  of  Roman    names   is  very  different. 
Rome,  with  her  eagle  eye,  could  cast  a  comprehensive 

1  Exceptions  are  speen,  anciently  Spinae,   pontefract,   caerleon, 



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250  Historic  Value  of  Local  Natnes. 

glance  over  a  province  or  an  empire,  and  could  plan  and 
execute  the  vast  physical  enterprises,  necessary  for  its 
subjugation,  for  its  material  progress,  or  for  its  defence. 
The  Romans  were  essentially  a  constructive  race.  We 
still  gaze  with  wonder  on  the  massive  fragments  of 
their  aqueducts,  their  bridges,  their  amphitheatres,  their 
fortresses,  and  their  walls  ;  we  still  find  their  altars,  their 
inscriptions,  and  their  coins.  The  whole  island  is  inter- 
sected by  a  network  of  Roman  roads,  admirably  planned, 
and  executed  with  a  constructive  skill  which  is  able  to 
excite  the  admiration  even  of  modem  engineers.  These 
are  the  true  monuments  of  Roman  greatness. 

The  Saxons  were  not  road-makers.  Vast  works 
undertaken  with  a  comprehensive  imperial  purpose  were 
beyond  the  range  of  Saxon  civilization.  The  Saxons 
even  borrowed  their  name  for  a  road  from  the  Latin 
language.  The  Roman  strata^  or  paved  roads,  became 
the  Saxon  streets.  This  word  street  often  enables  us  to 
recognise  the  lines  of  Roman  road  which,  straight  as 
an  arrow-course,  connect  the  chief  strategic  positions  in 
the  island. 

Thus,  from  the  fortified  port  of  Lymne  an  almost 
disused  road  runs  across  the  Kentish  Hills  to  Canter- 
bury, bearing  the  name  of  STONE  STREET.  From  the 
fortified  port  of  Richborough  the  road  which  is 
called  WATLING^  STREET  went  to  Canterbury  and 
London,  and  thence,  by  STONY  STRATFORD  (the 
paved  Street-ford),  to  Chester,  the  "castra"  of  the 
northern  army.  RYKNIELD  STREET  led  from  Tyne- 
mouth,  through  York,  Derby,  and  Birmingham,  to  St 
David's.     ICKNIELD  STREET  led  from  Norwich  to  Dor- 

1  Probably  from  vadla^  a  mendicant  pilgrim. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Roman  Roads,  25  r 

Chester  and  Exeter.  The  ERMIN^  STREET  joined 
London  and  Lincoln.  The  Roman  road  by  which  sick 
men  journeyed  from  London  to  bathe  in  the  hot  springs 
at  Bath,  went,  in  Saxon  times,  by  the  appropriate  name 
of  AKEMAN  STREET.  The  Westmoreland  mountain  called 
HIGH  STREET,  derives  its  name  from  the  Roman  road 
which  crosses  it  at  a  height  of  2,700  feet.^ 

Even  where  the  Roman  roads  have  become  obliterated 
by  the  plough,  we  may  often  trace  their  direction  by 
means  of  the  names  of  towns,  which  proclaim  the  position 
they  occupied  on  the  great  lines  of  communication. 
Such  are  the  names  of  ARDWICK  LE  STREET  in  York- 
shire, CHESTER  LE  STREET  in  Durham,  STRETTON, 
STRATTON,  STREATHAM,  STREATLEY,  and  Several  places 
called  STRETFORD  or  STRATFORD,  all  of  which  inform 
us  that  they  were  situated  on  some  line  of  Roman  road.^ 
Roman  roads  which  do  not  bear  the  name  of  street 
are  often  called  Portways,  There  are  nine  Portways  in 
different  parts  of  the  kingdom.*  The  FOSSWAY^  also  was 
a  Roman  road,  running  from  Cornwall  to  Lincoln. 

In  the  Scandinavian  districts  of  the  island  the  word 
gate^  is  commonly  used  to  express  a  road  or  street,  as  in 

^  Probably  from  earm,  a  pauper.  See  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings ^ 
vol  i  p.  51  ;  Poste,  Britannic  Researches^  p.  94 ;  Horsley,  Brit.  Rom, 
p.  388. 

•  Ferguson,  Northmen  in  Cumberland^  p.  49. 

'  Hartshome,  Salopia  Antiqua,  p.  238 ;  Wright,  Wanderings^  p.  326. 
^  Hart&horne,  Salopia  Antiqua^  p.  272. 

'  Foss  is  a  Saxon  synonym  for  a  dyke.  The  source  seems  to  be  the 
Latin  _/&jjfl. 

•  The  Danish  word  gaia  means  a  street  or  road.  The  Anglo-Saxon  geat 
means  a  gate.  The  distinction  is  analogous  to  that  which  exists  in  the  case 
of  the  word  ford.  See  p.  160,  supra.  The  one  is  a  passage  along^  the  other 
a  passage  through.  The  root  is  seen  in  the  German  verb  gehen^  and  the 
English  go.  Compare  the  Sanskrit  gati^  and  the  Zend  g&tUy  which  both 
mean  a  road.     From  the  same  primary  meaning  of  a  passage,  we  obtain 


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252  Historic  Value  of  L  ocal  Names. 

in  the  cise  of  harrowgate.  In  York,  Leeds,  Lincoln, 
and  other  northern  towns,  the  older  streets  usually  bear 
this  suffix.  In  Leeds  we  find  BRIGGATE  or  Bridge 
Street,  and  KIRKGATE  or  Church  Street  In  York  this 
suffix  was  borne  by  no  less  than  twenty  of  the  streets,  as 
in  the  case  of  micklegate,  walmgate,  jubbergate, 

MARYSGATE  in  Manchester,  and  COWGATE  and  CANON- 
GATE  in  Edinburgh. 

In  the  South  the  word  gate  usually  takes  the  sense  of 
the  passage  through  a  town  wall,  as  in  the  case  of  NEW- 
GATE, BISHOPSGATE,  and  the  other  gates  of  London.  In 
the  name  of  HIGHGATE,  however,  we  have  the  sense  of 
a  road. 

The  passes  through  lines  of  hill  or  cliff  are  frequently 
denoted  by  this  root.  Thus  REIGATE  is  a  contraction  of 
Ridgegate,  the  passage  through  the  ridge  of  the  North 
Downs.  GATTON,  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  is  the 
town  at  the  passage,  caterham  and  godstone  may 
possibly  be  referred  to  the  same  root,  as  well  as  GAT- 
COMBE  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  RAMSGATE,  MARGATE, 
WESTGATE,  KINGSGATE,  and  SANDGATE,  are  the  passages 
to   the   shore  through  the  line  of  Kentish   cliffs.     In 

gut^  the  intestinal  passage,  and  the  nautical  term  gat^  a  passage  through  a 
narrow  channel,  as  the  cattegat.  A  gate  is  the  passage  into  a  field.  A 
man's  gait  is  the  way  he  goes ;  his  gaiters  are  his  goers.  Oxktxgates  is  the 
Sussex  provincialism  for  otherways.  See  Warton,  Seaboard  and  the  Dawn^ 
vol.  ii.  p.  28.  The  ghats^  or  ghauts,  of  India  are  the  passages  to  the  river- 
side, and  the  passes  through  the  western  line  of  hills.  See  Pictet,  Orig. 
Indo-Europ,  pt  ii.  p.  292;  Worsaae,  Danes  and  NonuegianSy  p.  40; 
Ferguson,  Northmen,  p.  49  ;  Leo,  Anglo-Saxon  Names,  p.  63  ;  Diefenbach, 
Vergleich,  IVorterduch,  vol.  ii.  p.  394;  Philolog.  Proc,  vol.  L  p.  40;  and 
several  letters  in  the  Guardian,  Dec  1S61. 


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Roads  and  Bridges,  253 

Romney  Marsh  gut  takes  the  place  of  gate^  as  in  the 

The  difficulties  of  travelling  must  formerly  have  inter- 
posed great  obstacles  in  the  way  of  commercial  inter- 
course. Local  names  afford  various  intimations  that  the 
art  of  bridge-building,  in  which  the  Romans  had  ex- 
celled,^ was  not  retained  by  the  Anglo-Saxons.  Thus 
the  station  on  the  Tyne,  which  in  Roman  times  had 
been  called  Pons  JSX\\^  received  from  the  Anglians  the 
name  GATESHEAD,  or,  as  we  may  translate  it,  "road's 
end ; "  an  indication,  it  would  seem,  of  the  destruction  of 
the  bridge.  At  the  spot  where  the  Roman  road  crosses 
the  Aire,  the  name  of  pontefract  (Ad  Pontem 
Fractum)  reminds  us  that  the  broken  Roman  bridge 
must  have  remained  unrepaired  during  a  period  long 
enough  for  the  naturalization  of  the  new  name,  and  the 
name  of  STRATFORD  LE  BOW  contains  internal  evidence 
that  the  dangerous  narrow  Saxon  ford  over  the  Lea  was 
not  replaced  by  a  "  bow,"  or  '*  arched  bridge,"  till  after 
|:he  time  of  the  Norman  conquest.^ 

But  nothing  shows  more  conclusively  the  unbridged 
state  of  the  streams  than  the  fact  that  where  the  great 
lines  of  Roman  road  are  intersected  by  rivers,  we  so 

^  The  importance  attached  by  the  Romans  to  the  art  of  bridge-building 
is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  the  chief  ecclesiastical  functionary  bore  the 
name  of  the  bridge-builder— -P<?/i/^;c.  See  Donaldson,  Varronianus^ 
p.  270. 

■  The  piles  on  which  the  Roman  bridge  rested  were  discovered  in  1771, 
Bruce,  Roman  Wall,  p.  130.  There  seems  to  have  been  another  bridge 
built  by  MWws  on  the  continuation  of  the  Roman  road  northward.  Six 
miles  from  Newcastle  we  find  the  village-name  of  ponteland,  apparently 
from  Ad  Pontem  iEliamrai.  Baxter,  Gloss,  p.  196.  There  was  a  Roman 
bridge  at  paunton,  A.d  Pontem.     Baxter,  Glossarium,  p.  7, 

•  The  bridge  was  built  by  Matilda,  Queen  of  Henry  \    . 


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254  Historic  Value  of  Local  Names, 

frequently  find  important  towns  bearing  the  Saxon  suffix 
FORD, and  CHELMSFORD,  considerable  streams  had  to  be 
forded.  In  the  kingdom  of  Essex,  within  twenty  miles 
of  London,  we  find  the  names  ILFORD,  ROMFORD, 
We  find  the  same  state  of  things  in  Kent.  The  Medway 
had  to  be  forded  at  AYLESFORD,  the  Darent  at  DART- 
FORD  and  at  OTFORD,  and  the  Stour  at  ASHFORD. 

The  great' deficiency  of  bridges  is  still  more  forcibly 
impressed  upon  us  when  we  remember  that  while  the 
names  of  so  many  large  towns  present  the  suffix  ford, 
there  are  only  a  very  few  which  terminate  in  bridge. 
BRIDGE,  CAMBRIDGE,*  and  a  few  more,  all  of  which  stand 
on  small  and  easily-bridged  streams.  But  in  all  these 
cases  the  English  form  of  suffix  seems  to  show  the 
comparatively  modern  date  of  the  erection,  and  names 
which  take  a  Saxon  form,  such  as  BRIXTON,  or  BRISTOL, 
anciently  Bricgstow,  are  extremely  rare. 

It  should  be  noticed  that  ponty  the  Welsh  word  for  a 
bridge,  is  derived  from  the  Latin,  probably  through  the 
monks,  who  were  the  great  bridge-builders.  Nevertheless 
it  has  been  thought  that  the  art  of  bridge-building  was 

1  Hartshome,  Salopia  Antiqua,  pp.  262 — 265. 

>  CambonVam,  the  ancient  name  of  Cambridge,  gives  us  the  Celtic  root 
rhydf  a  ford,  which  we  find  also  in  ^^^k/ecina,  the  British  name  of  OzioTd, 
and  in  Hert-ior^  (Rhyd-ford),  where,  probably,  we  have  two  synonymous 
elements.  The  Celtic  rhod^  a  roadstead,  and  rkyd^  or  red^  a  ford,  bear 
much  the  same  relation  to  each  other  as  the  Norse  Jjord  and  the  Saxon 
ford.  See  p.  160,  supra;  Gliick,  Kdtischen  Namm,  p.  25;  Addtmg, 
MUhridates,  vol.  iii.  p.  68 ;  Diefenbach,  CeUUa,  L  p.  5S. 


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Bridges  and  Fords.  255 

known  at  a  very  early  period  to  the  Celtic  nations,  and  Weis 
subsequently  lost  In  the  most  purely  Celtic  parts  of 
Spain  and  France,  a  very  lai^e  number  of  the  names  of 
riverain  cities  terminate  in  briga  and  brivUy  which,  in  the 
opinion  of  many  Celtic  scholars,  must  have  meant  a 
bridge.i  They  think  it  is  an  ancient  Aryan  word,  older 
than  the  epoch  of  the  separation  of  the  Teutonic  and 
Celtic  stems,  and  which  disappeared  from  the  Celtic 
speech  at  the  time  when  the  art  of  bridge-building  was 

The  hardships  incident  to  travelling  must  have  been 
much  increased  by  the  fewness  of  houses  of  entertain- 
ment along  the  roads.   Where  no  religious  house  existed 

^  Thus  the  ancient  name  of  Brivisara  has  been  replaced  by  the  modem 
equivalent,  Pontoise. 

'  In  Spain  we  have  Turobriga,  Mirobriga,  Mertobriga,  Segobriga,  Laco- 
briga,  Arcobriga,  Jnliobriga,  and  others,  thirty-five  in  all.  In  Celtic  Gaul 
there  are  Eburobriga,  Limnobriga,  Amagenbriga,  and  Brigiosum;  and 
Brivate  and  Durocobrivis  in  Britain.  An  allied  fonn  is  bria^  which  we 
we  find  in  Mesembria,  Selymbria,  and  Poltyobria,  in  the  Celtic  colonies  on 
the  Euxine.  Brescia  was  in  the  Celtic  part  of  Italy.  The  names  of 
Bregentz,  Braganza,  Brian9on,  and  perhaps  of  the  Brigantes,  contain  the 
same  root.  For  lists  of  these  names  see  EHefenbach,  Celtica^  ii.  pL  i.  p.  317  ; 
Prichard,  Researches,  vol.  iii.  pp.  30,  120.  The  word  brigand  mzy  not  im- 
probably be  derived  from  the  name  of  the  Brigantes,  who  served  as 
medbeval  mercenaries.  See  Dufresne,  voL  L  pp.  775 — 778;  Diefenbach, 
Orig.  Eur.  p.  271 ;  Celtica,  i.  p.  17;  Diez,  Etym.  Worterb.  s.  voc. ; 
Rawlinson,  Herodotus,  voL  iii.  p.  220 ;  Prichard,  Eastern  Origin  of  Celtic 
Nat.  p.  120;  Humboldt,  Prii/ung,  pp.  82 — 86,  144;  Salverte,  Essai  sur 
Us  NomSy  vol.  ii.  p.  258 ;  Radlof,  Neue  Untersuchungen,  pp.  304,  305  ; 
ZeuBS,  Grammatica  Celtica,  vol.  i.  p.  10 1 ;  vol.  ii.  pp.  758,  772 ;  Hume, 
Gtogr.  Terms,  p.  10;  Cambro-Briton,  vol.  iii.  p.  285;  De  Belloguet, 
Etknoginie,  vol.  i.  pp.  214 — ^217  ;  Baxter,  Gloss,  p.  50.  Gluck,  as  usual, 
laments  the  sad  ignorance  displayed  by  all  precedmg  writers,  except  hunself 
and  Zeuss,  and  asserts  that  the  root  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  German  berg, 
the  Irish  brig,  and  the  Cymric  bre,  a  hill.  Kelt.  Namen,  pp.  126,  130. 
On  the  whole  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  the  words  briga  and  briva  are 
unconnected,  briga  meaning  a  hill,  and  btiva  a  bridge. 


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2S6  Historic  Value  of  Local  Natnes. 

to  receive  the  wayfarer,  he  would  usually  be  compelled 
to  content  himself  with  the  shelter  of  bare  walls.  The 
ruins  of  deserted  Roman  villas  were  no  doubt  often  used 
by  travellers  who  carried  their  own  bedding  and  pro- 
visions, as  is  done  by  the  frequenters  of  the  khans  and 
dak  houses  of  the  East.  Such  places  seem  commonly 
to  have  borne  the  name  of  COLD  HARBOUR.^  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  ancient  lines  of  road  we  find  no  less 
than  seventy  places  bearing  this  name,*  and  about  a 
dozen  more  bearing  the  analogous  name  of  CALDICOT, 
or  "  cold  cot."  ^ 

The  only  great  works  constructed  by  the  Anglo- 
Saxons  were  the  vast  earthen  ramparts  which  served  as 
the  boundaries  between  hostile  kingdoms.  For  miles 
and  miles  the  dyke  and  ditch*  of  the  wansdyke — ^the 
ancient  boundary  of  Wessex — still  stretches  across  the 
bleak  downs  of  Somerset  and  Wilts.  Beginning  near 
Portishead)  on  the  Bristol  Channel,  its  runs  by  Malmes- 
bury  and  Cirencester,  to  Bampton  in  Oxfordshire ;  it 
then  crosses  the  Thames,  and  re-appears  at  a  place 
called  KINSEY.     This  name  is  a  corruption  of  Kings 

1  Compare  the  German  Herberg^  shelter,  and  the  French  auherge.  Sec 
Notes  and  Queries,  second  series,  vol.  vi.  pp.  143,  317. 

*  There  are  three  on  Akeman  Street,  four  on  Ermin  Street,  two  on 
Icknield  Street,  two  on  Watling  Street,  two  on  the  Portways,  and  one  on 
the  Fossway.     Hartshome,  Salopia  Antiqua,  pp.  253 — 258, 

*  Ilartshorhe,  Salopia  Antiqua,  p.  249. 

*  The  Anglo-Saxon  dU  is  derived  from  the  root  which  supplies  us  with 
the  verb  to  dig,  and  is  used  to  mean  both  the  mound  and  the  excavation. 
In  modem  English  we  call  one  the  dyke  and  the  other  the  ditch.  Probably 
the  masculine  and  feminine  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  dU  supplied  the  original 
germ  of  the  distinctive  use,  Kemble,  Cod.  Dip,  vol  iii.  p.  xxiu  ;  Leo, 
Anglo-Saxon  Nanus ,  p.  78.  The  common  village  name  of  ditton  (dyke< 
ton)  may  sometimes  guide  us  as  to  the  position  of  these  dykes.  Fen  Ditton 
and  Wood  Ditton  in  Cambridgeshire,  stand  respectively  on  the  Fleam 
Dyke  and  the  Devil's  Dyke. 


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Saxon  Dykes — Roman  Walls.  257 

Way,  and  shows  that  the  dyke  must  have  been  used  as 
a  road  as  well  as  for  purposes  of  defence.^  OFFALS  DYKE, 
which  stretched  from  Chester  to  the  Wye,  guarded  the 
frontiers  of  Mercia  against  the  Welsh.*  GRIM's  DYKE 
near  Salisbury,  OLD  DITCH  near  Amesbury,  and  BOKERLY 
DITCH,  mark  the  position  of  the  Welsh  and  Saxon 
frontier  at  an  earlier  period.^  The  ditch  called  the 
PICTS'  WORK,  reaching  from  Galashiels  to  Peel  Fell, 
$eems  to  have  been  at  one  time  the  northern  boundary 
of  the  kingdom  of  Northumbria.  A  vast  work,  variously 
called  the  RECKEN  DYKE,  the  DEVIL'S  DYKE,  ST. 
EDMUND'S  DYKE,  and  CNUT's  DYKE,  served  as  the 
defence  of  the  kingdom  of  East  Anglia  against  Mercia  ; 
unless,  indeed,  we  suppose,  as  is  not  improbable,  that  it 
was  constructed  at  a  time  when  the  Mercian  kingdom 
was  still  British,  and  the  East-Anglian  settlement,  was 
the  sole  possession  of  the  Teutons  in  the  island.* 

But  these  Saxon  defences  were  at  the  best  mere 
earthworks,  and  are  not  to  be  compared,  in  a  con- 
structive point  of  view,  with  the  two  Roman  walls  which 
stretched  across  the  island  from  sea  to  sea.  The  Wall 
of  Hadrian,  or  of  Severus,  as  it  is  called,  ran  from  New- 
castle to  Carlisle,  and  is  still  in  wonderful  preservation. 
But  even  if  the  massive  masonry  and  huge  earthen 
rampart  of  this  wall  had  perished,  it  would  be  easy  to 
trace  its  direction  by  means  of  the  continuous  series  of 

1  Leo,  Anglo-Saxon  Names,  p.  xiv. 

•  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  i  p.  231  ;  Hartshome,  Salopia. 
Antiqua,  pp.  181 — 193. 

»  Guest,  in  Proceedings  of  Archeeol.  Instil,  for  1849,  p.  28. 

*  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  i.  p.  242,  The  Mercian  king- 
dom was  founded  140  years  after  that  of  Kent,  and  the  East-Anglian 
settlement  was,  no  doubt,  much  earlier  than  that  in  Kent  Thrupp,  Anglo- 
Saxon  Home^  p.  7. 


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258  Historic  Value  of  Local  Nantes. 

memorial  names  which  are  furnished  by  the  villages  and 
farm-houses  along  its  course.  It  b^an  at  WALLSEND, 
now  famous  as  the  place  where  the  best  Newcastle  coals 
are  shipped.  We  then  c5me  in  succession  to  places 
called  Benwrf/,  WWbottle,  Heddon-on-the-  Wall,  Welton, 
Wallhouses,  Wall,  Walwick  Chesters,  Wallshmls,  Wall- 
town,  Thirlwa//,  'Rirdoswald,  WallhovLts,  Walton,  Old- 
wall,  WalDanoW,  Wallmill,  and  Wallhy,  with  Wallend, 
Wallfoot,  and  W^<i//head  at  the  western  end.  The  wall 
was,  moreover,  protected  by  fortified  posts  at  regular 
intervals.  The  sites  of  these  fortresses  go  by  the 
names  of  BLAKE  (Black)  CHESTERS,  RUTCHESTER,  HAL- 

The  northern  wall,  or  Wall  of  Antoninus,  extended 
from  the  Forth  to  the  Clyde,  and  goes  by  the  name 

of  grime's  dyke.*  DUMBARTON,  DUMBUCK  Hilt,  and 
DUNGLAS  were  probably  fortified  stations  along  its  course. 
Fortified  camps,  whether  of  British,  Roman,  Saxon, 
or  Danish  construction,  are  very  commonly  marked  by 
the  suffix  iuty.  To  enumerate  any  considerable  portion 
of  these  names  would  far  exceed  our  limits ;  but  merely 
to  show  how  this  suffix  may  guide  the  antiquarian  in  his 
researches,  it  may  suffice  to  exhibit  the  results  obtained 
from  a  single  county.  In  Wiltshire  alone  there  are,  or 
were  in  Camden's  time,  military  earthworks  in  existence 
at  places  called  Chisbury,  Boadbury,  Abury,  Yanesbuiy, 
Ambresbuiy,  Selbury,  Sidbury,  Badbury,  Wanborough, 
Burywood,Barbury,01dbury,  Rybury,  Westbury,Battles- 

1  Brace,  7%€  Rofnan  Wall^  passim. 

*  There  is  also  a  Grimesditch  in  Cheshire,  and  there  are  four  other 
earthworks  bearing  the  same  name^  slightly  altered.  Chalmers,  Caledonia^ 
vol.  i.  p.  1 19. 


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Ancient  Camps.  259 

bury,  Avesbury,  Heytesbury,  Scratchbury,  Waldsbury, 
Bilbury,  Winklebury,  Chiselbury,  Clerebury,  Whichbury, 
Frippsbury,  and  Ogbury  or  Okebury.  At  Malmesbury, 
Salisbury,  Heytesbury,  Ramesbury,  Titsbury,  and*  Marl- 
borough, the  sites  of  British  or  Saxon  earthworks  seem 
to  have  been  used  for  the  erection  of  Norman  castles. 

A  competent  etymological  investigation  of  the  first 
syllable  in  these  names  might  probably  yield  results  not 
destitute  of  value. 

The  Roman  stations  throughout  the  island  may  very 
frequently  be  recognised  by  the  fact  that  their  modern 
names  contain  a  modification  of  the  Latin  word  castra} 
These  modifications  are  very  curious,  as  exhibiting  the 
dialectic  tendencies  in  different  portions  of  the  island.^ 
Throughout  the  kingdoms  of  Essex,  Sussex,  Wessex,  and 
other  purely  Saxon  districts,  the  form  Chester  is  universal. 
Here  we  have  the  names  of  Colchester,  Godmanchester, 
Grantchester,  Chesterford,  Irchester,  Rochester,  Win- 
chester, Ilchester,  Chichester,  Silchester,  Porchester,  and 
two  Dorchesters.  But  as  we  pass  from  the  Saxon  to  the 
Anglian  kingdoms,  we  find  Chester  replaced  by  caster. 
The  distinctive  usage  of  these  two  forms  is  very  notice- 
able, and  is  of  great  ethnological  value.  In  one  place 
the  line  of  demarcation  is  so  sharply  defined  that  it  can 
be  traced  within  two  hundred  yards.    Northamptonshire, 

1  One  syllable  of  names  containing  ckester,  caster,  or  caer,  is  almost 
alwa3rs  Celtic,  and  seems  to  have  been  a  Latinization  of  the  enchorial 
name.  In  ^m Chester  the  first  syllable  is  the  Latin  venta,  a  word  which 
was  constructed  from  the  Celtic  gwent,  a  plain.  ^i;nchester  contains  a 
portion  of  the  Latinized  name  Binovimn.  In  Z^^rchester  and  jSjreter  we 
have  the  Celtic  words  dtur  and  uisge,  water ;  in  Manchester  we  have  man^ 
a  district     See  pp.  231,  20G^  203,  130,  supra. 

*  See  Robertson,  Earfy  Kings,  vol.  ii.  p.  240 ;  Latham,  Opuscula,  p. 
153  ;  Wright,  Wanderings,  p.  208 ;  Hartshome,  Saiopia  Antiqua,  pp. 
I58»  199. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

26o  Historic  Value  of  Local  Names. 

which  is  decisively  Danish,  is  divided  by  the  Nen  from 
Huntingdonshire,  which  is  purely  Saxon.  On  the  Saxon 
side  of  the  river  we  find  the  village  of  CHESTERTON, 
confronted  on  the  other  side  by  the  town  of  CASTOR,  the 
two  names  recording,  in  two  different  dialects,  the  fact 
that  the  bridge  was  guarded  by  the  Roman  station  of 
Durobrivae.i  Throughout  the  Anglian  and  Danish  dis- 
tricts we  find  this  form  caster,  as  in  Tadcaster,  Brancaster, 
Ancaster,  Doncaster,  Lancaster,  Casterton,  Alcaster, 
Caster,  and  Caistor.  As  we  pass  from  East  Anglia 
to  Mercia,  which,  though  mainly  Anglian,  was  subject 
to  a  certain  amount  of  Saxon  influence,  we  find  cester^ 
which  is  intermediate  in  form  between  the  Anglian 
caster  and  the  Saxon  cftester.  The  e  is  retained,  but  the 
h  is  omitted ;  and  there  is  a  strong  tendency  to  further 
elision,  as  in  the  case  of  Leicester,  pronounced  Le  ster ; 
Bicester,  pronounced  Bi'ster ;  Worcester,  pronounced 
Wor*ster;  Gloucester,  pronounced  Glos'ter,  and  Ciren- 
cester, pronounced  S*isester  or  Si's'ter.  The  same  ten- 
dency is  seen  in  the  cases  of  Alcester,  Mancester,  and 
Towcester.  It  is  still  more  noteworthy  that  beyond  the 
Tees,  where  the  Danish  and  Mercian  influence  ceases, 
and  where  almost  all  the  local  names  resume  the  pure 
Saxon  type,2  we  find  that  the  southern  form  cluster  re- 
appears ;  and  we  have  the  names  Lanchester,  Binchester, 
Chester-le-Street,  Ebchester,  Ribchester,  Rowchester, 
Fichester,  Chesterknows,  Chesterlee,  Chesterholm,  Rut- 
chester,  and  a  few  others  on  the  Wall. 

1  See  a  paper  by  Latham  On  the  Traces  of  a  Bilingual  Town  in  England^ 
read  before  the  British  Association  in  1853;  Latham,  Opitscula^  p.  151; 
English  Language^  vol.  i.  p.  434 ;  Ansted  and  Latham,  Channel  Is.  p.  335 ; 
Smith,  Dictionary  of  Geogr.  s.  v.  Durobrivae ;  Gough's  Camden,  voL  ii,  p. 
a86.     Durobrivae  means  water-bridge.     See  p.  255,  supra, 

■  See  p.  169,  supra. 


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Cluster y  Caster^  and  Caer,  56 1 

Towards  the  Welsh  frontier  the  c  or  ch  becomes  an  x, 
and  the  tendency  to  elision  is  very  strong.  We  have 
Uttoxeter,  pronounced  Ux*ter;  Wroxeter,  and  Exeter, 
which  in  Camden's  time  was  written  Excesten 

These  names  on  the  Welsh  frontier  exhibit  a  gradual 
approximation  to  the  form  which  we  find  in  the  parts 
where  the  Celtic  speech  survived.  Here  the  /  also  dis- 
appears, and  we  find  the  prefix  caer  in  the  names  of 
Caerleon,  Caergai,  Caergwyle,  Caersws,  Caerwent,  Caer- 
philly, Caerwis,  and  the  still  more  abbreviated  forms  of 
Carstairs,  Carluke,  and  Carriden  in  Scotland,  Carhayes 
in  Cornwall,  Carmarthen,  Cardigan,  Cardiff,  and  Car- 
narvon in  Wales,  Carhallock,  Carlisle,  and  Carvoran^  in 
England,  Carlow  and  Cardross  in  Ireland.  With  these 
forms  we  may  compare  Caerphili  and  Caerven  in  Brit- 
tany, Cherbourg  in  the  Celtic  peninsula  of  Cornuaille, 
and  Carsoli,  Carosio,  Carmiano,  Carovigno,  and  Cortona, 
in  the  Celtic  part  of  Italy.* 

^  Great  Chesters,  on  the  Wall,  is  an  exact  reproduction  of  the  Celtic  name 
Carvoran,  from  which  it  is  only  three  miles  distant.  As  in  the  case  of 
Chesterton  and  Castor,  we  have  here  an  indication  of  the  close  geographical 
proximity  in  which  different  races  must  have  lived.  See  Wright,  Essays^ 
vol.  i.  p.  103. 

*  Chester  and  caster  are,  undoubtedly,  from  the  Latin  casira.  Compare 
the  Anglo-Saxon  word  ceaster,  Kemble,  Codex  Diplom,  vol.  iii  p.  xx. 
But  there  is  considerable  doubt  whether  caer  is  a  modification  of  castra,  or 
an  independent  Celtic  root.  We  have  the  British  and  Cornish  caeff  the 
Armorican  ker^  and  the  Irish  cathair  and  raVV,  a  fortress,  and  the  Welsh 
cae^  an  inclosure,  and  cor^  a  close.  See  Owen's  JVelsh  Dictionary; 
Diefenbach,  Celiica,  i.  p.  107  ;  Davies  in  Philolog,  Trans,  for  1857,  p.  43; 
Williams,  Essays,  pp.  79,  80 ;  Wright,  Essays,  vol.  i.  p.  103 ;  Mone,  Celt, 
Forsch.  p.  aoo;  De  Belloguet,  Etknog,  vol.  i.  p.  2io;  Guest  in  Philolog, 
Proceai,yo\.  v.  p.  187 ;  Canibro-Britcn,  vol.  ii.  p.  409.  Compare  the  Hebrew 
and  Phoenician  word  Kartha^  which  is  seen  in  the  names  of  A'/rjath, 
Ker\oihj  Kir,  and  Cnzrthage,  and  is  identical  in  meaning  with  the  Celtic 
caer,  \Vilton,  Negeb,  p.  103.  If  there  is  no  affiliation,  this  is  a  very 
remarkable  coincidence  of  sound  and  meaning. 


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262  Historic  Value  of  Local  Names. 

The  Latin  word  colonia  is  found  in  the  names  of  LIN- 
COLN and  COLOGNE,^  and  perhaps  also  in  those  of 
COLCHESTER  and  the  two  rivers  called  the  COLNE,  one 
of  which  rises  near  the  site  of  the  colonia  of  Verulamium, 
and  the  other  flows  past  Colchester.  In  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  Colchester  a  legion  was  stationed  for  the  pro- 
tection of  the  colony.  The  precise  spot  which  was  occu- 
pied by  the  camp  of  this  legion  is  indicated  by  the 
remains  of  extensive  Roman  earthworks  at  LEXDON,  a 
name  which  is  a  corruption  of  Legionis  Dunum?  The 
Second  Legion — Legio  Augusta — ^was  stationed  on  the 
river  Usk,  or  Isca,  at  a  place  called,  in  the  Roman  time, 
Isca  Legionis.  The  process  by  ^ which  the  modem  name 
of  CAERLEON  has  been  evolved,  is  indicated  in  the  work 
which  bears  the  name  of  Nennius :  "  bellum  gestum  est  in 
urbe  Leogis,  quae  Brittanice  Cair  Lion  dicitur."  *  Another 
legion  we  And  at  LEICESTER  (Legionis  castra). 

The  station  of  the  seventh  legion  was  in  Spain,  at 
LEON  (Legio),  that  of  the  Claudian  legion  at  KLOTEN  in 
Switzerland.*  Megiddo  in  Palestine,  where  another 
legion  was  quartered,  now  goes  by  the  name  of  LEDjt^N, 
or  LEJJUN.*    (Legio,  or  Castra  L^ionis.) 

The  numerous  "  peels  "  along  the  border  are  an  evi- 
dence of  the  insecurity  arising  from  border  warfare  in 
times  when  every  man's  house  was,  in  a  literal  sense,  his 
castle  also.* 

^  See  Mahn,  Ueher  die  Namen  Berlin  undKbln^  p.  2.  Compare  the 
of  kul6nia  in  Palestine.     Robinson,  Later  Researches^  p.  158. 

*  Baxter,  Glossanum,  p.  64 ;  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  138. 
«  Nennius,  a  56. 

4  Meyer,  Ortsnamm,  p.  70. 

*  Robinson,  Biblical  Researches^  voL  iii.  pp.  177 — 180 ;  Later  Researcher^ 
p.  118 ;  Stanley,  JcTvish  Churth^  p.  322. 

*  Peel  is  from  the  Celtic /ft^/,  a  castle.     Dairies  in  Philolog.  Proc.  voL  vi. 
p.  131. 


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.  Stations  of  Roman  Legions.  263 

The  hill  where  the  border  clan  of  the  Maxwells  used 
to  assemble  previous  to  their  dreaded  forays  bears  the 
appropriate  name  of  the  wardlaw  (guard  hill).  A 
reference  to  this  trysting  place  is  contained  in  the  war- 
cry  of  the  clan,  "  I  bid  you  bide  Wardlaw." 

A  similar  state  of  society  is  indicated  by  the  name  of 
CASTILE,  as  well  as  by  the  castle  which  appears  on  the 
armorial  bearings  of  that  kingdom.  The  name  and  the 
device  date  from  the  times  of  continuous  border  warfare, 
when  the  central  portion  of  the  peninsula  was,  mile  by 
mile,  being  wrested  from  the  Moors,  and  secured  by  an 
ever  advancing  line  of  frontier  castles.^ 

At  a  later  period,  when  the  unbelievers  had  been  finally 
expelled  from  Northern  and  Central  Spain,  the  debate- 
able  ground  was  the  province  which  now  goes  by  the 
name  of  MURCIA.  This  word  means  the  district  of  the 
^  march  "  or  margiTL^  the  dtfnarc2L\xon  between  two  alien 
races.  To  make  a  tPtark  is  to  draw  a  boundary.  Letters 
of  marque  are  letters  which  contain  a  licence  to  harass  the 
enemy  beyond  the  frontier.  A  Margrave,  Mark-graf, 
Earl  of  March,  or  Marquess  was  the  warden  of  the 
Marches,  who  held  his  fief  by  the  tenure  of  defending 
the  frontier  against  all  aggression,  and  this  important 
office  gave  him  rank  next  to  the  Duke  or  Dux,  the 
leader  of  the  forces  of  the  shire.  The  root  is  found  in 
all  the  Indo-Germanic  languages,  and  is  probably  to  be 
referred  to  the  Sanskrit  marydy  a  boundary,  which  is  a 
derivative  of  the  verb  smriy  to  remember.  We  may, 
compare  the  Latin  margo^  and  the  Persian  marg^  a  fron- 
tier.    The  uncleared  forest  served  as  the  boundary  of  the 

^  The  same  fiict  is  expressed  bj  the  Arabic  name  for  CwiXJUi^^Ardhu-i- 
kiia^  the  land  of  castles.  Gayangoe,  Dynasties^  vol  l  p.  316  ;  Pzescottf 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella^  voL  i.  p.  28. 


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i64  Historic  Value  of  Local  Nantes, 

gau  of  the  Teutonic  settlers.  Hence  the  Scandinavian 
morky  a  forest,  and  the  English  word  murky,  which  ori- 
ginally denoted  the  gloom  of  the  primaeval  forest.  The 
chase  took  place  in  the  forest  which  bounded  the  in- 
habited district,  hence  the  Sanskrit  mrga,  chase,  hunting. 
A  huntsman  being  nearly  synonymous  w'th  a  horseman, 
we  have  the  Celtic  marc}  a  horse,  which  hcis  found  its 
way  into  the  English  verb,  to  march,  and  the  French 
word  markliah  a  groom  or  farrier.  The  Earl  Marshal 
was  originally  the  "  grand  farrier,"  or  "  master  of  the 
horse" — ^a  great  officer  of  state,  like  the  grand  fal-- 

The  Scotch  and  the  Welsh  marches,  for  many  cen- 
turies, occupy-  an  important  place  in  English  history  as 
the  border-lands  between  England,  and  her  ancient 
enemies  in  Scotland  and  Wales.  The  Anglo-Saxon 
kingdom  of  MERCIA  was  the  frontier  province  between 
the  East  Angles  and  the  Welsh.  On  the  frontier  line 
we  find  MARBROOK  and  MARCHOMLEY  in  Shropshire, 
MARBURY  in  Cheshire,  and  MARKLEY  in  Herefordshire.^ 
On  the  frontier  between  the  Celts  of  Cornwall  and  the 

^  Gaelic  and  Erse,  marc;  Welsh,  Comish,  and  Brezonec  mar^ch,  Cofin- 
pare  the  Anglo-Saxon  mmr,  a  horse,  whei^ce  the  English  mare,  Acoording 
to  Ammianos  Marcellinus,  the  war-cry  of  the  Sarmatians  was — Marha, 
Marha,  ''to  horse,  to  hoise."    Diefenbach,  Orig.  Europ,  p.  90. 

'  On  the  word  mark  see  Diefenbach,  Cdtka,  i.  p.  67 ;  Origines  Europe 
p.  429 ;  VergUichendes  Worterbtichy  voL  ii.  pp.  50 — ^53  ;  Leo,  VorUsungat, 
voL  i.  p.  144;  Zeuss,  Die  Deutscken,  p.  114;  Diez,  Etymolog.  IVorterincA, 
pp.  217,  682 ;  Pictet,  Orig,  Jndo-Europ,  part  ii.  p.  408 ;  Miiller,  Marktn 
des  Vaterlandes^  pp.  216,  217 ;  Verstegan,  Restitution^  pp,  171,  172 ;  Kem- 
ble.  Codex  Diplom,  vol.  iii.  p.  xi. ;  Blackstone,  Commentaries^  book  L 
c.  7,  §  4 ;  Gamett,  Essays^  p.  16  ;  Pott,  Etymologische  Forschungen,  voL  ii 
p.  1 16. 

*  There  are  fifteen  English  parishes  called  Marston,  i,e.  Markstone  or 
boundary  stone,  one  of  which  gives  a  name  to  the  well-known  battlefield  of 
Marston  Moor. 


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The  Mark.  265 

Saxons  of  Devon,  stands  the  village  of  MARHAM.  We 
have  seen  that  the  valleys  of  the  Frome  and  Avon  re- 
mained Celtic  long  after  the  surrounding  country  had 
been  occupied  by  the  Saxons.  Some  three  or  four 
miles  to  the  south-west  of  Bath  stands  the  village  of 
MERKBURY,  the  "  fortress  of  the  march  "  or  boundary  of 
the  Welsh  district.  The  names  of  the  adjoining  villages 
of  ENGLISHCOMBE  ^  and  ENGLISH  BATCH  seem  to  mark 
outlying  portions  of  the  English  territory.^  The  town 
of  MARCH  in  Cambridgeshire  is  close  to  the  sharply 
defined  frontier  line  of  the  Scandinavian  kingdom,^  and 
on  the  frontier  of  the  little  outlying  Danish  colony  in 
Essex  we  find  a  place  called  COMARQUES. 

Throughout  Europe  we  find  this  word  march  or  mark 
entering  into  the  names  of  outlying  or  frontier  provinces. 
The  MARCOMANNI  of  Tacitus  were  the  marchmen  of  the 
Sclavonic  frontier  of  Germany.*  The  names  of  the 
provinces  of  ALTMARK,  MITTELMARK,  UKERMARK,^  and 
NEUMARK,  which  collectively  constitute  the  MARK  of 
Brandenburg,  show  the  successive  encroachments  of  the 
Germans  on  the  Poles ;  Altmark,  or  the  "  Old  Mark," 
being  the  farthest  to  the  west,  while  Neumark,  the  "New 
Mark,"  is  the  farthest  to  the  east     DENMARK  was  the 

1  The  name  of  Englishcombe  is  found  in  Domesday. 
■  Guest,  in  Archceolog,  Journal^  vol.  xvi  pp.  11 1,  112. 

•  See  p.  167,  supra, 

*  Latham,  Germania,  prolegomena,  pp.  liii. — Ivi. ;  Latham  in  PhUolog. 
JProceedings,  vol.  iv.  p.  190.  Grimm  thinks  that  the  Marcomanni  were  the 
men  of  the  forest,  rather  than  the  men  of  the  frontier.  Gesck.  d.  DeuL 
Spr,  p.  503. 

B  The  name  of  the  Ukermark  contains  two  synonymous  elements — 
Ukraine  being  a  Sclavonic  word,  meaning  a  frontier.  The  Ukraine 
on  the  Dnieper  was  the  southern  frontier  of  the  ancient  kingdom  of 
Poland.  See  Latham,  Nationalitia  of  Europe^  vol.  i.  pp.  5  and  376  ;  vol 
iL  p.  358. 


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266  Historic  Value  of  Local  Names, 

Danish  frontier,  finmark,  and  four  provinces  called 
LAPPMARK,  show  the  five  successive  stages  by  which 
the  Scandinavian  invaders  encroached  upon  the  territory 
of  the  Fins  and  Lapps.  MORAVIA  takes  its  name  from 
the  March,  or  Mor-ava,  a  bordering  river.^  steyer- 
MARK,  or  Styria,  as  we  Anglicize  the  word,  formed  the 
south-eastern  frontier  between  the  Germans,  and  the 
Hungarians  and  Croats.  Here  we  find  the  border  town 
of  MARCHBURG.  The  boundary  of  the  Saxon  colony 
in  Westphalia  is  shown  by  the  district  called  march, 
and  there  is  a  place  called  MARBACH  on  the  frontier 
of  the  Swabian  settlement  in  Wurtemberg.  On  the 
frontiers  of  the  Saxon  colony  in  Picardy  we  find  the 
Rivers  MARBECQ  and  MORBECQUE,  a  dike  called  the 
MARDICK,  and  the  village  of  MARCK.  In  the  Vo^esi,  on 
the  frontier  of  the  Alemannic  population  of  Alsace,  we 
find  the  town  of  LA  MARCHE.  One  of  the  old  provinces 
of  France,  called  MARCHE,  was  the  frontier  between  the 
Franks  and  the  Euskarians  of  Aquitaine.  The  March 
of  Ancona,  and  the  other  Roman  Marches  which  have 
been  recently  annexed  to  the  kingdom  of  Italy,  together 
with  the  Marquisate  of  Tuscany,  formed  the  southern 
boundaries  of  the  Carlovingian  empire.  The  Marquisate 
of  Flanders  *  was  erected  at  a  later  period  as  a  barrier 
against  the  Danes.  In  fact,  all  the  original  Marquisates, 
those  of  Milan,  Verona,  Carniola,  Istria,  Moravia,  Cambe, 
Provence,  Susa,  Montserrat,  and  many  others,  will  be 
found  to  have  been  marks  or  frontier  territories. 
Two  names  survive  which  mark  boundaries  of  the 

1  Grimm,  Gach,  d,  Deut,  Spr,  p.  505.    The  suf&x  ava  is  the  Old  High 
Gennan  aha,  a  river. 
>  On  the  frontier  of  the  Marquisate  of  Flanders  are  two  towns  called 



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Names  of  Frontiers.  267 

Roman  empire.  The  name  of  the  Fiume  Delia  fine, 
near  Leghorn,  is  a  corruption  of  the  ancient  name,  Ad 
Fines.  This  river,  about  the  year  250  B.C,  formed  the 
extreme  northern  limit  of  the  Latin  confederacy.^  The 
Canton  Valais  in  Switzerland  is  curiously  divided  between 
a  German  and  a  French-speaking  population.  The 
Romans  left  the  upper  end  of  the  valley  to  the  bar- 
barous mountaineers,  and  their  descendants  now  speak 
German.  The  lower  part,  which  was  included  within 
the  Roman  rule,  is  now  French  in  language.  The  line 
of  linguistic  demarcation  is  sharply  drawn  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Leuk.  Here  we  find  a  village  which  is 
called  PFYN,  a  name  which  marks  the  fineSy  the  confines 
both  of  the  Roman  rule,  and  of  the  language  of  the 

A  somewhat  similar  name  is  found  in  England,  de- 
vizes is  a  barbarous  Anglicization  of  the  Low  Latin 
Divisa^  which  denoted  the  point  where  the  road  from 
London  to  Bath  passed  into  the  Celtic  district.^  Even 
so  late  as  the  time  of  Clarendon,  the  name  had  hardly 
become  a  proper  name,  being  called  The  Devizes,  in  the 
same  way  that  Bath  was  called  The  Bath  in  the  time  of 

The  former  state  of  our  island,  divided  between  hostile 
peoples — Saxon,  Celt,  and  Dane — ^is  indicated  not  only 
by  such  names  as  Mercia  and  March,  but  by  those  of 
several  of  our  English  counties.*  Cumberland  is  the 
land  of  the  Cymry.  CORNWALL,  or  Corn-wales,  is  the 
kingdom  of  the  Welsh  of  the  Horn.     DEVON  is  the  land 

1  Mommsen,  Hist.  Rome,  toL  i.  p.  441. 

«  Gttest,  in  Archaolog,  youmaly  vol.  iivi.  p.  1 16. 

*  See  Saturday  Review,  Aug.  22,  1863. 

«  See  Grimm,  Gesch.  d.  Deut.  Spr,  p.  658. 


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268  Historic  Value  of  Local  Names, 

of  the  Damnonii,  a  Celtic  tribe;  KENT  that  of  the 
Cantii ;  WORCESTERSHIRE  that  of  the  Huicii.  SUSSEX, 
ESSEX,  WESSEX,  and  MIDDLESEX,  were  the  kingdoms  of 
the  southern,  eastern,  western,  and  central  Saxons.  In 
Robert  of  Gloucester,  the  name  of  SURREY  appears  in 
the  form  of  Sothe-reye,  or  the  south  realm.^  NORFOLK 
and  SUFFOLK  were  the  northern  and  southern  divisions 
of  the  East- Anglian  folk.  The  position  on  the  map  of 
what  we  call  NORTHUMBERLAND — ^the  land  north  of  the 
H  umber — proves  that  it  was  by  aggression  from  the 
south  that  the  Northumbrian  kingdom,  which  once 
stretched  northward  from  the  Humber,  was  reduced  to 
the  restricted  limits  of  the  modern  county.  HEREFORD, 
the  "  ford  of  the  army,"  was  an  important  strategic  point 
in  the  Marches  of  Wales,  being  one  of  the  few  places 
where  an  Anglo-Saxon  army  could  cross  the  Severn  to 
harry  the  Welsh  borders. 

These  county  names  may  serve  to  remind  us  of  the 
discordant  fragments  that  have  at  length  been  welded 
into  a  national  unity,  while  numerous  village-names, 
from  how  wide  an  area  those  bands  of  adventurers  were 
collected  who  made  their  swords  the  title-deeds  to  por- 
tions of  our  English  soil. 

^  On  the  fonns  in  which  this  name  appears,  see  Guest,  On  GfntiUNameSy 
in  Philolog.  Proceedings^  vol.  i.  p.  ill. 

*  We  have  Frankby  in  Cheshire,  four  Franktons  in  Salop,  and  one  in 
Warwick,  Frankley  in  Worcester,  and  Frankham  in  Dorset 

>  We  find  a  Friesthorpe  in  Lincolnshire,  two  Frisbys  in  Leicestershire, 
Frieston  in  Lincolnshire  and  Sussex,  and  two  in  Suffolk,  Frystone  in  York- 
shire, Friesden  in  Bucks,  and  Frisdon  in  Wilts. 

4  We  have  Finsthwaite  in  Lancashire,  Fineston  in  Lincolnshire,  Finsham 
in  Norfolk,  Finstock  in  Oxon, 


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Ethnic  Shire-names  of  England.  269 

At  the  close  of  the  period  of  Roman  occupation,  the 
Barbarian  auxiliaries  must  have  formed  a  not  incon- 
siderable element  in  the  population  of  Britain.  From 
the  *'  Notitia  Imperii,"  and  from  inscriptions,  we  learn 
that  there  were  legions  recruited  from  Moors,  Indians,^ 
Cilicians,  Dacians,  Thracians,*  Dalmatians,*  Sarmatians, 
Tungrians,  Batavians,  and  from  sundry  tribes  of  Gaul, 
Spain,  and  Germany,  which  were  located  in  various  parts 
of  Britain.*  Local  names  preserve  a  few  traces  of  these 
military  colonies.  The  names  of  QUAT  and  QUATFORD,* 
near  Bridgenorth,  in  Salop,  have  been  thought  to  bear 
witness  to  a  settlement  of  Quadi ;  and  TONG,®  in  York- 
shire, of  the  Tungrians.  The  ancient  name  of  HUNNUM 
on  the  Wall,  and  the  modern  one  of  HUNSTANTON,  in 
Norfolk,  may  possibly  be  due  to  the  Huns.  There  is 
only  one  name  of  this  class,  however,  which  can  be  re- 
ferred to  with  any  confidence.  We  are  informed  by 
Zosimus  that  large  bodies  of  Vandal  auxiliaries  were 
settled  in  Britain  by  the  Emperor  Probus,  and  Gervase 
of  Tilbury  informs  us  that  Vandalsburg  in  Cambridge- 
shire was  a  fortification  raised  by  them.  Vandalsburg 
is  undoubtedly  to  be  identified  with  the  huge  earthwork 
called  WANDLESBURY,  which  occupies  the  summit  of 
the  Gogmagog  Hills.  WENDLEBURY,  near  Bicester,  in 
Oxfordshire ;   WINDLESHAM,   near  Woking,  in  Surrey  ; 

1  At  Cirencester. 

*  In  Yorkshire,  Shropshire,  at  Cirencester,  and  on  the  Wall. 

*  In  Norfolk,  Lincolnshire,  and  on  the  Wall. 

-*  See  Wright,  "On  the  Ethnology  of  South  Britain  at  the  extinction  of 
the  Roman  Government,"  Essays^  vol.  i.  pp.  70,  71 ;  Poste,  Britannic 
Researches^  pp.  99,  100;  Latham,  EthnoL  Brit  Is,  pp.  99 — loi ;  Edinb, 
Review,  vol  xciv.  p.  187;  Horsley,  Brit,  Rom,  pp.  88—97,  ^^^>  B"ice, 
Roman  Wall,  p.  60, 

•  More  probably  from  the  Celtic  coed,  a  wood. 

•  More  probably  Norse. 


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270.  Historic  Value  of  Local  Names. 

WINDLEDEN  and  WENDEL  Hill,  in  Yorkshire;  and 
WINDLE,  in  Lancashire,  may,  some  of  them,  be  Vandal 

Henry  of  Huntingdon  informs  us  that  the  Picts,  during 
one  of  their  incursions,  advanced  as  far  as  Stamford, 
where  they  suffered  a  bloody  repulse.  The  remnant  of 
this  invading  host  may  with  some  probability  be  traced 
at  PITCHLEY  in  Northamptonshire,  a  place  which,  in 
Domesday,  is  called  Picts-lei  and  Pihtes-lea,  the  laga  or 
settlement  of  the  Picts  or  Pehtas.* 

Beyond  the  confines  of  England  we  find  numerous 
names  which  denote  intrusive  colonization,  or  the  settle- 
ment of  the  remains  of  defeated  armies.  One  of  the 
most  curious  of  these  is  SCYTHOPOLIS,  a  strong  natural 
rock-fortress  in  Eastern  Palestine,  the  name  of  which  is 
probably  a  record  of  the  Scythian  invasion  in  the  reign 
of  Josiah,  which  is  recorded  by  Herodotus.* 

The  names  of  SERVIANIKA  and  CRAVATTA,  show  that 
Servians  and  Croats  penetrated  into  the  Morea.  In 
Westphalia  we  find  the  adjacent  villages  of  FRANKEN- 
FELD  and  SASSENBERG,*  and  in  Hesse  Cassel  franken- 

1  See  Kennett,  Parochial  AntiquiiieSy  vol.  i.  p.  l8 ;  Palgrave,  Engiisk 
Comtnotvwealthy  vol.  i.  p.  355 ;  Gotigh*s  Camden,  vol.  I  p.  cxxxix.  and  vd. 
\\.  p.  213. 

'  See  Poste,  Brii.  Researches^  p.  47.  The  pronunciation  of  this  name^ 
Peitphley,  strongly  favours  the  etymology  suggested  in  the  text.  Compare 
also  the  phrases  Sexena-laga,  the  seat  or  district  of  the  Saxons,  and  XHsut- 
lagh,  that  of  the  Danes. 

>  Herodotus,  i.  c  105 ;  Zephaniah  iL  5,  6 ;  see  Stanley,  Jewish  Cimrth, 
p.  338 ;  Sinai  and  Pal,  p.  340 ;  Bergmann,  Les  Gites^  p.  26 ;  Robinaoo, 
Biblical  Raearches^  vol.  iil  p.  175 ;  Later  Researches,  p.  330  ;  Brace,  Ra£a 
of  the  Old  IVorld,  pp.  60,  6k.  It  is  possible  that  there  may  be  truth  in  the 
tradition  which  asserts  that  the  Frank  Mountain,  in  the  same  neighbour- 
hood, was  a  refuge  of  the  Crusaders.  See  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Pnl,  p.  163  ; 
Robinson,  Bibl,  Researches,  voL  ii.  p.  171. 

*  Massmann,  in  Dorow's  Denkmdler,  vol.  i.  p.  199. 


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Intrusive  Colonisation^  271 

BERG  and  SASSENBERG  stand  face  to  face.^  In  the 
Rhineland,  FRANKFURT  and  FRANKENTHAL*  are  settle- 
ments of  the  Franks,  just  as  katzellenbogen  '  and 
SACHSENHAUSEN  are  of  the  Saxons,  flamandville 
and  SASSETOT  in  Normandy,  and  sueveghem  in 
Flanders,  are  among  the  nujnerous  names  of  the  kind 
which  might  easily  be  collected.*  The  WESTMANN  ISLES, 
opposite  Hjorleifs  Head  on  the  coast  of  Iceland  were 
the  refuge  of  some  westmen,  or  Irish  slaves,  who  slew 
their  master,  Hjorleif,  and  then  fled  for  their  lives.*  We 
must,  I  fear,  give  up  the  curious  tradition  which  derives 
the  name  of  Canton  schwytz  from  a  Swedish  colony 
which  settled  there  at  some  remote  period.* 

I  Vilmar,  Orttnam^n,  p.  243. 

>  The  ancient  forms  of  these  two  names  show  that  they  are  derived  from 
the  nationality  of  the  inhabitants,  and  not,  as  is  usually  supposed,  from  the 
possession  of  certain  fmnchises.     Zeuss,  Herkunfi  dar  Baiem^  p.  $& 

'  See,  however,  Dixon,  Surnames^  p.  41. 

4  Many  instances  have  been  collected  by  Zeuss  and  Forstemann.  See 
DU  DaUschen^  pp.  608,  635,  &c. ;  Die  Deuttchen  Ortsnamen,  p.  170. 

'  Baring-Gould,  Iceland^  p.  2. 

'  The  Haslithalers  affirm  that  they  are  Swedes.  Hassle  is  a  common 
local  name  in  Sweden.  See  Geijer,  De  Colonia  Svecorum  in  Hdvetiam 
dedmctOj  quoted  extensively  by  Strinnholm,  Wikingmge^  pp.  190—199. 


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272  The  Street  Names  of  London. 



71ie  walls  of  Old  London — Gradual  extension  of  the  town — Absorption  of 
surrounding  villages — The  Brooks  ;  the  Holbomf  the  Tyhum,  and  the 
IVestdourne —  WellSy  conduits,  ferries — Monastic  establishments  of  London 
— Localities  of  certain  trades — Sports  and  pastimes — Sites  of  residences  of 
historic  families  preserved  in  the  names  of  streets — The  Palaces  of  the 
Strand— Elizabethan  London — Streets  dating  from  the  Restoration, 

The  history  of  many  cities  has  been  deciphered  from 
inscriptions,  and  so  the  history  of  Old  London  may, 
much  of  it,  be  deciphered  from  the  inscriptions  which 
we  find  written  up  at  the  comers  of  its  streets.  These 
familiar  names,  which  catch  the  eye  as  we  pace  the  pave- 
ment, perpetually  remind  us  of  the  London  of  bygone 
centuries,  and  recall  the  stages  by  which  the  long  un- 
lovely avenues  of  street  have  replaced  the  elms  and 
hedgerows,  and  have  spread  over  miles  of  pleasant  fields, 
till  scores  of  outlying  villages  have  been  absorbed  into 
a  "  boundless  contiguity  "  of  brick  and  mortar. 

By  the  aid  of  the  street  names  of  London  let  us  then 
endeavour  to  reconstruct  the  history  of  London,  and,  in 
the  first  place,  let  us  take  these  names  as  our  guide-book 
in  making  the  circuit  of  the  old  City  Walls.  The  ancient 
wall  started  from  the  Norman  fortress  on  TOWER  HILL, 
and  ran  to  ALDGATE — ^the  "  Old  Gate."  Between  ald- 
GATE  and  BISHOPSGATE  the  wall  was  protected  by  an 


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The  Walls  of  London.  273 

open  ditch,  two  hundred  feet  broad,^  whose  name, 
HOUNDSDITCH,  sufficiently  indicates  the  unsavoury  na- 
ture of  its  contents.  CAMOMILE  STREET  and  WORM- 
WOOD STREET  remind  us  of  the  desolate  strip  of  waste 
ground  which  lay  immediately  within  the  wall,  and  of 
the  hardy  herbs  which  covered  it,  or  strove  to  force  their 
rootlets  between  the  stones  of  the  grey  rampart  In 
continuation  of  the  street  called  Houndsditch,  we  find  a 
street  called  LONDON  WALL.  Here  no  ditch  seems  to 
have  been  needed,  for  the  names  of  FINSBURY,  MOOR- 
down  the  memory  of  the  great  Fen  or  Moor — ^an  "arrant 
fen,"  as  Pennant  quaintly  calls  it — ^which  protected  the 
northern  side  of  London. 

On  this  moor,  just  outside  the  wall,  was  the  ARTILLERY 
GROUND,^  where  the  bowmen  were  wont  to  assemble  to 
display  their  skill. 

Where  the  fen  terminated  the  wall  needed  more  pro- 
tection, and  here  accordingly  we  find  the  site  of  the 
BARBICAN,*  one  of  the  gateway  towers,  which  seems 

*  Pennant,  London,  p.  234. 

«  Hard  by  we  find  artillery  street,  where  the  Bowyers  and  Fletchers 
fabricated  longbows  and  cloth  yard  shafts.  The  word  artillery,  in  old 
EngUsh,  denotes  bows  and  arrows,  and  it  retained  this  meaning  till  the 
seventeenth  century,  for  we  find  the  word  used  in  this  sense  in  i  Sam.  xx. 
where  our  version  reads,  **  And  Jonathan  gave  his  artillery  unto  his  lad, 
and  said  unto  him,  Go,  carry  them  to  the  city." 

*  The  whole  tribe  of  modem  Londonologists  have  followed  Stow  in 
deriving  the  word  barbican  from  the  Saxon  bur^  kenning,  or  "town 
-watching'*  tower.  A  barbican  was,  strictly,  a  projecting  turret  over  a 
gateway.  The  true  etymology  of  the  word  is  undoubtedly  that  given  by 
Camden  (vol.  il  p.  85),  from  the  Persian  bdla  khaneh,  an  upper  chamber, 
whence  also  we  derive  the  word  balcony.  We  find  this  form  in  the  case  of 
BALCON  LANE,  which  was  parallel  to,  and  just  outside,  the  town  wall  of 
Colchester.  See  Wedgwood,  Eng.  Etym,  vol.  i.  p.  97  ;  and  Wedgwood  in 
Phil,  Proc.  vol.  iii.  p.  156. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

274  The  Street  Names  ofLofidon. 

to  have  guarded  ALDERSGATE,  the  chief  entrance  from 
the  north.  Considerable  remains  of  the  wall  are  still 
visible  in  CASTLE  STREET,  as  well  as  in  the  churchyard 
of  St.  Giles',  CRIPPLEGATE.^  Passing  by  NEWGATE  we 
come  to  the  OLD  BAILEY,  a  name  which  is  derived  from 
the  ballium  or  vallum^  an  open  space  between  the  ad- 
vanced gate  of  the  city  and  the  line  of  the  outer  wall.*^ 

The  wall  now  turned  southward,  and  ran  along  the 
crest  of  LUDGATE  HILL,  its  western  face  being  protected 
by  the  FLEET,  a  small  stream  which  flowed  through  the 
ditch  of  the  city  wall,  which  was  here  called  the  FLEET 
DITCH.  The  river  Fleet  also  gave  its  name  to  the  street 
which  crossed  it  at  right  angles,  and  entered  the  city  by 
Fleetgate,  Floodgate,  or  LUDGATE.** 

At  the  angle  formed  by  the  wall  and  the  Thames 
stood  a  Norman  fortress  erected  at  the  same  time  with 
the  Tower  of  London.*    A  wharf  which  occupies  the 

1  The  wall  gives  its  name  lo  the  parish  of  Allhallows-in-the-Wall,  as  well 
as  to  that  of  Cripplegate. 

s  In  a  similar  position  with  respect  to  the  city  wall,  we  find  the  Old  Bayle 
at  York,  the  church  of  St  Peter  in  the  Bailey  at  Oxford,  and  Bailey  Hill  at 
Sheffield  and  Radnor.  A  bailiff  vrvci  originally  the  Bayle-reeve,  or  officer  in 
charge  of  the  Ballium  ;  just  as  the  sheriff  is  the  shire-reeve.  A  bail  is 
etymologically  a  palisade.  Thus  the  bails  at  cricket  were  originally  the 
stumps,  the  present  restricted  meaning  of  the  word  being  of  later  origin. 
See  Knapp,  English  Roots^  p.  79—81 ;  Timbs,  Curiosities  of  London^  p.  556 ; 
Wedgwood,  DicL  of  Ettg.  Eiym,  voL  L  p.  96  ;  Ilartshome,  Sahpia  Anti^Ma, 
p.  241 :  Diez,  Efym»  Wbrterbuch^  p.  37 ;  Whitaker,  Hist,  of  Manchester^ 
vol.  ii.  p.  244. 

>  The  words  flood,  fleet,  and  float,  come  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  veib 
fleotan,  to  float  or  swim.  A  fleet  is  either  that  which  is  afloat,  or  a  place 
where  vessels  can  float — ^that  is,  a  channel,  or  where  water  fleets  or  runs. 
Hence  the  names  kbbfleet,  northfxekt,  southflikt,  purflset, 
and  PORTFLEET.  The  word  vley^  which  the  boers  of  the  Cape  use  for  the 
smaller  rivers,  is  the  same  word  fleet  (Dutch,  vliet,)  in  a  somewhat  dis- 
guised form.     Kemble,  Cod,  Dip.  vol.  iii.  p.  xxv.    See  p.  187,  supra, 

4  See  Thierry,  Norman  Conquest,  p.  76;  Cunningham,  Handbook  for 
London,  p.  65. 


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Extent  of  Old  L  ondon,  275 

site,  as  well  as  one  of  the  city  wards,  still  retain  the 
name  of  castle  BAYNARD,  although  every  vestige  of 
the  fortress  has  long  disappeared.  DOWGATE^  and 
BILLINGSGATE  were  two  of  the  passages  through  that 
part  of  the  wall  which  protected  the  city  from  assailants 
coming  from  the  riverside.* 

The  small  space  within  the  walls  of  Old  London  was 
almost  exactly  of  the  same  shape  and  the  same  area  as 
Hyde  Park.  In  fact,  as  the  last  syllable  of  its  name 
indicates,  LONDON  was  originally  a  dun  or  Celtic  hill- 
fortress,  formed  by  Tower  Hill,  Cornhill,  and  Ludgate 
Hill,  and  effectually  protected  by  the  Thames  on  the 
south,  the  Fleet  on  the  west,  the  great  fen  of  Moorfields 
and  Finsbury  on  the  north,  and  by  the  Houndsditch  and 
the  Tower  on  the  east.^ 

For  a  long  period  London  was  confined  within  the  limit 
of  its  walls.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  I.  CHARING  was 
a  country  village  lying  midway  between  the  two  cities 
of  London  and  Westminster,  and  ST.  martin's-IN-THE- 
FIELDS  long*  continued  to  be  the  village  church.  Along 
the  strand  of  the  river  hardly  a  house  had  been  built 
in  the  time  of  Edward  III.,  and  no  continuous  street 
existed  till  the  reign  of  Elizabeth.  Even  then,  to  the 
north  of  this  straggling  line  of  houses,  the  open  country 
extended  from  LINCOLN'S  INN  FIELDS  to  the  village 
church  of  ST.  GILES'  IN  THE  FIELDS.  James  I.  ordered 
the  justices  to  commit  to  prison  any  person  presuming 

1  Possibly  the  Dourgate  or  water-gate.  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  iL 
p.  80. 

»  Pauli,  Pictures  of  Old  England f  p.  416. 

'  The  natural  advantages  of  the  site  have  been  well  brought  out  bjr 
Dean  Stanley  in  his  admirable  lecture  on  77ie  Study  of  Modem  History ^ 
PP-  352—355- 

'^    ^  Digitized  by  Google 

276  The  Street  Names  of  London. 

to  build  in  this  open  space.^  LONG  ACRE,  formerly  a 
field  called  "  The  Elms,"  or  *'  The  Seven  Acres,"  *  was 
not  built  upon  till  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  And  scarcely 
a  century  ago  a  man  with  a  telescope  used  to  station 
himself  in  LEICESTER  FIELDS — now  Leicester  Square — 
and  offer  to  the  passers-by,  at  the  charge  of  one  half- 
penny, a  peep  at  the  heads  of  the  Scotch  rebels  which 
garnished  the  spikes  on  Temple  Bar.* 

If,  two  or  three  centuries  ago,  what  now  forms  the 
heart  of  London  was  unbuilt  upon,  it  was  at  a  still  more 
recent  period  that  Kensington,  Brompton,  Paddington, 
Dalston,  Stoke  Newington,  and  Islington,  remained  de- 
tached country  villages,  though  they  are  now  districts 
incorporated  with  the  wilderness  of  streets.  There  was 
a  coach  which  took  three  hours  to  run,  or  rather  to 
flounder,  from  the  village  of  Paddington  to  London ; 
and  Lord  Hervey,  in  country  retirement  at  Kensington, 
laments  that  the  impassable  roads  should  cause  his 
entire  isolation  from  his  friends  in  London. 

The  names  spitalfields,  bethnal  green,  field 

LAND,  indicate  the  rural  character  of  the  districts  that 
separated  the  outlying  villages  from  the  neighbouring 
city.  In  these  fields  the  citizens  could  take  pleasant 
country  walks  with  their  wives,  while  their  children 
clambered    over    GOODMAN'S    STYLE,    in    GOODMAN'S 

^  Smith,  Antiquarian  Ramble^  vol.  i.  p.  302 ;  Madcay,  History  of  London^ 
p.  27a. 

'  Timbs,  Curiosities  of  London,  p.  473. 

•  Smith,  Antiquarian  Ramble,  vol.  i.  p.  1 1 7. 


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Gradual  Extension  of  the  Town,  277 

FIELDS,  or,  on  rare  occasions,  went  nutting  on  Nutting 
or  NOTTING  HILL.  There  were  windmills  in  windmill 
STREET,  at  the  top  of  the  Haymarket,  and  in  WINDMILI> 
STREET,  Finsbury ;  there  was  a  water-mill  in  MILFORD 
LANE,  Strand ;  while  the  hounds  of  the  Lord  Mayor's 
pack  were  kenneled  at  DOG-HOUSE  bar,  in  the  City 

In  TOTHILL  FIELDS  there  was  a  bear  garden,  and  in 
the  fields  by  the  side  of  the  brook  which  has  given  its 
name  to  Brook  Street,  an  annual  fair  was  held  on  the 
site  of  Curzon  Street  and  Hertford  Street — a  rural  fdte 
whose  memory  is  preserved  in  the  name  of  the  fashion- 
able region  of  mayfair. 

The  names  of  the  present  streets  will  enable  us  to 
trace  the  courses  of  the  brooks  which  ran  through  these 
country  fields.  The  little  stream  called  the  HOLBORN, 
rising  near  Holborn  Bars,  gave  its  name  to  the  street 
down  which  it  flowed,^  and  after  turning  the  mill  at 
TURNBULL  or  Turnmill  Street,  it  joined  the  FLEET 
river  at  Holborn  Bridge.  From  this  point  to  the  Thames 
the  Fleet  was  navigable,  at  all  events  by  barges,  as  is 
attested  by  the  names  of  seacoal  lane  and  Newcastle 

»  The  "Old  Bourne,"  or  bum,  is  the  etymology  of  "The  Holborn," 
which  is  universally  given — thoughtlessly  copied,  according  to  the  usual 
custom,  by  one  writer  from  another.  That  a  village  or  town  should  be 
called  Oldham,  Aldborough,  or  Newton  is  intelligible,  but  how  a  name 
like  Oldboume  should  have  arisen  is  difficult  to  explain.  The  introduction 
of  the  ^  is  another  difficulty  in  the  way  of  this  etymology.  It  seems  far 
more  in  accordance  with  etymological  laws  to  refer  the  name  to  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  hoU^  a  hollow,  or  ravine ;  the  Holborn  will  therefore  be  "the  Bum 
in  the  hollow,"  like  the  Holbeck  in  Lincolnshire,  and  the  Holbec  in 
Normandy.  The  Chartere  in  the  Codex  Diplomaticus  supply  apposite 
instances  of  the  usage  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  word  hole.  See  Leo,  Anglo- 
Saxon  Names,  p.  80. 


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278  T}u  Street  Names  of  London. 

Finsbury  and  Moorfields  were  drained  by  the  WAL- 
BROOK,  which  passed  through  the  wall  in  its  course  to 
the  Thames.  Two  or  three  centuries  ago  this  stream 
was  vaulted  over,  and  walbrook  street  was  built 
upon  the  ground  thus  gained.  At  BUDGE  ROW — a 
corruption  of  Bridge  Row — there  was  a  bridge  over  the 
brook.  The  langbourne,  another  of  the  city  streams, 
has  given  its  name  to  one  of  the  London  wards ;  and 
SHERBOURNE  LANE,  near  London  Bridge,  marks  the 
course  of  the  Sherbourne.  Further  to  the  west,  the 
positions  of  two  small  rivulets  which  crossed  the  Strand 
are  denoted  by  IVYBRIDGE  LANE  and  STRAND-BRIDGE 

The  TYBURN,  a  much  larger  stream,  after  passing  by 
the  church  of  St  Mary  le  bourne,  or  MARYLEBONE,  and 
crossing  the  great  western  road  near  Stratford  Place, 
passed  across  BROOK  STREET,  and  down  ENGINE  STREET, 
to  the  depression  of  Piccadilly.  The  hollow  in  the 
Green  Park  is,  in  fact,  the  valley  of  the  Tyburn,  and 
the  ornamental  water  in  front  of  Buckingham  Palace 
was  the  marsh  in  which  it  stagnated  before  its  junction 
with  the  Thames. 

To  the  west  of  the  Holborn  and  the  Tyburn  we  find 
the  WESTBOURNE,  with  its  affluent  the  KILBURN.^  Where 
this  stream  crossed  the  great  western  road,  it  spread  out 
into  a  shallow  BAY-WATER,^  where  cattle  might  drink  at 
the  wayside.  On  the  formation  of  Hyde  Park  a  dam 
was  constructed  across  the  valley  of  the  Westbourne, 
so  as  to  head  up  the  water,  thus  forming  the  SERPENTINE 

^  Either  the  Cold-burn,  or,  more  probably,  the  Well-bum.  See  p.  i86^ 

■  A  different  etymology  of  Bayswater  is,  however,  proposed  in  Notes  and 
Qucties^  first  series,  vol.  i.  No.  1 1,  p.  162. 


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TIte  Brooks^  Wells,  and  Conduits,  279 

RIVER,  which  leaves  the  park  at  Albert  Gate,  and  crosses 
the  Kensington  Road  at  KNIGHTSBRIDGE. 

It  would  appear  that  the  water  supply  of  Old  London, 
when  not  derived  from  the  Thames,  the  Holborn,  or  the 
Tyburn,  was  obtained  from  numerous  wells — CLERKEN- 
WELL  or  the  priest's  well,  bridewell  or  St.  Bridget's 

and  others — and  in  later  times  from  the  conduits  or  foun- 
tains which  gave  a  name  to  lamb's  CONDUIT  STREET, 
and  CONDUIT  street,  Regent  Street.  The  use  of 
the  SHOREDITCH,  the  Walbrook,  the  Sherbourne,  the 
Langbourne,  and  the  Fleet,  was,  we  will  hope,  discon- 
tinued at  a  comparatively  early  period. 

Redriff,  which  is  a  corruption  of  Rotherhithe,  St. 
Mary  SOMERSET,  a  corruption  of  Summer's  Hithe, 
STEPNEY,^  anciently  Stebenhithe,  QUEENHITHE,  and 
LAMBETH,  or  Loamhithe,  mark  some  of  the  chief 
**  hithes"  or  landing-places  on  the  banks  of  the  Thames.* 

Close  to  London  Bridge  we  find  the  church  of  St, 
Mary  OVERY,  or  St.  Mary  of  the  Ferry.*  This  name,  if 
we  may  believe  the  old  traditions,  recalls  the  time  when 
the  Thames  was  unbridged,  and  when  the  proceeds  of 
the  ferry  formed  the  valuable  endowment  of  the  con- 

*  I  am  not  aware  that  any  etymology  of  the  name  of  \vych  street  has 
been  proposed.  Like  Wynch  Street  in  Bristol,  it  may  be  probably  derived 
fiY)m  the  wynch  of  the  public  well  of  Holywell. 

*  The  name  was  anciently  written  Stebenhethe,  which  would  mean  either 
the  **  timber  wharf,"  or  perhaps  "  Stephen's  wharf."  Cunningham,  Hand- 
book for  London^  p.  78a 

s  The  names  of  Eiith  and  Greenhithe,  lower  down  the  river,  contain  the 
same  root. 

^  This  etymology,  as  well  as  the  myths  of  the  miserly  ferryman  and  his 
fiiir  daughter,  are  open  to  grave  suspicion.  St  Maiy  Overy  is  probably 
St.  Mary  Ofer-ea,  or  St  Mary  by  the  water-side.  The  Anglo-Saxon  ofer 
is  the  saniie  as  the  modem  German  ufer^  a  shore. 


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28o  The  Street  Nanus  of  London. 

ventual  church,  just  as  HORSEFERRY  ROAD  is  a  remi- 
niscence of  the  ferry  which  Westminster  Bridge  has 

The  Thames  was  formerly  by  no  means  confined  to 
its  present  bed,  but  both  above  and  below  the  city  spread 
out  into  broad  marshes,  where  the  varying  channels  of 
the  river  inclosed  numerous  islands.^  LAMBETH  MARSH, 
and  perhaps  marsham  STREET,  may  remind  us  of  the 
former.  Some  of  the  islands  are  commemorated  by  such 
names  as  CHELSEA,  which  is  a  corruption  of  cJiesel-^^ 
or  shingle  isle ;  battersea,  which  is  St  Peter's-ey ;  as 

well  as  BERMONDSEY,  PUTNEY,  and  the  ISLE  OF  DOGS.* 
The  monastic  establishments  were  chiefly  situated  in 
the  fields  around  the  city,  their  sacred  character  render- 
ing unnecessary  the  protection  of  the  walls.  Convent,  or 
CO  VENT  GARDEN,'  was  the  garden  of  the  monks  of  WEST- 
MINSTER ABBEY.  The  name  of  the  Chartreuse,  or  Car- 
thusian convent,  has  been  corrupted  into  the  CHARTER- 
HOUSE. At  CANONBURY,  Islington,  was  an  affiliated 
establishment  of  the  canons  of  St  Bartholomew's  Priory, 
now  St  Bartholomew's  Hospital.  SPITAL  SQUARE  occu- 
pies the  site  of  the  churchyard  belonging  to  the  church 
of  the  priory  and  hospital  of  St.  Mary,  which  stood 
beyond  the  walls  in  SPITAL  fields.  In  AUSTIN  friars, 
Broad  Street,  stood  the  convent  of  the  Augustines ;  that  of 

^  See  Chambers,  Ancient  Sta  Margins,  p.  14.  Thomey  Island,  on  wfaidi 
Westminster  Abbey  was  built,  seems  to  have  been  completely  surrounded 
by  the  river.  The  ornamental  water  in  St  James's  Park  occupies  a  part 
of  the  bed  of  the  northern  branch  of  the  Thames.  During  tlie  excavation 
of  St  Katharine's  Docks  old  ships  were  dug  out,  showing  that  here  also  the 
Thames  must  have  shifted  its  channel.     Lyell,  Antiquity  o/Man,  p.  129. 

'  Perhaps  a  corruption  of  the  Isle  of  Digues,  or  dikes. 

s  So  Orchard  Street,  Bristol,  was  the  garden  of  a  monastery,  and  Culver 
Street  was  the  columbarium.     Lucas,  Secularia^  p.  98* 


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Monastic  Establishments  of  London.  28 1 

the  Minoresses,  or  Nuns  of  St.  Clare,  was  in  the  MINORIES, 
just  outside  the  eastern  wall ;  and  in  CRUTCHED  FRIARS, 
Tower  Hill,  was  that  of  the  Crutched  Friars,  distin- 
guished by  the  cross  upon  their  dress.^  ST.  Katharine's 
DOCKS  occupy  the  site  of  the  abbey  of  St.  Catherine. 
The  Knights  of  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem  occupied  what 
is  now  the  TEMPLE;  the  round  church,  built  on  the 
model  of  the  church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  being  the 
only  part  of  the  ancient  building  still  remaining.  At  ST. 
JOHN'S  GATE,  Clerkenwell,  we  find  a  vestige  of  the  other 
great  military  order,  the  Hospitallers,  the  Knights  of  the 
Hospital  of  St  John,  of  Jerusalem,  Rhodes,  and  Malta. 

To  several  of  the  convents  belonged  sanctuaries,  or 
precincts  possessing  the  valuable  privilege  of  freedom 
from  arrest.  The  BROAD  SANCTUARY  belonged  to  the 
abbot  and  monks  of  Westminster.  The  monastic  esta- 
blishment of  the  SAVOY  enjoyed  similar  privileges.  The 
Times  is  now  printed  within  the  precincts  of  the  convent 
of  the  BLACK  FRIARS,*  or  Dominicans,'  who  together 
with  the  WHITEFRIARS,  or  Carmelites,  and  the  GREY 
FRIARS*,  or  Franciscans,  possessed  the  privileges  of  sanc- 

1  A  cruUh  is  the  old  English  word  for  a  cross.  A  cripple's  crutch  has  a 
cross  piece  of  wood  at  the  top.  Crouchmass  was  the  festival  on  the  14th 
of  September,  in  honour  of  the  Holy  Cross.  To  crouch  is  to  bend  the  body 
into  the  form  of  a  cross.  Crochet  work  is  performed  with  a  crooked  needle. 
A  person  who  has  a  crotchet  has  a  crook  in  the  mind.  A  crotchet  in  music 
is  a  crooked  note.     A  shepherd's  crook  is  crooked  at  the  top. 

t  Gloster  Court,  Blackfriars,  is  a  corruption  of  Cloister  Court.  See 
WhewcU,  in  Philological  Proceedings^  vol,  v.  p.  14a 

s  The  Augustines,  the  Dominicans,  the  Franciscans,  and  the  Carmelites, 
were  the  four  mendicant  orders,  whose  sphere  of  labour  lay  among  the 
crowded  population  of  great  dties.  The  Benedictines  and  Cistercians  had 
their  establishments,  for  the  most  part,  in  country  districts,  where  they  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  great  feudal  landowners.  See  Pauli,  Pictures  of  Old 
England,  pp.  S3— 64. 

**  The  monastery  of  the  Greyfriars  is  now  Christ's  Hospital.  The  cloisters 


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282  The  Street  Names  of  London. 

tuary,  the  abuse  of  which  has  conferred  an  unenviable 
notoriety  upon  the  districts  to  which  these  immunities 
were  attached.^ 

Special  districts  in  the  city,  or  in  the  suburbs,  were 
assigned  to  aliens,  or  appropriated  by  those  who  carried 
on  certain  trades.  TOOLEY-  STREET,  a  corruption  of  St 
Olaf  s  Street,^  and  ST.  CLEMENT  DANES*  mark  respec- 
tively the  colony  and  the  burying-place  of  the  Danes 
in  the  southern  and  western  suburbs.  The  Jews  were 
admitted  within  the  walls,  and  resided  in  the  two  districts 
which  still  retain  the  names  of  JEWIN  STREET  and  the 
OLD  JEWRY.  The  LOMBARD  pawnbrokers  and  money 
dealers  established  themselves  in  the  street  which  bears 
their  name,  between  the  two  chief  centres  of  trade,  the  posi- 
tions of  which  are  denoted  by  the  names  of  CHEAPSIDE 
and  EASTCHEAP.*  The  corn-market  on  CORNHILL  ad- 
joined the  grass-market  in  Grasschurch  or  gracechuRCH 
STREET,  and  the  hay-market  in  FENCHURCH  STREET.* 
The  wool-market  was  held  round  the  churchyard  of  ST. 
MARY  WOOLCIIURCH.  The  grocers  were  established  in 
SOPERS'  LANE  f  the  buckler-makers  in  BUCKLERSBURY '; 

and  the  buttery  are  the  only  parts  of  the  old  edifice  now  remaining.  The 
Greyfriars  were  sometimes  called  the  Minorites,  but  the  name  of  the 
Minories  is  derived,  as  has  been  said  above,  from  the  Minoress  nuns,  and 
not  from  the  Minorite  friars. 

^  Pauli,  Pictures  of  Old  England^  pp.  425 — ^427, 

'  St.  Olaf  was  the  great  saint  of  Scandinavia. 

*  See  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegians^  p.  16;  Stanley,  Study  of  Modem 
History^  p.  361 ;  Stow,  Survey^  bk.  iv.  p.  113 ;  Timbs,  Curiosities  of  London^ 
p.  123. 

^  From  the  Anglo-Saxon  ceap^  sale. 

*  The  name  of  Fenchurch  is  probably  from  ftenum  or  foin,  hay.  The 
western  haymarket  dates  from  a  much  later  period. 

*  Now  Queen  Street,  Cheapside. 

'  Stow,  however,  gives  another  derivation  for  this  name.  SMrs<ey, 
Book  iU.  p.  27. 


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Concentration  of  Trades.  283 

and  LOTHBURY,  a  corruption  of  Lattenbury,  was  inha- 
bited by  the  workmen  in  brass  and  copper.  The  names 
SILVER  STREET,  SHIREMONGERS'  ^  or  Sermon  LANE,  and 
SMITHFIELD,  indicate  the  localities  appropriated  to  other 

The  streets  in  the  neighbourhood  of  ST.  PAUL'S  were 
occupied  by  those  who  ministered  to  the  temporal  and 
spiritual  necessities  of  the  frequenters  of  the  church. 
dean's  court,  doctors'  commons,  and  godliman 
STREET,  still  form  an  oasis  of  ecclesiastical  repose  amid 
the  noise  and  whirr  of  the  city.  At  the  great  entrance 
of  the  cathedral  the  scene  must  have  resembled  that 
which  we  see  at  the  doors  of  continental  churches,  which 
are  often  blocked  up  by  stalls  for  the  sale  of  rosaries, 
crucifixes,  and  breviaries.  We  read  in  Stow's  Survey  : 
"  This  street  is  now  called  PATERNOSTER  ROW,  because 
of  the  stationers  or  text-writers  that  dwelled  there,  who 
wrote  and  sold  all  sorts  of  books  then  in  use,  namely 
A  B  C,  or  Absies,  with  the  Paternoster,  Ave,  Creed, 
Graces,  &c.    There  dwelled  also  Turners  of  Beads,  and 

they  were  called  Paternoster-makers At  the  end 

of  Paternoster  Row  is  AVE  MARY  LANE,  so  called  upon 
the  like  occasion  of  text-writers  and  bead-makers  then 
dwelling  there.  And  at  the  end  of  that  lane  is  likewise 
creed  lane,  late  so  called,  ....  and  amen  corner  is 
added  thereunto  betwixt  the  south  end  of  Warwick  Lane, 
and  the  north  end  of  Ave  Mary  Lane."  * 

*  A  corruption  of  Leather  Hall. 

'  A  Sheremonier  was  a  man  who  cut  bullion  into  shape  ready  for  coining. 
The  MINT,  in  Bermondsey,  was  the  issuing  place  at  a  later  date. 

•  Stow,  Survey  of  the  Cities  of  London  and  Westminster^  voL  i.  p.  174. 


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284  The  Street  Names  of  London. 

Of  the  recreations  of  old  London  but  few  memorials 
are  preserved  in  names.  It  is  difficult  to  realize  the  fact 
that  tournaments  were  held  on  London  Bridge,  or  in  the 
middle  of  Cheapside.  The  name  of  QUEEN  STREET, 
Cheapside,  seems  to  have  arisen  from  an  ancient  stone 
balcony  which  had  been  erected  at  the  corner  of  the 
street  in  order  to  enable  the  queens  of  England  to  enjoy 
the  spectacle  of  the  tourneys  which  on  special  occasions 
were  held  in  this  great  thoroughfare.^ 

Drury  Lane  Theatre  was  built  on  the  site  of  a  cockpit 
called  the  Phoenix,  the  memory  of  which  is  perpetuated, 
not  only  in  the  *'  Rejected  Addresses,"  but  by  the  names 
of  PHCENIX  ALLEY,  leading  to  Long  Acre,  and  of  COCK- 
PIT ALLEY  in  Great  Wyld  Street 

The  names  of  many  of  our  streets  preserve  the  remem- 
brance of  the  sites  of  the  town  houses  of  great  historical 
families.  These  were  originally  within  the  walls.*  ADDLE 
STREET,  near  the  Guildhall,  is  believed  by  Stow  to  owe 
its  name  to  the  royal  residence  of  Athelstane,  which  once 
stood  upon  the  site.  In  the  time  of  Henry  VL  the 
Percys,  Earls  of  Northumberland,  had  their  town  house 
near  Fenchurch  Street,  on  the  spot  which  still  goes  by 
the  name  of  Northumberland  alley.  The  De  la 
Poles,  Dukes  of  Suffolk,  lived  in  SUFFOLK  LANE,  Cannon 

Contiguous  to  the  Cathedral  at  Geneva  are  streets  called  Des  Tontes  Ames, 
Des  Limbes,  Du  Paradis,  and  D'Enfer.     Salverte,  Essai^  vol.  ii.  p.  336. 

1  The  permanent  stone  balcony  was  erected  in  1329,  in  consequence  ot 
the  fall  of  one  of  the  temporary  wooden  structures  previously  used.  The 
name  of  the  street  was  bestowed  in  1667,  when  it  was  rebuilt  after  the 
Great  Fire.  See  Mackay,  History  0/ London,  p.  97  ;  Cunningham,  Hand" 
dooi,p,  185. 

'  Richard  III.  resided  in  Castle  Baynard,  and  Duke  Humphrey  of  Glou- 
cester, and  Prince  Rupert,  in  the  Barbican,  old  palace  yard  reminds 
us  of  the  ancient  palace  of  the  kings  of  England,  the  site  of  which  is  now 
occupied  by  the  Houses  of  Parliament 


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sports  and  Pastimes,  285 

Street ;  duck's  foot  lane,  close  by,  is  probably  a 
corruption  of  Duke's  Foot  Lane;  the  Manners  family 
resided  in  RUTLAND  PLACE,  Blackfriars;  the  Earls  of 
Devonshire  in  DEVONSHIRE  SQUARE,  Bishopsgate ;  and 
the  Earls  of  Bridgewater  in  BRIDGEWATER  SQUARE, 
Barbican.  LONDON  HOUSE  yard,  in  St.  Paul's  Church- 
yard, marks  the  site  of  the  palace  attached  to  the  See 
of  London. 

The  greater  security  which  existed  under  the  Tudor 
princes  is  shown  by  the  fact,  that  the  protection  of  the 
walls  was  gradually  found  to  be  unnecessary,  and 
mansions  began  to  cover  the  ground  between  London 
and  Westminster,  where  hitherto  churchmen  only  had 
found  it  safe  to  reside. 

The  Bishops  of  Bangor,  Chichester,  Durham,  and  Ely 
lived,  respectively,  in  BANGOR  COURT,  Shoe  Lane; 
CHICHESTER  RENTS,  Chancery  Lane ;  DURHAM  street, 
Temple  Bar ;  and  ELY  PLACE,  Holborn.  SAFFRON  hill, 
Bear  Ely  Place,  has  obtained  its  name  from  the  saffron 
which  grew  abundantly  in  the  gardens  of  Ely  House. 
Between  the  river  Fleet  and  Temple  Bar,  we  find 
SALISBURY  SQUARE,  which  occupies  the  site  of  the 
.courtyard  of  the  old  Salisbury  House,  belonging  to  the 
see  of  Sarum ;  while  DORSET  STREET  and  DORSET 
COURT,  Fleet  Street,  mark  the  position  of  the  residence 
of  the  Sackvilles,  Earls  of  Dorset.  In  Clerkenwell  we 
find  a  NORTHAMPTON  SQUARE,  which  was  formerly  the 
garden  of  the  Earls  of  Northampton ;  and  in  AYLESBURY 
STREET  and  COBHAM  ROW,  both  in  the  same  fashionable 
locality,  were  the  houses  of  the  Earls  of  Aylesbury,  and 
of  the  celebrated  Sir  John  Oldcastle,  Lord  Cobham. 
The  Wriothesleys,  Earls  of  Southampton,  lived  in 
SOUTHAMPTON     BUILDINGS,      Chancery     Lane,     and 


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286  The  Street  Names  of  London, 

Christopher   Hatton,    Eh'zabeth's    chancellor,   had   his 
house  in  HATTON  GARDEN. 

But  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Strand  ^  was  the  favourite 
residence  of  the  great  nobles,  probably  because  the 
execrable  condition  of  the  roads  rendered  necessary  the 
use  of  the  Thames  as  the  chief  highway.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  seventeenth  century  the  Strand  must  have  pre- 
sented the  appearance  of  a  continuous  line  of  palaces, 
with  gardens  sloping  down  to  the  brink  of  the  then  silvery 
COURT,  point  out  the  spot  where  Elizabeth's  favourite 
plotted  and  rebelled.    The  great  space  which  is  now 

FOLK STREET,  and  ARUNDEL  STREET,  IS  a  proof  of  the 
wide  extent  of  the  demesne  attached  to  Arundel  House, 
the  residence  of  "all  the  Howards."  The  present 
SOMERSET  HOUSE  Stands  on  the  site  of  the  palace  built 
by  the  Protector  Somerset,  which  afterwards  became  the 
residence  of  Henrietta  Maria,  queen  of  Charles  I.  Those 
nests  of  poverty  and  crime  called  CLAREHOUSE  COURT, 
CLARE  MARKET,  and  NEWCASTLE  STREET,  replace  the 
mansion  and  gardens  of  Clare  House,  the  residence  of 
the  Earls  of  Clare,  afterwards  Dukes  of  Newcastle. 
Near  CRAVEN  BUILDINGS,  Drury  Lane,  stood  the  house 
of  Lord  Craven,  a  soldier  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War, 
celebrated  as  the  hero  of  Creutznach,  and  the  champion 
of  the  Winter  Queen.  CLIFFORD'S  INN  and  GRAY'S  INN 
were  the  mansions  of  the  Barons  Clifford  and  Gray  de 
Wilton.  Peter  de  Savoy,  uncle  of  Eleanor  of  Provence, 
the  queen  of  Henry  HI.,  built  for  himself  a  palace  at  the 
SAVOY,  which  was  afterwards  converted  into  a  conventual 
establishment.  Facing  each  other,  on  opposite  sides  of 
*  See  Ctmningham,  Handbook  for  London,  pp.  783,  784- 


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Houses  occupied  by  Historic  Families,  287 

the  Strand,  stood  the  mansions  of  the  two  sons  of  the 
great  Sir  William  Cecil,  Lord  Burleigh.  The  elder  son, 
created  Earl  of  Exeter,  occupied  his  father's  house, 
which  has  now  made  way  for  BURLEIGH  STREET, 
EXETER  HALL,  and  EXETER  STREET ;  while  the  younger 
son,  Sir  Robert  Cecil,  Earl  of  Salisbury,  built  Salisbury 
House  on  the  site  where  CECIL  STREET  and  SALISBURY 
STREET  are  now  standing.^ 

In  close  proximity  to  the  houses  of  the  Cecils  was, 
as  we  have  seen,  the  *' convent  garden,"  belonging  to 
the  abbot  and  monks  of  Westminster.  After  the 
dissolution  of  the  monasteries  this  property  came  into 
the  hands  of  the  Russell  family,  and  here  the  Earls  of 
Bedford  built  a  mansion,  which,  about  a  century  and  a 
half  ago,  gave  place  to  SOUTHAMPTON  street,  russell 


The  Russells  then  removed  to  Bloomsbury,  where 
preserve  the  memory  of  the  great  house  they  occupied. 
SYDNEY  ALLEY,  and  LEICESTER  SQUARE,  remind  US  of 
another  historic  name — ^that  of  Robert  Sydney,  Earl  of 
Leicester,  whose  house  stood  on  what  is  now  called 
serve every  syllable  of  the  name  and  titles  of  "  Steenie," 
the  fortunate  and  unfortunate  avourite  of  James  I.  and 
"baby  Charles."     Of  all  the  palaces  which  once  lined 

1  The  Adelphi,  with  the  five  streets— Robert  Street,  John  Street,  George 
Street,  James  Street,  and  Adam  Street,  was  built  in  1760,  by  four  brothers 
of  the  name  of  Adam. 

«  Now  improved  away.  See  Stanley,  Lecture  on  the  Sttidy  of  Modem 
History ^  p.  362. 


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288  The  Street  Nantes  of  London, 

the  Strand,  Northumberland  House  is  the  only  one 
which  still  remains. 

If  the  Strand  is  full  of  memories  of  the  statesmen  and 
favourites  of  Elizabeth,  PICCADILLY  ^  brings  us  to  the 
time  of  the  Restoration.  ALBEMARLE  Street  and 
CLARGES  Street,^  ARLINGTON  Street  and  BENNET 
Street,^  The  CLARENDON,  CORK  Street,*  COVENTRY 
Street,^  DOVER  Street,  JERMYN  Street  and  ST.  alban's 
Place,«  SACKVILLE  Street  and  DORSET  Place,^  CLEVE- 
LAND Row,8  KING  Street,  Charles  Street,  St.  james' 
Street,  duke  Street,  YORK  Street,  and  The  ALBANY,* 
are  in  convenient  proximity  to  PALL  MALL,  and  the 
MALL  in  St.  James's  Park,  where  the  courtiers  from 
whom  these  streets  derived  their  names  played  at  Paille 
Maille  while  the  merry  monarch  fed  his  ducks. 

There  are  a  few  scattered  names  to  remind  us  of 
persons  and  events  memorable  in  later  times.  HARLEY 
Street,  OXFORD  Street,  HENRIETTA  Street,  CAVENDISH 
Square,  and  HOLLES  Street,  take  their  names  from 
Harley,  Earl  of  Oxford,  and  his  wife  Lady  Henrietta 
Cavendish  Holies.  HANS  Place  and  SLOANE  Street 
bear  the  names  of  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  who  invested  his 
fees  in  the  purchase  of  the  manor  of  Chelsea,  and  in  the 

1  So  called  from  Piccadilla  Hall,  a  shop  for  the  sale  of  piccadillas,  the 
fashionable  peaked  or  turn-over  collars. 

'  Monk,  Duke  of  Albemarle,  and  Nan  Claiges,  Duchess  of  Albemarle. 

•  Henry  Bennet,  Earl  of  Arlingjton, 
4  Boyle,  Earl  of  Cork. 

"  Lord  Keeper  Coventry. 

•  Henry  Jermyn,  Earl  of  St.  Albans,  one  of  the  heroes  of  Gnunmonfs 

'  Edward  Sackville,  Earl  of  Dorset 

^  The  ''beautiful  fury,"  Barbara  Villiers,  Duchess  of  Cleveland,  mistress 
of  Charles  II. 
'  Charles  II.,  and  James,  Duke  of  York  and  Albany. 


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Streets  dating  from  the  Restoration.  289 

formation  of  a  collection  of  natural  curiosities  as  cele- 
brated as  Harley's  collection  of  MSS.  or  the  marbles  of 
the  Earl  of  Arundel.  PIMLICO  takes  its  name  from  a 
celebrated  character  of  a  very  different  order— one  Ben 
Pimlico,  who  kept  a  suburban  tavern,  first  at  Hoxton, 
but  afterwards  transferred  to  the  neighbourhood  of 

The  dates  at  which  other  streets  were  built  can,  in 
many  cases,  be  determined  by  the  names  they  bear. 
If  the  SAVOY  reminds  of  the  queen  of  Henry  III., 
PORTUGAL  Street,  Lincoln's  Inn,  carries  us  to  the  time 
of  the  marriage  of  Charles  II.  QUEEN  ANNE  Street, 
MARLBOROUGH  Street,  HANOVER  Square,  Great  GEORGE 
Street,  REGENT  Street,  KING  WILLIAM  Street,  and 
VICTORIA  Street,  afford  dates,  more  or  less  definite,  of 
certain  metropolitan  extensions  or  improvements ;  while 
BLENHEIM  Street,  QUEBEC  Street,  VIGO  Street,  WATER- 
LOO Bridge,  and  TRAFALGAR  Square,  are  instances  of 
that  system  of  nomenclature  which  has  been  so  exten- 
sively carried  out  in  Paris. 

1  The  MALAKOFF,  in  like  maimer,  was  called  from  a  tavern  kept  by 
Alexander  Ivanovitch  Malakoff,  a  ropemaker  discharged  for  drunkenness 
from  the  arsenal  at  Sebastopol.  Strange  origin  for  a  ducal  title.  See 
Chamock,  Local  Etymology^  pp.  172,  210, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

290  Historic  Sites. 



Places  of  popular  assemhly—^iunnimede^Moot-hiU'^Detmold^T^e  Scoftdi- 
navian  *^ things^'  or parlianunts—The  Thir^dlir  of  Icdandr^The  Thmg- 
walls  and  Dingwdls  of  Great  Britain — Tynwald  Hill  in  the  Iskof  Man 
^Battle-fields:  Lichfield^  Battle,  Slaughter— Conflicts  with  the  Danes— 
Eponytnic  Names — Myths  of  Early  English  History — Carisbrooke^-Hengist 
and  Horsa — Cissa^j^Me-^  Cerdic — Offa — Maes  Garmon — British  Ckuf- 
tains — Valetta — Alexander — Names  of  the  Roman  Emperors— Modern 
Names  of  this  Class, 

In  the  preceding  chapter  it  has  been  shown  how  the 
history  of  a  great  city  tends  to  perpetuate  itself  in  its 
street-names.  It  would  be  easy,  did  space  permit,  to 
apply  the  same  method  of  investigation  to  other  cities, 
such  as  Paris,^  Rome,  or  Athens.  We  might  show,  from 
the  evidence  of  names,  how  Paris  was  originally  confined 
to  the  little  island  in  the  Seine,  upon  which  the  cathedral 
of  N6tre  Dame  now  stands ;  and  how  the  louvre  was 
at  first  a  hunting-seat;  and  the  TUILERIES  a  tile-yard 
(French  tuiU,  a  tile).  The  names  of  the  Palatine,  the 
Vatican,  and  the  Janiculum,  of  the  Forum,  and  the  Latin 
Gate  at   Rome,   or  of  the   Ceramicus,  the  Acropolis, 

1  This  has  been  imperfectly  attempted  for  Paris  in  a  work  by  M.  Ferdinand 
Heuzey,  entitled,  Curiositis  de  la  Citi  de  Paris,  Histoire  Efymologique  de  ses 
Rues,  &c.     Paris,  1864. 


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Places  of  Popular  A  ssembly.  29 1 

and  the   Pnyx  at  Athens,  would  prove  similarly  sug- 

But  the  instance  of  London  may  suffice  as  an  example 
of  the  value  of  local  names  in  city  history,  and  in  this 
chapter  we  will  rather  pursue  another  department  of  the 
subject,  and  collect  the  names  of  various  scattered  HIS- 
TORIC SITES — names  which  conserve  the  remembrance 
of  historic  personages,  which  denote  the  localities  of 
great  battles,  or  of  places  otherwise  memorable  in  the 
history  of  the  human  race. 

The  places  where  popular  self-government  has  at  any 
time  been  exercised,  are  frequently  indicated  by  local 

RUNNIMEDE,  the  "meadow  of  the  runes,"  was  the 
ancient  Anglo-Saxon  field  of  council  \^  and,  on  the  spot 
thus  consecrated  to  national  liberty,  the  privileges  of  the 
great  feudatories  of  England  were  afterwards  secured  by 
the  Magna  Charta. 

In  Scotland  the  ancient  place  of  assembly  was  the 
MOTE  HILL  at  Scone,  near  the  ancient  capital  of  Scot- 
land.' In  the  midst  of  the  town  of  Hawick  there  is  a 
singular  conical  mound  called  the  MOAT  HILL.  We  may 
notice  also  the  names  of  the  MOOT  HILL  at  the  eastern 
end  of  Lyne  Bridge,  and  the  MOTE  OF  THE  MARK  in 
Galloway.  On  the  confines  of  the  Lake  District,  there 
are  hills  called  MOUTAY  and  CAERMOTE ;  and  there  is  a 

^  There  are  monographs  of  greater  or  less  value  on  the  street-names  of 
the  cities  of  Brunswick,  Heiligenstadt,  Hildesheim,  Koln,  Nuremberg,  and 
Amsterdam.  A  curious  list  of  German  street-names  will  be  found  in  f  orste- 
mann,  DetU,  OrUnamen^  pp.  167 — 169. 

■  Matthewof  Westminster,  A.  D.  12 15. 

'  This,  perhaps  the  most  interesting  historical  memorial  in  Scotland,  has 
been  recently  removed,  to  improve  the  view  from  the  drawing-room  window  ! 
Palgiave,  Normandy  and  England^  vol.  iv«  p.  336. 

U  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

292  Historic  Sites. 

MOOT-HILL  at  Naseby,  all  of  which  have  probably  served 
as  the  meeting-places  of  assemblies.^ 

The  Stannary  Court  of  the  Duchy  of  Cornwall  is  an 
assembly  which  represents,  in  continuous  succession,  the 
local  courts  of  the  ancient  Britons.  The  court  was 
formerly  held  in  the  open  air,  on  the  summit  of  CROKERN 
TOR,*  where  the  traveller  may  still  see  concentric  tiers  of 
seats  hewn  out  of  the  rock.  The  name  of  Crokem  Tor 
seems  to  point  to  a  deliberative  assembly,*  and  WIST- 
MAN's  WOOD,  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood,  suggests 
the  wisdom  traditionally  imputed  to  the  grave  and 
reverend  seniors  who  took  part  in  the  debates. 

In  Germany  there  are  several  places  called  Ditmold. 
We  find  the  names  DETMOLD,  DIETMALE,  RODENDIT- 
MOL,  and  KIRCHDITMOLD.  These  were  all  places  of 
popular  assembly,  as  the  names  imply.  The  first  portion 
of  the  name  is  diet,  people,  which  we  have  in  the  name 
of  Deutschland.*  The  suffix  is  mal,  a  place  of  assembly, 
or  a  court  of  justice.* 

But  the  most  noticeable  traditions  of  ancient  liberties 
are  associated  with  the  places  where  the  Things,^  the 

^  Ferguson,  Northmen  in  Cumberland^  p.  33 ;  Pennant,  Scotland^  toL  liL 
p.  115. 

*  See  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  pp.  43,  49  ;  Murray,  Handbook  of  Deven^ 


>  We  have  the  Welsh  word  gragan^  to  speak  loud,  whence  comes  the 
English  verb  to  croak^  to  make  a  loud  noise  like  a  frog  or  raven.  The 
creaking  of  a  door  and  the  name  of  the  corncrake  are  from  the  same  root 
Compare  the  Sanskrit  kruf^  to  call  out,  the  Greek  icpii^m^  and  the  Latin 
crocire.  See  Diefenbach,  VergUichendes  IVorterb.  voL  ii.  p.  591 ;  Ceitua^ 
Glossary,  Na  184;  Whitaker,  History  of  Manchester^  vol  il  p.  313. 

*  See  p.  59,  supra, 

^  Piderit,  Orisnamen^  pp.  309,  310;  Forstemann,  Die  Deutscken  Ortsna- 
*"^**^^  P-  95  5  Diefenbach,  Vergieich,  Wbrterb.  voL  ii.  pp.  59,  706. 

<  The  word  thing  is  derived  from  the  Old  Norse  tinga,  to  speak,  and  is 
allied  to  the  English  word  to  think.    See  Ihre,  Ghisarium^  SuiogotAscum^ 


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The  ThingvetltK  293 

judicial  and  legislative  assemblies  of  the  Scandinavian 
nations,  were  wont  to  meet.  These  institutions,  of  which 
.  we  find  traces  in  all  the  regions  colonized  by  the  North- 
men, were  derived  from  the  parent  country,  Norway, 
where  there  was  an  Althing^  or  general  assembly,  and 
four  district  Things  for  the  several  provinces.^  The 
Norwegian  parliament  still  goes  by  the  name  of  the 
Stor-thingy  or  great  council.  The  Thing  usually  met  on 
some  island,  hill,  or  promontory,  where  its  deliberations 
could  be  carried  on  secure  from  lawless  disturbance. 

The  Swedish  parliament  used  to  assemble  on  a  mound 
near  Upsala,  which  still  bears  the  name  of  TINGSHOGEN 

One  of  the  chief  attractions  for  Icelandic  tourists  is  a 
vast  sunken  lava-plain  which  bears  the  name  of  the 
THINGVELLIR,'  or  "  council  plains."  In  the  midst  of  this 
plain  there  is  an  isolated  area,  some  two  hundred  feet  long 
and  fifty  broad,  which  is  guarded  on  every  side  by  deep 
rifts,*  produced  by  the  cooling  of  the  lava.  Across  these 
rifts  the  sole  access  is  by  one  narrow  bridge  of  rock.    This 

vol.  ii  p.  901 ;  Haldorsen,  Islandske  Lexicon^  vol.  ii.  p.  407.  The  bodyguard 
of  the  Danish  kings  was  called  thingamanna  liih,  its  chief  duty  being  to 
escort  the  iDonarch  at  these  assemblies. 

*  Laing,  ffeimskringia,  vol  i.  pp.  103, 114 — 119. 

•  Ibid.  vol.  i.  pp.  89,  117. 

«  Often  wrongly  called  the  Thingvalla.  This,  however,  is  the  genitive 
case.  The  word  vollr  means  a  plain  or  field.  The  root  is  the  Norse  voir, 
a  stick  or  post  (Maeso-Gothic  vaius :  cf.  the  English  goal,  a  winning-/*?^/). 
The  voUr  takes  its  name  from  the  nature  of  the  inclosing  fence,  like  ton, 
Aanty  garthy  &c.  See  pp.  119 — 121,  and  the  notes  on  the  words  bally  and 
baily  pp.  247,  274,  supra;   also  Diefenbach,    VergUUh,   JVorierb.  vol.  i. 

p.  179. 

<  A  tradition  which  still  lingers  on  the  spot  avers  that  during  the  battle 
which  ensued  upon  the  hearing  of  the  suit  for  the  burning  of  Njal*s  house, 
Flosi,  the  leader  of  the  burners,  took  a  wild  and  desperate  leap  across  one 
of  these  chasms.    Pasent,  Burnt  Njal^  voL  L  p.  cxxviii. 


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294  Historic  SiUs, 

spot,  so  well  guarded  by  nature,  is  called  the  ALTHING, 
and  was  the  assembly-place  of  the  "general  council"  of 
the  whole  island.  A  mound,  in  the  midst  of  the  Althing, 
bears  the  name  of  the  LoGBERG,^  the  sacred  "hill  of 
laws,"  from  whose  summit,  for  nine  hundred  years,  all 
the  enactments  of  the  Althing  had  to  be  promulgated 
before  they  could  receive  the  force  of  laws.* 

Each  of  the  twelve  districts  into  which  Iceland  is 
divided  had  also  its  Things  where  the  peasant-nobles 
carried  into  effect  their  privileges  of  local  self-govern- 
ORE,  aqd  THINGMULI,  were,  as  the  names  denote; 
places  at  which  some  of  these  subordinate  assemblies 
were  accustomed  to  be  held. 

The  Northmen  introduced  their  Things  into  England. 
The  very  name  survives  among  us  as  a  household  word. 
A  "meeting,"  according  to  Dr.  Dasent,  is  the  mot  thing, 
or  assembly  of  freeholders,  and  at  the  "  hustings,"  or 
hotise  things,  the  duly  qualified  householders  still  as- 
semble to  delegate  their  l^slative  powers  to  their  repre- 
sentatives in  parliament* 

In  the  Danelagh,  as  well  as  in  most  of  the  detached 
Scandinavian  colonies,  we  find  local  names  which  prove 
the  former  existence  of  these  Things. 

^  The  upper  chamber  of  the  Norwegian  parliament  is  called  the  Z^. 
Crichton,  Scandinavia,  vol.  i.  p.  158. 

•  The  Thingvellir  have  been  described  sixteen  times  by  recent  tniTeQeis. 
Perhaps  the  most  graphic  accounts  are  those  given  by  Dasent,  Bumi  A)»4 
vol.  L  pp.  cxxv.— <:xxxix.  ;   Norsemen  in  Iceland,  p.  207  ;  Dufierin,  LMers 

from  High  Latitudes,  pp.  84—^5  ;  and  Baring-Gould,  Iceland,  pp.  67 — ^71. 
The  Icelandic  parliament,  with  full  legislative  and  judicial  powers,  Gon« 
tinued  to  meet  at  the  Thingvellir  till  the  year  1800.  The  legislative  powas 
have  now  ceased ;  the  judicial  functions  were  restored  in  1845,  since  which 
time  the  meeting-place  has  been  at  Reykjavik. 

*  Dasent,  Burnt  Njal,  vol.  i.  p.  li. ;  Worsaae,  Danes,  p.  19. 


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Thingwall  295 

In  the  Shetland  Islands,  sandsthing,  aithsthing, 
DELTING,  NESTING,  and  LUNZIESTING,  were  the  places 
of  assembly  for  the  local  Things  of  the  several  islands,^ 
while  TINGWALL  seems  to  have  been  the  spot  where  the 
AltMngy  or  general  assembly,  was  held.  In  a  fresh* 
water  lake,  in  the  parish  of  Tingwall,  there  is  an  island 
still  called  the  SAWTING.  On  it  are  four  great  stones, 
the  seats  for  the  officers  of  the  cou^f,  and  the  access  is 
by  stepping-stones  laid  in  the  shallow  waters  of  the 
lake.^  In  the  Shetlands,  the  old  Norwegian  laws  are 
even  now  administered  at  open  courts  of  justice,  which 
still  go  by  the  ancient  name  of  Lawtings. 

In  the  Ross-shire  colony  we  find  the  names  of  DING- 
WALL and  TAIN,'  while  TINWALD  Hill,  near  Dumfries, 
was  the  assembly  place  of  the  colonists  who  settled  on 
the  northern  shore  of  the  Solway.*  Not  far  from  the 
centre  of  the  Cheshire  colony  in  the  Wirall,  we  find  the 
village  of  thingwall.*  Near  Wrabness,  within  the 
limits  of  the  little  colony  in  the  north-east  of  Essex,  we 
find  a  place  whose  name,  DENGEWELL,  probably  marks 
the  spot  where  the  local  jurisdiction  was  exercised.  The 
three  neighbouring  Danish  parishes  of  Thorp  le  Soken, 
Walton  le  Soken,  and  Kiyby  le  Soken,  possessed  the 
privil^e  of  holding  a  soke^  or  local  court,  independent 
of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  hundred — a  vestige,  probably, 
of  their  ancient  Scandinavian  franchises. 

^  These  were  usually  held  in  the  centre  of  circles  of  upright  stones, 
perhaps  the  erection  of  an  earlier  race.  See  Wilsoo,  Pre-hisUyric  Annals^ 
p.  113 ;  Poste,  Brit,  Retearches,  p.  256 ;  Worsaae,  Danes^  p.  232. 

*  Martin,  Description  of  the  Western  Isles,  p.  383,  quoted  by  Train,  Isle  of 
Man,  voL  L  p.  299. 

*  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegians,  p.  260. 

*  lb.  p.  204  ;  Crichton,  Scandinavia,  voL  l  p.  158.     See  p.  172,  supra, 
«  Worsaae,  Danes,  p.  70. 

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2^  Historic  Sites. 

In  the  absence  of  all  documentary  evidence,  I  was 
inclined  to  believe  that  the  apparently  Danish  names  in 
Devonshire  I  must  be  explained  from  Saxon  sources;  I 
felt  that  I  should  hardly  be  justified  in  placing  a  Scandi- 
navian colony  in  that  county,  so  far  removed  from  their 
compatriots  in  the  Danelagh.  But  all  cause  for  hesita- 
tion was  removed  by  the  accidental  discovery  of  an 
isolated  farmhouse  bearing  the  name  of  DINGWELL.  It 
stands  on  a  plateau,  steeply  scarped  on  three  sides,  and 
about  a  mile  from  the  village  of  THUR-SHEL-TON,  a  name 
every  syllable  of  which  is  of  the  Icelandic  type,  denoting 
the  tun  or  enclosure  round  the  skaaler,  or  wooden  booths, 
which  were  usually  erected  at  some  little  distance  from 
the  Thingvellir  for  the  convenience  of  persons  attending 
the  meeting.  The  Thing  was  inaugurated  by  sacrifices 
and  religious  ceremonies,  which  enables  us  to  understand 
why  the  name  of  the  deity  Thor,  should  appear  in  the 
first  syllable  of  this  name  Thurshelton.*  These  two 
names,  Thurshelton  and  Ding^ell,  surrounded  as  they 
are  by  names  of  the  Norse  type,  seem  to  prove  conclu- 
sively* that  the  Northmen  must  have  settled  in  this 
remote  comer  of  the  island  in  sufficient  numbers  to 
establish  their  usual  oi^anized  self-government 

In  the  Danelagh  we  meet  with  several  places  bearing 
names  of  the  same  class,  which  may,  with  greater  or  less 
certainty,  be  regarded  as  meeting  places  of  local  Things. 

1  See  pp.  179, 180,  supra, 

*  Near  Tingwall,  in  Shetland,  we  find  Scalloway,  or  Booth  Bay. 
Worsaae,  Dams,  p.  232.  Mr.  Ferguson  thinks  Voitxagscale^  near  Keswick, 
is  an  analogous  name.     Northmen^  P-  S'* 

s  This  conclusion,  it  is  fair  to  add,  has  been  ably  controveited  by  Mr. 
King,  in  Notes  and  Queries,  Nov.  5th,  1864.  He  would  derive  the  name  of 
Thurshelton  from  a  neighbouring  stream  called  the  Thistle  Brook,  and  is  of 
opinion  that  all  the  apparently  Norse  names  in  Devonshire  may  be  explained 
from  Saxon  sources.     Valeai  quantum. 


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Tynwald  HilL  297 

In  Northamptonshire  we  have,  near  Kettering,  a  place 
called  FINEDON,  which  was  anciently  written  Thingdon, 
and  there  is  a  place  called  DINGLEY  near  Market  Har- 
borough.  Not  far  from  Stamford  we  find  TINWELL  in 
the  county  of  Rutland,  and  TINGEWICK,  in  the  north  of 
Buckinghamshire.  In  Yorkshire,  there  are  TINSLEY  near 
Rotherham,  and  THWING  near  Bridlington.  In  Durham, 
on  the  extreme  northern  border  of  the  Danelagh,  we 
find  DINSDALE,^  a  place  which  is  almost  entirely  sur- 
rounded by  one  of  the  bends  of  the  Tees,  and  is  thus 
well  protected  from  hostile  intrusion,  as  is  the  case  with 
so  many  of  these  sites.  I  cannot  discover  the  place  where 
the  Lincolnshire  Thing  assembled,  unless  indeed  it  be 


In  the  Scandinavian  district  of  Cumberland  and  West- 
moreland, the  word  Thing  does  not  appear  in  any  local 
name ;  but  the  Vale  of  LEGBERTHWAITE,  no  doubt,  con- 
tained the  logbergf  or  "  hill  of  laws,"  from  which  the  local 
enactments  were  promulgated.^ 

By  far  the  most  interesting  of  these  ancient  West- 
minsters is  TYNWALD  HILL  in  the  Isle  of  Man.  Less  thun 
a  century  ago  the  Isle  of  Man  preserved  a  sort  of  quasi 
independence  of  the  British  crown,  and  it  was  only  in  the 
year  1764  that  the  Duke  of  Athol  parted  with  the  last  of 
the  royal  rights,  which  had  descended  to  him  from  the 
ancient  Norwegian  kings.  But  though  the  representative 
of  the  Norwegian  jarls  has  divested  himself  of  his  regal 
prerogatives,  the  descendants  of  the  vikings  still  retain  a 
shadow  of  their  ancient  legislative  powers.  The  old 
Norse  Thing  has  survived  continuously  in  the  Isle  of 
Man  to  the  present  day,  though  in  Iceland,  in  Norway, 

1  Tindale  in  Nortlittmberland  is  probftbly  the  Tyne  dale. 
*  Ferguson,  Northmen  in  Cumberland^  p.  32. 


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298  Historic  Sites^ 

and  in  Denmark,  its  functions  have  been  intermitted,  or 
have  long  ceased.  The  three  estates  still  assemble  every 
year,  and  no  laws  are  valid  in  the  island  unless  they  have 
first  been  duly  proclaimed  from  the  summit  of  TYNWALD 
HILL.^  This  is  an  ancient  mound  some  eighteen  feet  in 
height,  and  constructed  with  four  concentric  circular 
stages,  whose  diameters  are,  respectively,  80,  27,  15,  and 
7  feet* 

The  ancient  place  of  the  coronation  of  the  kings  of 
England  was  KINGSTON  in  Surrey,  where,  in  the  centre 
of  the  town  is  still  to  be  seen  the  stone  on  which  the 
Saxon  monarchs  sat  while  the  ceremony  was  performed. 
TRONDHJEM,  or  DRONTHEIM,  was  in  like  manner  the 
"  throne  home,"  or  coronation  seat  of  the  kings  of  Norway,* 
and  kOnigsberg,*  in  the  extreme  east  of  Prussia,  shows 
the  way  in  which  that  agglomerated  kingdom  has  ex- 
tended itself  westward  from  the  ancient  central  seat  of 
the  grand  master  of  the  Teutonic  Knights.*  KINGSGATE, 
in  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  marks  the  spot  where  Charles  11. 
landed  after  his  exile ;  and  QUEENBOROUGH,  in  the  Isle 
of  Sheppey,  is  a  proof  of  the  development  of  the  English 
navy  in  the  time  of  Edward  III.  The  manor  of  Hull,  or 
KINGSTON-UPON-HULL,  was  purchased  by  Edward  I.; 
and    Coningsby,    Coneysby,    Conington,    Cunningham, 

*  Palgrave,  Engiish  Commonwealth^  vol.  L  p.  122;  Worsaae,  Dana^ 
p.  295 ;  Crichton,  Scandinmna^  voL  i.  p.  158.  A  full  account  of  the  powers 
of  the  estates,  and  of  the  ceremonies  observed  when  they  are  convened,  will 
be  found  in  Train,  Isle  of  Man,  vol.  iL  pp.  189—201. 

■  Train,  Isle  o/Moh^  vol.  i.  pp.  271—273 ;  Poste,  Brit,  Ra.  p.  256. 

'  It  is  possible,  however,  that  the  root  may  be  the  same  as  that  of 
Thrandia.     Crichton,  Scandinavia^  vol.  i.  p.  32. 

4  Mone,  Cdtische  Forxkungaiy  p.  265,  makes  Aigos  the  equivalent  of 
Konigsbeig !  arg,  a  prince ;  ais^  a  fortress !  I 

'  There  are  ten  Konigsbergs  in  Germany.  See  Buttmaan,  Orttnamun^ 
p.  2!^  I  Forstemann,  OrtsnanuHj  p.  299. 


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Battle-fields.  299 

Kingthorpe,  Kinsby,  King's  Lynn,  Lyme  Regis,  and 
many  similar  names,  denote  the  residences,  or  manors,  of 
Saxon,  Danish,  and  English  monarchs. 

Local  names  often  conserve  the  memory  of  famous 
battles,  or  sometimes  they  tell  us  of  forgotten  contests  of 
which  no  other  memorial  remains. 

Probably  the  greatest  reverse  ever  suffered  by  the 
Roman  arms  was  the  defeat  which  Hannibal  inflicted  on 
Flaminius  at  Thrasymene.  The  brook  which  flows 
through  this  scene  of  slaughter  is  still  called  the  SANGUI- 
NETTO,  and  the  name  of  the  neighbouring  village  of 
OSSAIA  shows  that  the  plain  must  have  long  been 
whitened  by  the  bones  of  the  fallen  Romans.^ 

The  Teutonic  division  of  the  Cimbric  horde  which  in- 
vaded Italy,  was  annihilated  by  Marius  in  the  year  102, 
B.C,  and  the  slaughter  is  said  to  have  reached  the  im- 
mense number  of  100,000  men.  The  battlefield  after- 
wards bore  the  name  of  the  Campi  Putridi,  a  name  which 
is  preserved  by  the  Provencal  village  of  POURRifeRES. 
The  Temple  of  Victory  built  by  the  conqueror  is  now  the 
parish  church  of  ST.  VICTOIRE.* 

Of  the  great  battles  which  have  changed  the  course  of 
the  world's  history,  few  are  more  important  than  the 
defeat  of  the  Huns  by  the  Emperor  Otho  in  the  tenth 
century.  This  battle,  regarded  as  to  the  magnitude  of 
its  results,  can  only  be  compared  with  the  overthrow  of 
the  Saracens  by  Charles  Martel.  The  one  rescued 
Christianity,  the  other  saved  civilization.  The  Magyar 
host,  like  that  of  the  Saracens,  was  all  but  exterminated, 

^  Dennis,  Eiruria,  vol.  iip.  457  ;  Duke  of  Buckingham,  PrivaU  Diary ^ 
voL  iii.  pp.  658 — 666. 
'  Sheppard,  Fail  of  Rome,  p.  164. 


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300  Historic  Sites. 

and  the  name  of  the  leichfeld,  or  "  Field  of  Corpses," 
near  Augsburg,  informs  us  of  the  precise  locality  of  the 
fearful  slaughter.^ . 

Our  two  English  LICHFIELDS,^  one  in  Staffordshire* 
and  the  other  in  Hampshire,  where  are  seven  barrows,* 
as  well  as  leckhampstead  in  Buckinghamshire,  are 
probably  memorials  of  battles  of  which  history  has  pre- 
served no  certain  record.  The  chroniclers  tell  us  that  in 
the  year  1 173,  an  army  of  10,000  Flemings  under  Robert, 
Earl  of  Leicester,  was  almost  totally  annihilated  at  LACK- 
FORD,  near  Bury  St.  Edmund's,  by  Richard  Lucy,  Chief 
Justice  of  England.  LECKFORD  in  Hampshire  may  also 
not  improbably  indicate  the  site  of  a  bloody  battle  which 
was  gained  by  Cymen  over  the  Britons  in  this  immediate 

The  final  overthrow  of  the  Britons  by  Athelstan  in 
the  year  936  occurred  at  a  place  called  BOLLEIT,  in 
Cornwall.  This  name  means  in  Cornish  the  "  House  of 

The  name  of  BATTLEFIELD,*  about  three  miles  from 
Shrewsbury,  is  a  memorial  of  the  decisive  contest  which 
Shakespeare  has  so  vividly  brought  before  us;  and  an 
additional  memorial  of  the  fiery  Welsh  chieftain  is  found 
in  an  ancient  tumulus  near  Corwen,  which  bears  the  name 

^  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England,  vol.  ii.  pp.  658 — 666. 

*  The  German  word  letch,  3.  corpse,  is  preserved  in  the  lyckgate  of  onr 
chnrchyards,  where  the  corpse  awaits  the  approach  of  the  priest ;  and  in  the 
lykewake,  or  funeral  feast,  which  is  celebrated  in  some  parts  of  Scotland. 
See  Drake,  Shakspeare  and  his  Times,  vol.  i.  p.  234. 

'  The  city  arms  are  a  field  surcharged  with  dead  bodies.  Tradition  refers 
the  name  to  the  martyrdoms  of  a  thousand  Christian  converts.  See  Fuller, 
Church  History,  vol.  i.  p.  34. 

*  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  205. 

"  The  collegiate  church  of  Battlefield  was  founded  by  Henry  IV.  in  com- 
memoration of  the  victory.     Pennant,  Wales,  vol.  iL  p.  41 1. 


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Battle-fields  of  Shrewsbury^  Bannocbum,  &  Hastings.  301 

of  Dinas  Mont  Owain  Glyndwr,  and  from  the  summit  of 
which  he  is  said  to  have  been  in  the  habit  of  gazing  down 
the  valley  of  Dee. 

Close  to  Bannocbum  is  the  inclosure  of  BLOODY  FOLD, 
where  the  Earl  of  Gloucester  fell,  and  the  name  of  GILLIES 
HILL  commemorates  the  station  of  the  camp  followers 
who  created  the  fatal  panic 

Of  the  destruction  of  the  Spanish  Armada,  we  have 
a  geographical  reminiscence  in  the  name  of  port-NA- 
SPANIEN  in  Ireland,  where  one  of  the  galleons  of  the 
Invincible  Armada  was  dashed  to  pieces.^ 

There  is  a  place  called  BATTLE  FLATS  north  of  Bos- 
worth,  though  perhaps  hardly  near  enough  to  be  con- 
fidently referred  to  as  the  scene  of  the  struggle.  CROWN 
HILL,  a  small  eminence  on  the  plain,  is  pointed  out  as 
the  spot  where  Stanley  placed  Richard's  crown  on  the 
head  of  Henry  VII. 

The  flying  cavaliers,  after  the  defeat  at  Naseby,  were 
overtaken  and  cut  to  pieces  at  a  place  now  called 
SLA UGHTERFORD,  where  the  road  to  Harborough  crosses 
the  Welland  ;*  and.  a  part  of  the  route  by  which  Mon- 
mouth's army  marched  to  the  night  attack  at  Sedgemoor, 
still  goes  by  the  name  of  WAR  LANE.* 

The  names  of  the  town  of  battle  in  Sussex,  and  of 
BATTLE  FLATS  near  Stamford  Bridge,  have  already  been 
mentioned  as  instances  in  point*  SENLAC  {Sangue  Lac)y 
the  Norman  name  of  the  battle-field  of  Hastings,  still 
survives  as  a  local  name  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
town  of  Battle,    standard  hill,  close  by,  is  said  to 

*  Goldwin  Smith,  Irish  History  and  Irish  Character,  p.  85. 

*  James,  Northamptonshire,  p.  5a 

s  Macattky,  History  ofEngtand^  voL  i.  p.  608. 

*  See  p.  7,  supra. 


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302  Historic  Sites. 

be  the  place  where  the  Conqueror  raised  his  standard 
previous  to  the  commencement  of  the  engagement,  and 
MONTJOIE,  one  of  the  four  wards  of  the  town,  commemo- 
rates the  spot  to  which  he  rode  in  triumph  at  the  con- 
clusion of  the  fight.^ 

About  six  miles  south  of  Foictiers  there  is  a  place 
called  MAUPERTUIS,  a  name  supposed  to  commemorate 
the  exact  site  of  the  battle-field  which  proved  so  disas- 
trous to  the  chivalry  of  France.  Frederick  the  Great's 
victory  over  the  Austrians  at  Hohenfriedberg,  has  given 
the  name  of  SIEGESBERG,  or  "  Victory  Hill,"  to  an  emi- 
nence  which  stands  within  the  confines  of  the  battle- 

The  terror  which  was  inspired  by  the  inroads  of  the 
Danes,  and  the  joy  with  which  their  discomfiture  was 
hailed,  is  evidenced  by  numerous  local  names,  which  are 
often  associated  with  traditionary  battle-legends  whick 
still  linger  among  the  surrounding  villagers.  Such  a 
tradition  is  connected  with  a  camp  in  Hampshire  called 
Ambrose  Hole,  hard  by  which  runs  a  rivulet  called 
DANESTREAM.*  At  SLAUGHTERFORD  in  Wiltshire,*  and 
at  BLEDLOE*^  {bloody  hlaw)  in  Buckinghamshire,  there 
are  traditions  that  great  slaughters  of  the  Danes  took 

In  the  Saxon  Chronicle  (A.D.  1016)  we  have  an  account 
of  the  great  victory  gained  by  Cnut  over  Eadmund  Iron- 
side, which  led  to  the  division  of  the  kingdom  between 
the  two  monarchs.    The  Chronicle  places  the  battle  at 

1  Hartshome,  ScUopia  AnUqua,  p.  241 ;  ^tlgny^  Normandy  and  En^and^ 
vol  iii.  p.  406. 

•  Carlyle,  Frederick  the  Great^  vol.  iv.  p.  137. 

•  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  187. 

•  Ibid.  vol.  i.  p.  141. 
B  Ibid.  vol.  ii.  p.  41. 


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Conflicts  with  the  Danes,  303 

Assandun  in  Essex.  Near  Billericay  there  is  a  place 
now  called  Assingdon,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  we 
find  twenty  barrows,  and  the  Aames  of  CANEWDON  and 

On  CAMPHILL  near  Rochdale,  the  Danes  are  said  to 
have  encamped  on  the  eve  of  the  battle  that  was  fought 
in  the  neighbourhood ;  and  KILLDANES,  the  name  of  the 
valley  below  Camphill,  tells  us  the  story  of  that  bloody 

Near  Stow-on-the-Wold  in  Gloucestershire  is  a  Danish 
earthwork  called  Bury  Camp,  and  the  adjacent  villages 
bear  the  names  of  slaughter  and  leach.*  In  a  field 
called  KNAP  DANE  in  the  parish  of  Nettlecombe,  a  vast 
quantity  of  bones  was  found,  supposed  to  be  those  of 
the  Danes  who  landed  at  Watchet  in  the  year  918.* 

At  DANEBURY  near  Chelmsford,  and  at  danes-banks 
in  the  parish  of  Chartham  in  Kent*  the  outlines  of  camps 
are  still  to  be  traced.  GRAVENHILL  is  also  the  legendary 
scene  of  a  battle  with  the  Danes.  It  is  surrounded  with 
entrenchments,  and  is  covered  with  mounds,  which  are 
probably  the  graves  of  the  fallen  warriors.®  At  DANES 
GRAVES  on  the  Yorkshire  wolds  numerous  small  tumuli 
are  still  visible.^  The  name  of  DANESFORD,  in  Shrop- 
shire, is  supposed  to  be  a  memorial  of  the  Danes  who 
wintered  at  the  neighbouring  town  of  Quatford  in  the 
year  896.®    dantsey  or  "Danes  Island"  in  Wiltshire, 

^  Gotigh's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  131. 

^  Davies,  in  PhilologUcU  Transactions^  for  1855,  p.  261. 

'  Ibid,  vol,  i.  p.  407. 

*  Ibid.  vol.  i.  p.  90. 

■  Ibid.  vol.  i.  p.  354. 

<  Kennett,  Parochial  AniiquiHeSy  vol.  i.  p.  5a 

7  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegians,  p.  40. 

8  Hartshorae,  Salopia  Antiqua^  p.  260. 


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304  Historic  SiUs» 

was  formerly  the  property  of  the  family  of  the  Easter- 
lings,^  a  name  usually  given  to  the  Vikings  from  the 

Ware  in  Hertfordshire  seems  to  have  been  the  place 
at  which  Alfred  constructed  his  weir  across  the  river  Lea, 
in  order  to  cut  off  the  retreat  of  the  Danish  fleet* 

On  Brent  Knoll  near  Athelney  in  Somersetshire,  is  a 
camp  which  tradition  ascribes  to  Alfred,  and  at  the  foot 
of  the  hill,  half  a  mile  from  its  summit,  stands  the  village 
of  BATTLEBURY.5  There  is  also  a  camp  near  Salisbury 
which  goes  by  the  name  of  BATTLESBURY,  and  there  is 
a  place  called  BATTLEWIC  near  Colchester. 

By  the  side  of  the  Dee  in  Scotland  there  is  an  andent 
earthwork  called  NORMAN  (Northmen's)  DIKES,  in  the 
front  of  which  there  is  a  piece  of  land  which  bears  the 
name  of  BLOODY  stripe.*  Near  Bumham  in  Norfolk 
there  is  a  camp  surrounded  by  tumuli,  the  road  leading 
to  which  goes  by  the  name  of  BLOODGATE.*  At  Chels- 
ham  in  Surrey  there  is  a  Roman  camp  crowning  the 
summit  of  a  knoll  called  BOTLE  or  BATLE  HILL.*  Two 
Roman  camps  in  Forfarshire  go  by  the  names  of  battle 
DIKES  and  WAR  DIKES.'^  There  is  a  camp  near  Cater- 
ham  called  WAR  COPPICE ;  and  the  name  of  caterham 
itself  may  perhaps  be  referred  to  the  Celtic  word  catk, 
battle.  CADBURY,  a  name  which  occurs  in  Somerset- 
shire and  in  Devon,  means  the  "Battle  entrenchment" 

1  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  130. 

•  St.  John,  Four  Conquests,  vol.  i.  pp.  298,  299 ;  Turner,  Angio-Saxons, 
vol.  i.  p.  398  ;  Gough*s  Camden,  voL  ii.  p.  68. 
'  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  L  p.  103. 
4  Chalmers,  Caledonia^  voL  1.  p.  125. 
»  Cough's  Camden,  voL  ii.  p.  197, 
«  Ibid.  vol.  i.  p.  256. 
Chalmers,  Caledonia,  voL  i.  pp.  148,  176. 


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Eponyntic  Names,  305 

CATERTHUN,  a  remarkable  Celtic  fortress  which  over- 
looks Strathmore,  is  no  doubt  **  Battle  Hill."  The 
numerous  Cat  Stanes  in  Scotland  are  supposed  to  be 
memorials  of  battles.  Such  are  the  CATT  STANE  in 
Kirkliston  parisUt  and  the  CAIG  STONE  near  Edinburgh.* 
From  the  Anglo-Saxon  campy  battle,  we  have  a  few  names 
like  CAMPTON  and  KEMPSTON  in  Bedfordshire.* 

In  the  case  of  several  of  these  battle-fields  we  find 
traditions  which  assign  a  local  habitation  to  the  names 
of  British  chieftains  or  Anglo-Saxon  kings.  It  is  pos- 
sible that  in  some  of  these  instances  minute  fragments 
of  historic  truth  have  been  conserved,  but  it  is  needless 
to  say  that  the  greatest  caution  must  be  exercised  as  to 
the  conclusions  which  we  allow  ourselves  to  draw.  The 
traditions  are  generally  vague  and  obscure,  and  the 
personages  whose  names  are  associated  with  these  sites 
have  often  only  a  mythical,  or,  to  speak  technically,  an 
eponymic  existence.  This  convenient  phrase  is  used  to 
convey  the  suggestion  that  a  personal  name  has  been 
evolved  by  popular  speculation  to  account  for  some  geo- 
graphical term,  the  true  meaning  of  which  has  not  been 

A  full  discussion  of  this  subject  would  form  a  curious 
and  important  chapter  in  what  we  may  call  the  history 
of  History. 

Most  nations  have  supposed  themselves  to  be  de- 
scended from  some  mythical  or  eponymic  ancestor.  The 
Lydians,  the  Phoenicians,  the   Pelasgians,  the  Dorians, 

1  The  name  of  the  Caturiges,  "  the  battle  kings/  and  the  personal  names 
of  Catullus,  Cadwallon,  Cadwallader,  St.  Chad,  and  Katleen,  contain  this 
word.  See  Zeuss,  Grammatica  Cdtica,  vol.  i.  p.  6  ;  Yonge,  Christian  Namesy 
vol.  ii.  p.  93  ;  Wilson,  Pre-histaric  Annals  of  Scotland^  pp.  95,  412  ;  Monk- 
faotise.  Etymologies^  p.  58. 

*  Monkhonse,  Etymologies^  pp.  6,  20. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

3o6  Historic  Sites. 

the  iEolians,  the  Hellenes,  the  Sicilians,  and  the  Italians, 
have  respectively  traced  themselves  to  mythical  per- 
sonages whom  they  called  Lydus,  Phcenix,  Pelasgus, 
Dorus,  iEolus,  Hellen,  Siculus,  and  Italus.  Rome  was 
said  to  have  been  built  by  Romulus;  Nineveh  by 
Ninus ;  Memphis  by  Menes.  When  we  come  down  to 
a  later  time  we  are  encountered  by  the  still  more 
extravagant  absurdities  which  fill  the  pages  of 
Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  Layamon,  Wace,  Matthew 
Paris,  and  Matthew  of  Westminster,  by  whom  the 
origin  of  all  the  nations  and  cities  of  Europe  is  traced 
to  heroes  of  the  Trojan  war.  We  are  gravely  told  that 
France  takes  its  name  from  Francus,  a  son  of  Hector, 
and  Britain  from  Brute,  Prydain,  or  Pryd,  a  son  of 
-^neas ;  that  Lisbon  (OUsipo)  was  built  by  Ulysses ; 
and  Paris  by  the  well-known  son  of  Priam.  Tours  was 
the  burial-place  of  a  Trojan  named  Turonus,  and  Troyes 
was,  of  course,  a  colony  from  Troy.  Nuremberg  was 
built  by  Nero,  and  Prussia  takes  its  name  from  one 
Prussus,  a  brother  of  Augustus.  But  these  are  modest 
pretensions  when  compared  with  that  of  the  Scots,  who 
claimed  to  be  descended  from  Scota,  a  daughter  of 
Pharaoh,  while  the  Saracens  are  assigned  to  Sarah  the 
wife  of  Abraham.^ 

These  wild   absurdities   are   mostly  the   creation    of 
authors  of  a  late  date,  and  seldom  conceal  any  esoteric 

1  See  a  series  of  papers  by  Pott,  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift  fur  VergUicK 
Sprachforschung^  entitled  "Mytho-Etymologie;"  Grimm,  Geschichie  d, 
DaU,  Spr.  pp.  776,  784  ;  Buckle,  History  of  Crvilization^  vol.  i.  pp.  2S4 — 
286,  295 ;  Wright,  on  "Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,"  Essays^  vol.  i.  p.  ai6  ; 
Lewis,  Credibility  of  Early  Roman  History^  vol.  i.  p.  278;  Welsford,  Engiisk 
Long*^g^%  PP*  6 — 16 ;  Movers,  Die  Fhonizier,  part  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  297  ;  Ver- 
siegsm^  Restitution^  p.  102;  Davies,  Celtic  Researches^  pp.  167,  169;  Butt- 
mann,  Mythologus,  vol.  i.pp.  219 ;  vol.  ii.  pp.  172 — 193. 


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Myths  of  early  English  History.  yyj 

truths.  The  case  is  often  different  with  the  earliest 
legends.  Thus  we  are  told  that  Pedias  was  the  wife  of 
Cranaus,  one  of  the  mythical  kings  of  Attica.  Under 
this  disguise  we  recognise  a  statement  of  the  fact  that 
Attica  is  formed  by  the  union  of  the  mountain  district 
(xpava^,  rocky),  and  the  plain  (TreStay,  level).^ 

But  the  extravagances  of  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  or 
the  more  recondite  myths  of  Grecian  history,  concern  us 
less  nearly  than  the  eponymic  names  which  fill  the 
earlier  pages  of  Beda  and  the  Saxon  Chronicle.  These 
narratives  are  still  regarded  as  historical  by  the  great 
mass  of  half-educated  Englishmen,'  who  seem  to  have 
hardly  a  conception  that,  in  the  ordinary  school  histories 
of  England,  the  chapter  "  On  the  arrival  of  the  Saxons** 
relates  the  deeds  of  personages  who,  in  all  probability, 
have  only  an  eponymic  existence. 

To  take  a  few  instances.  The  name  of  PORTSMOUTH 
undoubtedly  dates  from  the  time  when  the  commodious 
harbour  was  used  as  a  porttis  by  the  Romans.  But 
when  we  read  in  the  Saxon  Chronicle  that  Portsmouth 
derives  its  name  from  a  Saxon  chieftain  of  the  name  of 
Port,  who  landed  there,  we  conclude  at  once  that  the 
name  of  Port  is  eponymic,  that  no  such  personage  ever 
existed  except  in  the  imagination  of  some  early  histori- 
cal speculator.  Again,  CARISBROOKE,  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  was  anciently  written  Wiht-gara-byrig,  Respect- 
ing the  etymology  of  this  name  there  can  be  little 
doubt.^     Wiht  is   a   corruption   of  Vectis,  the   Roman 

^  See  a  paper  by  J.  K[enriclc],  in  the  Philological  Museum^  vol.  ii.  p.  359; 
Pott,  "Mytho-Etymologie,"  in  Kuhn*s  Zeitschrift,  vol.  ix.  p.  403. 

«  A  well-known  M.P.  has  lately,  before  a  London  audience,  gravely  re- 
produced the  still  more  extravagant  absurdities  of  Layamon  and  Geoffrey  as 
veritable  English  history ! 

*  Seep.  ^, supra. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

3o8  Historic  Sites. 

name  of  the  island.  The  inhabitants  of  the  island  would 
be  called  Wiht-ware,  and  the  chief  town  of  the  island 
would  be  called  Wiht-gara-byrig^  *'the  burgh  of  the 
men  of  Wight,"  just  as  Canterbury,  or  Cant-wara-byrig, 
is  "the  burgh  of  the  men  of  Kent."  But  when  the 
Saxon  Chronicle  asserts  that  Wiht-gara-byrig  was  the 
burgh  of  a  Saxon  chief  named  Wihtgar,  who  was  buried 
there,  we  can  entertain  no  doubt  that  the  name  of  Wiht- 
gar, like  that  of  Port,  is  eponymic.^  But  we  should 
undoubtedly  be  wrong  were  we  to  extend  our  scepticism 
to  some  other  cases.  For  instance,  we  read  in  a  later 
and  more  historical  portion  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  and 
in  the  Latin  version  which  bears  the  name  of  Florence, 
that  King  Harthacnut  drank  himself  to  death  at  a  feast 
which  Osgod  Clapha,  one  of  the  great  nobles  of  Wessex, 
gave  in  his  house  at  Lambeth  to  celebrate  the  marriage 
of  his  daughter  Gytha  with  Tovi  the  Proud.  In  this 
case  there  is  a  very  high  probability  that  the  London 
suburb  of  CLAPHAM  takes  its  name  from  the  ham  of  the 
Saxon  thane. 

Or  to  take  another  case  of  a  somewhat  different  cha- 
racter. Near  Christchurch,  in  Hampshire,  there  is  a 
place  called  TYRRELL'S  FORD,  around  which  a  tradition 
used  to  linger  that  here  Tyrrell  passed  on  the  day  of 
the  death  of  Rufus.*  There  is  nothing  intrinsically  im- 
probable about  this  tradition,  and  Tyrrell  is  certainly 
not  an  eponymus.  We  may  even  go  so  far  as  to  lend 
an  ear  to  the  assertion  that  Jack  Cade  was  killed  at  CAT 
STREET,  near  Heathfield  in  Sussex — especially  when  we 
find  that  the  name  was  anciently  written  Cade  Street' 

1  See  Latbam,  En^ish  Language,  vol.  L  pp.  37 — 40. 
'  Aubrey,  quoted  in  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  187. 
•  Ibid,  vol  i.  p.  295. 


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Hengist  and  Horsa.  309 

Bearing  in  mind,  then,  the  necessity  of  great  caution 
as  to  the  eponymic  character  of  many  of  the  heroes 
who  figure  in  Beda  and  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  we  may 
proceed  to  enumerate  a  few  of  the  more  conspicuous  of 
the  localized  traditions  of  the  Saxon  conquest. 

Whether  tht  names  of  Hengist  and  Horsa  are  wholly 
eponymic,  or  whether  there  remains  a  substratum  of 
historic  fact,  after  all  due  concessions  have  been  made 
to  the  demands  of  modem  criticism,  is  a  question  re- 
specting which  scholars  are  not  agreed.     But  we  find 
their  names  in  many  places.    Thus  at  HEliGlSTBURY 
HEAD  on  the  Hampshire  coast,  there  is  a  large  funeral 
barrow  protected  by  an  entrenchment ;  and  a  tumulus 
of  flints  at  HORSTED,  in  Sussex,  is  said  to  mark  the 
sepulchre  of  Horsa.^    There  is  also  a  mound  near  the 
castle  wall  of  Conisbrough  which  bears  the  name  of 
Hengist.     Camden  asserts  that  it  was  his  tomb ;  and 
we  learn  from  Polydore  Virgil  that  in  the  sixteenth 
century  a  local  tradition  still  survived  respecting  a  great 
battle  which  had  been  fought  upon  the  spot.*     Henry 
of  Huntingdon  informs   us  that   Hengist  and.  Horsa 
fought  a  battle  with  the  Picts  and  Scots  at  Stamford,  in 
Lincolnshire.     A  local  tradition  affirms  that  the  Saxons 
came  from  Kent  by  sea,  and  landed  near  Peterborough, 
after  sailing  up  the  Nene.     This  tradition  is  supported 
by  the  fact,  that  at  about  two  miles  from  Peterborough 
there  is  an  ancient  entrenchment  which  goes  by  the  name 
of  HORSEY  HILL.^    There  is  a  camp  near  Chesterford  in 

1  Lappcnberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  voL  i.  p.  72  ;  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  u 
pp.  3",  336. 

s  Haigh,  Conquest  of  Britain,  p.  257.  This  is  an  uncritical  work,  but 
contains  a  large  store  of  carefully  collected,  and  sometimes  valuable  facts. 

»  Ibid,  p,  209. 


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310  Historic  Sites, 

Essex,  called  HINGESTON  barrows.^  We  have  also  the 
names  of  HINKSEY  near  Oxford,  anciently  Hengestesige  ; 
HENSTRIDGE  in  Somerset,  anciently  Hengestesricg ;^ 
HINXWORTH  in  Hertfordshire,  dincicxitXy  Haingesteworde; 
and  HENGESTON,  anciently  Hengestesduriy  in  Cornwall. 
There  are  many  other  names  of  the  same  class.  The 
numerous  Horsleys  and  Hinkleys,'  are  probably  only 
forest  leys  or  pastures  for  horse  or  steed  {hengst).  Other 
names,  such  as  two  Horsteads  in  Sussex,  and  one  in  Nor- 
folk, Horsham  in  Sussex  and  in  Norfolk,  Horsey  in  Nor- 
folk, and  Horsell  in  Sussex,  certainly  seem  specially  to  con- 
nect some  person,  or  persons,  bearing  the  name  of  Horsa 
with  the  two  English  counties  of  Sussex  and  Norfolk.* 

According  to  the  Saxon  Chronicle  the  kingdom  of 
the  South  Saxons  was  founded  by  iElle  and  his  three 
sons,  Cymen,  Wlencing,  and  Cissa.  If  these  names  are 
not  altogether  eponymic,  as  is  probably  the  case,  the 
account  in  the  Chronicle  receives  very  remarkable  con- 
firmation from  local  names.  The  landing  is  said  to 
have  taken  place  at  KEYNOR  in  Selsea,  anciently  Cymenes- 
ora^  or  Cymen's  shore,  where  we  may  suppose  the 
eldest  son  was  left  to  guard  the  ships  while  the  father 
and  the  brothers  advanced  into  the  interior.'    We  find 

^  GongVs  Camden,  voL  ii.  p.  141. 

*  Codex  Dipt.  No.  1002. 

s  Horsley  in  Surrey  and  Derby,  Horseley  in  Gloucester  and  Stafford,  and 
three  in  Northumberland ;  Hursley  in  Hants  (Horsanleah,  Cod,  Dipt, 
Na  180),  and  Hinkley  in  Leicester. 

4  We  have  also  Hinxton  in  Cambridgeshire,  Hensting  in  Hants,  Hincks- 
ford  in  Stafford,  Hinxhill  in  Kent,  Hinckford  in  Essex,  Hinchcliff  in 
Yorkshire,  as  well  as  Horsey  Isle  in  Essex,  Horsall  in  Surrey,  Horsdun  in 
Hants,  and  many  other  similar  names.  See  Haigh,  Conqutst  of  Britain^ 
p.  151. 

*  See  Dugdale,  MonaH,  Ang,  vol.  vi.  p.  1163  ;  Cod,  Dipl,  Na  992. 

*  CUMNOR  in  Berks  was  anciently  Ctanenora,  Cod,  Dipt,  No.  214; 
Di^dale,  Afonast.  Ang.  vol.  i.  p.  527. 


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Cissa  and  Cerdic,  3 1 1 

the  name  of  iElle  at  ELSTEAD  in  Sussex  and  ELSTEAD 
in  Surrey.^  The  name  of  LANCING  near  Shoreham  is 
certainly  very  remarkably  coincident  with  that  of  Wlen- 
cing.  The  name  of  Cissa  may  be  sought  at  CISSBURY,  a 
rude  camp  on  a  lofty  hill  near  Worthing,^  as  well  as 
at  another  camp  in  Wiltshire  called  CHISBURY ;  also 
at  CISSANHAM^  in  Hampshire,  and  at  CHICHESTER, 
anciently  Cissan-ceastery  the  "  fortress  of  Cissa,"  who, 
according  to  the  Chronicle,  succeeded  in  taking  the  old 
Roman  city,  and  made  it  the  capital  of  his  kingdom  of 
the  South  Saxons.* 

The  kingdom  of  Wessex  was  founded,  we  are  told,  by 
Cerdic,  through  whom  Queen  Victoria  claims  to  be 
lineally  descended  from  Woden !  The  name  of  Cerdic 
we  find  at  charford,  anciently  Cerdices-ford,  where 
was  fought  the  decisive  battle  which  gave  the  Saxons 
the  supremacy  as  far  west  as  the  Hampshire  Avon.^ 
The  name  of  LICHMERE,  the  moor  of  corpses,  not  far 
from  Charford,  seems  to  mark  the  precise  locality  of  the 
struggle,  and  is  of  a  more  historic  character  than  many 
of  the  rest*    The  nephew  of  Cerdic  was  the  eponymic 

^  There  was  another  iElIe,  foander  of  the  Anglian  kingdom  of  North- 
nmbria.  To  him  we  may  perhaps  refer  Ellakirk,  EUaby,  EUard,  Ellerbeck, 
'Ellerbum,  and  other  Yorkshire  names.  Ellescroft  is  said  to  be  the  burial 
place  of  the  iElle  who  was  killed  in  a  battle  with  Regner  Lodbrook. 
'Woraaae,  Dams,  p.  33. 

•  Gough*s  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  27a 
»  Codex  Diplom,  No.  658. 

•  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  i.  pp.  104 — 106 ;  Saxon  Chronicle, 
A-D.  490.     There  are  the  remains  of  a  Saxon  camp  at  Chichester. 

'  Saxon  Chronicle,  A.D.  519;  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  i. 
p.  109.  The  locality  of  Cerdices-ora,  where  the  Chronicle  (a.d.  514)  asserts 
that  Cerdic  landed,  has  not  been  satisfactorily  identified.  Perhaps  it  may 
be  Charmouth  in  Dorset.  See  Haigh,  Conquest  rf  Britain,  p.  312 ;  Turner, 
Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  i.  p.  271. 

•  Gough*s  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  178. 


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3 1 2  Historic  SiUs. 

Wihtgar  of  Carisbrooke  Castle,  whose  claims  to  an  his- 
torical existence  have  already  been  discussed. 

In  SEWARDSTONE  near  Waltham  Abbey  we  have, 
perhaps,  the  name  of  Seward,  king  of  the  East  Saxons ; 
and  Offa,  another  king  of  the  same  people,  had  a  palace 
and  a  tomb  at  OFFLEY  near  Hitchin.^  Another  Offa,  king 
of  the  Mercians,  had  a  palace  at  OFFENHAM  in  Wor- 
cestershire, and  in  773  he  is  said  to  have  gained  a  victory 
over  Eadmund,  king  of  Kent,  at  OTFORD  on  the  Darent 
The  name  of  Wuffa,  king  of  the  East  Angles,  may 
perhaps  be  found  at  UFFORD  in  Suffolk,  rendlesham, 
in  the  same  county,  was  in  the  seventh  century  the  resi- 
dence of  Redwald,  another  king  of  the  East  Angles. 
Among  other  Anglian  traditions  we  are  told  that  king 
Atla  of  Norfolk  was  the  founder  of  attlebury,*  and 
that  the  name  of  Bebbe,  the  queen  of  Ida  of  Northum- 
bria,  is  to  be  found  in  Bebban-burh,  npw  BAMBOROUGH, 
near  Berwick-upon-Tweed.*  Oswald,  a  Christian  prince 
of  Mercia,  gave  his  name  to  OSWESTRY.  The  strong 
natural  fortress  of  EDINBURGH  bears  the  name  of  Edwin, 
king  of  Northumbria,  who  extended  his  kingdom  to  the 
shores  of  the  Forth.* 

Ammianus  Marcellinus,  a  more  trustworthy  authority 
than  the  earlier  portion  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  says, 
that  Valentinian  sent  over  to  Britian  one  Fraomarius, 
the  king  of  the  Bucinobantes,  an  Alemannic  tribe  near 
Mayence.  These  names  are  perhaps  preserved  at 
BRAMERTON  and  four  BUCKENHAMS,  all  in  Norfolk.* 

^  Knapp,  English  Roots^  pp.  ii,  12  ;  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  66. 
'  Lappenbeig,  Angio-Saxon  Kings^  vol.  i.  p.  Ii6, 
'  Ibid.  p.  119;  Saxon  Chronicle^  a.d.  547, 

*  Dbcon,  Fasti  Ebor,  vol.  i.  p.  44, 

•  Haigh,  Conquest,"^,  163, 


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McLes  Garmoiu  313 

Attempts  have  been  made  to  identify  the  spots  selected 
for  an  abode  by  other  less  distinguished  settlers.  The 
results  are  of  course  highly  conjectural,  to  say  the  least, 
but  they  are  perhaps  sufficiently  curious  to  justify  the 
insertion  of  a  few  specimens  in  a  note.^ 

The  British  traditions  conserved  in  local  names  are 
often  more  trustworthy  than  those  of  the  Saxon  period. 
There  is  a  high  probability  that  MAES  GARMON  near 
Mold  was  the  scene  of  the  famous  Alleluia  victory,  which 
was  obtained  by  St.  Garmon  over  the  Picts.  The  good 
bishop  placed  the  members  of  his  church  militant  in 
ambush,  and  when  the  invaders  were  fairly  entangled  in 
the  intricacies  of  the  valley,  a  loud  shout  of  Alleluia 
from  the  Welsh  created  a  panic  which  enabled  them  to 
gain  an  easy  but  decisive  victory.^ 

^  Thus  we  have — 
Personal  name.                 Ancient  local  name.  Modem  local  name. 

I  Hannodestone  {Domesday)  ....  Harmstone,  Lincoln, 
Heremod  .  }  Hermodesthorpe  (Domesday)     •     •     .  Harmthorpe,  Lincoln, 
(  Hennodesworde  (Domesday)     .    .     ♦  Harmondswortb,^7V. 
Heorogar  .     Herigerby  (Domesday) Harrowby,  Lincoln, 

IHelgiby  (Domesday) Hellaby,  Yorks, 
Helgefelt  (Domesday) Hellifield,  Yorks. 
Halgefonie(CW:/?i>.No.483)     .     .  HaUiford,  iV/*/. 
Halganstok  (Cod,  Dip,  No.  701)    .     .  Halstock,  Dorset. 
Wsermund    5  Waermundeshlaew(Ci7</.Z>/j^.No.  1368)  Warmlow,  Worces. 
'  {  Wsermundesham  ( CW.  Dip,  No.  18.) .  Mimdham,  Sussex. 
Scylf     .     .     Scylftun(an/.Z>i>.  No.  775)     .     .     .  ShJlton,  Ox/ord. 
Bcdca  .     .     Bedan  ford  (Saxon  Chronicle)    .     ,     .  Bedford. 
Childeric   .     Hildericesham  (Domesday)  ....  Hildersham,  York. 

At  Navistock,  in  Essex,  and  Navesby,  in  Northamptonshire,  we  seem  to 
have  a  name  like  that  of  Hnsef,  which  we  find  in  the  Traveller's  Tale.  At 
Ripley,  in  Yorkshire,  we  have  a  founder  Hryp,  and  there  are  also  local 
names  which  have  been  supposed  to  refer  to  the  semi-historic  personages 
who  were  called  Air,  Beonset,  Beowa,  Brada,  Cynfar,  Fear,  Hlyd,  Hraefii, 
Hungar,  Naegel,  Pendere,  Sumser,  &c — See  Haigh,  Conquest,  pp.  150 — 160. 
•  Beda,  Hist,  Ecc,  book  i.  cap.  20;  Haigh,  Conqtust,  p.  238;  St.  John, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

3 14  Historic  Sites. 

The  CARADOC,  the  most  picturesque  of  the  Shropshire 
hills,  is  crowned  by  an  earthwork  bearing  the  name  of 
Caer  Cafadoc,  and  here,  as  tradition  affirms,  was  the 
stronghold  of  Caractacus.^ 

A  camp  near  Verulamium,  called  OISTER  HILLS,  has 
been  supposed  to  bear  the  name  of  the  Roman  general 
Ostorius,^  and  we  have  a  CiESAR's  CAMP  near  Famham, 
and  a  Vespasian's  camp  in  Wiltshire. 

Chilham  in  Kent  was  anciently  called  7«/ham,  and 
is  supposed  to  be  the  site  of  the  battle  fought  by  Julius 
Caesar,  in  which  Laberius  was  slain.  This  supposition  is 
curiously  corroborated  by  a  tradition  which  calls  a  large 
tumulus  in  the  neighbourhood  by  the  name  of  JU LASER'S 

According  to  the  Chronicles,  it  fell  to  the  lot  of 
Catigern,  a  Kentish  chieftain,  to  oppose  the  earliest 
invasion  of  the  Saxons.  We  are  told  that  he  fought  a 
battle  with  the  forces  of  Hengist  and  Horsa,  in  the 
neighbourhood  ojf  Aylesford.  On  the  summit  of  the 
downs  which  overlook  the  battle-field,  there  is  a  Celtic 
tomb,  constructed  of  vast  Vertical  and  horizontal  slabs  of 
sandstone.  This,  the. mpst  remarkable  megalithic  erec- 
tion in  the  south-eastern  portion  of  the  kingdom,  goes 
by  the  name  of  KITS  COTY  HOUSE,  and  may  not  impro- 
bably bear  the  name  of  the  British  prince.* 

Four  Conquests  of  England,   vol.    L    p.    $6;    Recs,    Welsh  Sam/s,  pp. 

121,  122.  ' 

^  The  real  name  of  Caractacas  was  probably  Cradock,  which  is  sttD  a 
common  surname  in  the  West  of  England. 

•  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  pp.  63,  73;  Hartshome,  Salopia  AnHqua^ 

p.  153. 

'  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  pp.  313,  353. 

*  Lappenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  i.  p.  73 ;  Gongh's  Camden,  voL  i. 


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British  Chief s.  315 

We  also  read  that  the  body  of  Ambrosius,  the  successor 
of  Vortigem,  was  buried,  according  to  his  dying  request, 
at  AMBRESBURY  on  Salisbury  Plain.i 

In  the  year  945  the  British  population  of  Cumbria, 
under  a  chief  who  bore  the  name  of  Donald,  made  a 
final  and  unsuccessful  attempt  to  shake  off  the  Saxon 
yoke.  A  cairn  at  the  summit  of  the  desolate  pass  which 
leads  from  Keswick  to  Ambleside  is  called  DUNMAIL- 
RAISE,  and  in  all  probability  it  marks  the  precise  scene 
of  the  struggle  with  Eadmund,  as  well  as  the  burial- 
place  of  the  British  leader.* 

In  Stratheam  there  is  a  barrow  which  goes  by  the 
name  of  CARN-CHAINICHIN,  that  is,  the  Cairn  of  Ken- 
neth. This  name  no  doubt  preserves  the  memory  of  the 
burial-place  of  Kenneth  IV.  of  Scotland,  who  in  the  year 
1003  was  slain  by  Malcolm  II.  in  a  battle  which  was  un- 
doubtedly fought  in  the  near  neighbourhood  of  the  cairn.' 

An  entrenchment  on  Barra  Hill  in  Aberdeenshire 
bears  the  name  of  CUMMIN'S  CAMP,  and  thus  preserves 
the  memory  of  the  defeat  of  Comyn,  Earl  of  Buchan,  by 
Robert  Bruce;*  while  DALRY,  the  "kings  field,"  is  the 
spot  where  John  of  Lorn  defeated  Bruce,  and  from 
whence  he  tracked  him  with  blood-hounds,  as  is  so 
inimitably  told  in  the  "  Tales  of  a  Grandfather."  * 

The  names  of  GIBRALTAR  and  TARIFA  have  already 
been  noticed.*    valetta,  the  port  and  chief  town  of 

1  Haigh,  Conquest  of  Britain^  p.  264.     There  is  a  large  camp  in  Epping 
Forest  called  Ambresbury  Banks. 

*  Palgrave,  Engiish  Commonwealth^  vol.  1.  p.  442  ;  Fe]*giison,  Northmen 
in  Cumberland^  pp.  15,  57. 

'  Chalmers,  CaUdoniay  voL  i  p.  397. 

*  Ibid.  vol.  L  p.  90. 

*  Skene,  History  of  the  Highlanders^  vol.  ii.  p.  109. 

*  See  p.  104,  supra^ 


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3 1 6  Historic  Sites. 

Malta,  preserves  the  name  of  John  Parisol  de  la  Vallefte, 
the  heroic  Grand  Master  of  the  Knights  of  St  John* 
Together  with  the  suburb  of  VITTORIOSA  it  was  founded 
in  the  year  1566,  at  the  close  of  the  memorable  siege  in 
which  some  500  knights,  assisted  by  9,000  men  at  arms, 
successfully  withstood  for  four  months  the  assaults  of  an 
army  of  30,000  Turks,  until  at  last  there  survived  only 
600  of  the  Christians,  utterly  worn  out  by  the  toils  and 
perils  of  the  siege,^ 

The  rulers  of  the  ancient  world  seem  to  have  anxiously 
desired  to  stamp  their  names  upon  cities  of  their  own 
creation.  Of  the  fifteen  cities  upon  which  Alexander  the 
Great  bestowed  his  name,  only  six  retain  it,  and  only 
two  still  possess  any  geographical  importance.  The 
name  of  Alexandria  in  Egypt  has  been  corrupted  into 
the  Arabic  form  of  ISCANDERIEH,  and  Alexandria  in 
Bokhara  is  now  SAMERCAND.  The  city  of  Alexandria 
which  was  built  near  the  battle-field  of  Issus,  though 
now  a  miserable  village,  has  given  a  name  to  the  Bay  of 


CANDAHAR  Still  maintain  an  obscure  existence.* 

Antiochus  and  Seleucus,  and  the  princes  of  their 
dynasties,  followed  the  example  of  their  great  captain, 
but  while  the  once  important  name  of  SELEUCIA*  has 

^  Porter,  Knights  of  Malta,  vol.  iL  pp.  70 — 166.  One  of  the  gates  of 
Valetta  is  called  the  Port  des  Bombea,  from  its  bearing  the  marks  of  the 
cannonade  which  took  place  when  the  French  were  attacked  by  the  English 
and  Maltese. 

'  ALESSANDRIA,  an  important  fortress  in  Piedmont,  takes  its  name  from 
a  Roman  Pope.  Several  places  in  Russia  and  Siberia  are  called  alxxan- 
DROV  and  Alexandria,  from  the  Russian  Emperor.  See  Yonge,  Christian 
Nanus^  voL  L  p.  200. 

*  There  were  seven  cities  called  Seleucia.  The  only  one  that  retains  the 
name  is  Seleucia  in  Cilicia,  now  Selefkieh. 


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AlexamUr — Casar — Augustus.  317 

vanished  from  the  map,  Antioch,i  now  ANTAKIEH,  still 
ranks  among  the  cities  of  the  East. 

Philippi,  now  FELIBEDJIK,  built  by  the  father  of  Alex- 
ander, would  be  now  forgotten  were  it  not  for  the  epistle 
addressed  by  St.  Paul  to  its  inhabitants;  and  the 
mention  of  PHILADELPHIA  in  the  Apocalypse  still  causes 
us  to  bear  in  mind  that  it  was  built  by  Attalus  Phila- 
delphus,  king  of  Pergamus. 

The  names  of  the  Roman  Emperors  are  scattered 
over  Europe,  and  some  of  them  are  found  under  very 
curious  phonetic  disguises.  Who  would  expect,  for  in- 
stance, to  find  the  name  of  Caesar  in  JERSEY,  a  name 
which  nevertheless  is  probably  a  corruption  of  Csesarea.^* 
In  the  East  the  phonetic  changes  have  been  less;  the 
Oesareas  in  Palestine  and  Cilicia  are  now  called  KAIS- 
ARIYEH ;  and  KESRI,  on  the  Dardanelles,  is  probably  a 
corruption  of  the  same  name.  The  city  of  Caesarea  Jol, 
built  by  Juba  in  honour  of  Augustus,  is  now  ZERSHELL 
in  Algeria.'  Two  of  the  most  curious  of  these  transmu- 
tations are  Caesarea  Augusta  into  zaragossa,  and  Pax 
Augusta  into  BADAJOZ.  Augusta  Emerita  has  been 
clipped  down  into  MERIDA.  Augustodunum  is  now 
AUTUN,  and  Augusta  is  aosta  and  AUGIA.  We  find 
the  same  Imperial  name  preserved  in  AUGSBURG,  AUGST 
in   Canton   BAle  and   Canton   Zurich,*  AOUST  in   the 

1  There  were  ten  cities  called  Antiochia. 

a  The  names  of  guernsey  and  Cherbourg  are  possibly  to  be  traced  to 
a  similar  origin,  as  well  as  Jerbourg  in  Guernsey ;  though  it  is  more  pro- 
bable that  the  first  is  Norse,  and  that  the  root  of  the  two  latter  is  the  Celtic 
word  CVmt.  Latham,  Channel  Isles,  pp.  429,  452  5  Notes  and  Queries, 
second  series,  vol  vl  p.  163. 

•  Smith,  Dictionary  of  Greek  and  Roman  Geography,  a.  v.  Jol ;  Quarterly 
Review,  xcix.  p.  341. 

^  Meyer  doubts  this.     See  Ortsnamen  des  JC,  Zurich^  p.  76. 


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3 1 9  Historic  Sites] 

department  of  the  Dr6me,  AUCH  near  Toulouse,  and 
the  AUST  passage  over  the  Severn. 

The  names  of  Julius  and  Julia  we  have  in  LOUDON 
(Juliodunum),  BEJA  in  Portugal  (Pax  Julia),  TRUXILLO 
in  Spain  (Turris  Julia,  or  Castra  Julia),  JOLICH  or 
JULIERS  (Juliacum),  the  valley  of  ZSIL  (Julia)  in  Hun- 
gary, pronounced  Jil,  ZUGLIO  (Julium),  ITUCCI,  (Victus 
Julius),  and  LILLEBONNE  (Julia  bona);  while  FRIULI, 
FORLI,  and  FREJUS  are  all  corruptions  of  Forum  Julii. 
bear  the  names  of  the  Emperors  Aurelian,  Valentinian, 
Gratian,  and  Hadrian,  by  whom  they  were  respectively 
founded  or  rebuilt  Forum  Aurelii  is  now  FIORA,  Aurelia 
is  ORLEANS,^  Claudii  Forum  is  KLAGENFURT,  and  PAM- 
PELUNA  and  LODI  (Laus  Pompeii)  bear  the  name  of 
Pompey.  TIBERIAS,  in  Palestine,  was  built  by  the 
younger  Herod  (Antipas)  in  honour  of  his  imperial 
friend  and  master.  Constantius  Chlorus  gave  his  name 
to  CONSTANCE  or  CONSTANTZ  on  the  Boden  See,  and  to 
COUTANCES  (Constantia)  in  Normandy,  where  Roman 
antiquities  are  still  occasionally  found.  The  surrounding 
district,  now  called  the  C6TANTIN,  exhibits  very  curiously 
a  parallel  but  independent  corruption  of  the  name  Con- 
stantinum.  KUSTENDJE  is  the  Turkish  corruption  of 
Constantiana.  CONSTANTINEH  is  the  strongest  place 
In  Algeria.  Constantine,  the  son  of  Constantius,  had  a 
palace  a  few  miles  from  Treves,  at  a  place  fiow  called 
CONZ,  a  name  which,  after  a  long  eclipse,  is  again  becom- 
ing audible  among  men,  in  the  novel  character  of  a  great 
railway  junction.  I  could  not  but  think,  as  I  once 
whiled  away  a  tedious  hour  in  the  waiting-room  at  Conz, 

^  The  form  of  the  modem  name  suggests  that  the  place  must  have  onli- 
narily  been  called  Aureliana,  rather  than  Aurelia. 


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Emperors  and  Kings,  3 19 

of  the  waiting-rooms  on  the  same  spot  once  thronged  by 
the  nobles  of  Western  Europe,  worshipping  the  rising 
sun,  who  was  afterwards  to  imprint  his  name  on  CON- 
STANTINOPLE, the  new  capital  of  the  Roman  world. 

Of  the  modem  cities  which  are  thus  inscribed  with 
the  dates  of  their  foundation,  ST.  PETERSBURG  and 
VICTORIA,  the  capitals  of  two  distant  empires,  occur  at 
once  to  the  memory.  EKATERINENBURG  was  founded 
by  the  great  Empress  Catherine.  CHRISTIANA,  CHRis- 
TIANSTAD,  and  CHRISTIANSAND,  are  memorials  of  the 
subjection  of  Norway  and  Sweden  to  the  crown  of 
Denmark  in  the  seventeenth  century,  during  the  reign 
of  Christian  IV.  of  Denmark.  The  little  kinglets  of 
Germany,  otherwise  unknown  to  fame,  have  not  been 
slow  in  endeavouring  to  rescue  their  obscure  names 
from  oblivion  by  a  geographical  immortality  of  this 
kind.  As  we  fly  past  upon  the  railway  the  names  of 
WIGSBURG,  or  WILHELMSBAD  may,  perhaps,  induce  the 
traveller  to  endeavour  to  learn  from  his  open  Murray 
the  deeds  of  the  monarchs  who  have  thus  eagerly  striven 
after  fame. 

A  far  more  inconvenient  practice  prevails  in  the 
United  States,  where  the  names  of  popular  Presidents 
have  been  bestowed  so  liberally  on  towns  and  counties 
as  to  occasion  no  little  confusion.  There  are  no  less 
than  169  places  which  bear  the  name  of  Washington,  86 
that  of  Jefferson,  132  that  of  Jackson,  while  Munroe  and 
Harrison  have  respectively  to  be  contented  with  71  and 
62  places  named  in  their  honour.^ 

^  See  Notes  and  Queries^  second  series,  voL  i.  p.  508. 


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320  Sacred  Sites. 



Local  Vestiges  of  Saxon  Heathendom — ThOj  Frea,  Woden^  Thor,  Balder — 
Cettk  Deities— Teutonic  Demigods— Wayland  Smith—Old  Scratch— Old 
Nick — The  Nightmare — Sacred  groves  and  temples — Vestiges  of  Sclat>onic 
Heathendom — The  Classic  Pantheon— Conversion  of  the  Northern  Nations 
•^Paulinus  at  Goodmanham—^*  Uan  "  and  **  Kit''— The  Hermits  of  the 
Hebrides —  Tlie  Local  Saints  of  Wales — Places  of  Pilgrimage —  7^  Monastic 

Day  after  day,  as  the  weeks  run  round,  we  have  obtruded 
upon  our  notice  the  names  of  the  deities  who  were 
worshipped  by  our  pagan  forefathers.  This  heathenism 
is  indeed  so  deeply  ingrained  into  our  speech,  that  we 
are  accustomed  daily,  without  a  thought,  to  pronounce 
the  sacred  names  of  Tiw,  Woden,  Thunor,  Frea,  and 
Saetere.^  These  names  are  so  familiar  to  us,  that  we 
are  apt  to  forget  how  little  is  really  known  of  the  mytho- 
logy of  those  heathen  times.  We  have,  it  is  true, 
Beowulf  and  the  Traveller's  Song,  the  verse  Edda,  and 
other  parallel  Norse  and  Teutonic  legends,  but  the 
Anglo-Saxon  literature  dates  only  from  the  Christian 
period,  and  proceeds  mostly  from  the  pens  of  Church- 

^  On  the  names  of  the  days  of  the  week,  see  Mone,  Gesch,  Heidentkums, 
vol.  ii.  p.  1 10;  Turner,  Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  ii.  p.  217;  Trench,  Stuffy  of 
Words,  p.  93 ;  MUller,  Alt-deut,  Relig,  pp.  86—88 ;  Mannhardt,  Giftter- 
wdt^  vol.  i.  p.  262. 


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The  A  nglo-  Saxon  Deities,  321 

men,  who  naturally  preferred  to  recount  thaumaturgic 
histories  of  Christian  saints,  and  willingly  allowed  the 
pagan  legends  to  die  away  out  of  the  memories  of  men. 
So  small,  in  fact,  are  the  materials  at  pur  disposal  for  an 
account  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Pantheon,  that  the  very 
name  of  Saetere  is  conjectural — it  is  not  found  in  any 
literary  document  till  long  after  the  extinction  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  paganism — and  it  would  almost  appear 
that  the  name,  the  attributes,  and  the  culte  of  this  deity 
have  been  constructed  in  comparatively  recent  times,  in 
order  to  illustrate  the  assumed  etymolc^^  of  the  word 
Saturday.^  Our  knowledge  of  Anglo-Saxon  mythology 
being  thus  scanty,  it  will  bear  to  be  supplemented  by 
the  information  which  may  be  derived  from  local  names. 
We  may,  in  the  first  place,  arrive  at  some  vague 
estimate  of  the  relative  mythological  importance  of  the 
various  Anglo-Saxon  deities  by  means  of  a  comparison 
of  the  number  of  places  which  severally  bear  their  names, 
and  which  were  probably  dedicated  to  their  worship. 
Judging  by  this  standard,  we  conclude  that  Tiw,^  Frea, 

1  That  the  worship  of  Saetere  was  very  local,  appears  also  from  the  fact 
that  Saturday,  as  a  name  for  the  last  day  of  the  week,  is  found  only  in  the 
Frisian,  Anglo-Saxon,  and  other  Low-German  languages.  Laugardagr^ 
the  Norse  equivalent  for .  Saturday,  the  Swedish  Lordag^  and  the  Danish 
and  Norwegian  Loversdag,  mean  the  washing-day,  or  laving-day ;  if, 
indeed,  they  do  not  refer  to  the  Scandinavian  deity  Loki.  See  Grimm, 
Deutsche  Mythologii,  pp.  115,  226 ;  Kemble,  Saxons^  vol.  i.  p.  372;  Yonge, 
ChrUtian  Names^  voL  L  p.  439  ;  Donaldson,  English  Ethnography^  p.  67. 

«  This  word  was  used  as  the  name  of  the  Deity  by  all  the  Aryan  nations. 
The  Sanskrit  dhfa^  the  Greek  M^  the  Latin  detis^  the  Lithuanian  dhvas^ 
the  Erse  dia^  and  the  Welsh  dew  are  all  identical  in  meaning.  The  etymo- 
logy of  the  word  seems  to  point  to  the  corruption  of  a  pure  monotheistic 
£aith«  The  Sanskrit  word  dydtts  means  the  expanse  of  blue  sky,  the 
heaven.  This  sense  is  retained  in  the  Latin  word  dies^  and  in  the  phrase 
sub  ycvefVaatit.  open  air.  (Horace,  Odes^  lib.  L  i.  25.)  Jupiter,  Diupiter, 
or  Diespiter,  is  the  "heavenly  father."  See  Pictet,  Orig,  Indo-Eur.  part  ii. 
pp.  653,  663,  664 ;  Bunsen,  Philos,  of  Universal  History^  vol.  L  p.  78  ; 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

322  Sacred  Sites, 

and  Saetere,  had  but  a  small  hold  on  the  religious 
affections  of  the  people,  for  TEWESLEY  in  Surrey,  Great 
TEW  and  TEW  DUNSE  in  Oxfordshire,  TEWIN  in  Hert- 
fordshire, DEWERSTONE^  in  Devon,  frathorpe  and 
FRIDAYTHORPE  2  in  Yorkshire,  FRAISTHORPE  in  Holder- 
ness,  FREASLEY^  in  Warwickshire,  three  FRIDAYSTREETS 
in  Surrey,  and  one  in  Suffolk,  SATTERLEIGH  in  Devon, 
and  SATTERTHWAITE  in  Lancashire,  seem  to  be  the 
only  places  which  bear  their  names. 

But  of  the  prevalence  of  the  worship  of  Woden  and 
Thunor,  we  have  wide-spread  evidence.  WEDNESBURY 
in  Staffordshire,  WISBOROW  Hill  in  Essex,  WANBOROUGH 
in  Surrey,  WANBOROUGH  in  Wilts,  two  WARNBOROUGHS 
in  Hampshire,  WOODNESBOROUGH  in  Kent  *  and  Wilts, 
and  WEMBURY  in  Devon,  are  all  corruptions  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  word  Wodnesbeorh^  a  name  which  indicates 
the  existence  of  a  mound  or  other  similar  erection  dedi- 
cated to  Woden.*    WANSTROW  in  Somerset  was  formerly 

Edinburgh  RevieWy  vol.  xdv.  pp.  334 — 338 ;  Mannhardt,  Cotterwdt^  voL 
i.  pp.  57,  69  ;  Buttmann,  Mythologus,  voL  ii.  p.  74  ;  MiQler,  Ali-dcut.  JRdig, 
pp.  223,  225  ;  Kelly,  Curiosities^  p.  29 ;  Max  MUller,  Lectures,  second 
series,  p.  425. 

1  In  Saxe  Weimar  we  have  Tisdorf  and  Zeisberg ;  in  Hesse,  Diensbexg 
and  Zierenberg  ;  in  Bavaria,  Zierberg ;  in  Zeeland,  Tisvelae ;  in  JuUand, 
Tystathe  and  Tiislunde ;  in  Sweden,  Tistad,  Tisby,  Tisjo,  and  Tyred. 
Grimm,  Deutsche  Mythol,  p.  180 ;  Miiller,  Alt-deut.  Rdigion^  p.  87 ; 
Vilmar,  Ortsnamen,  p.  244 ;  Knobel,  Volkertafel^  p.  41 ;  Mannhardt, 
Gotterwelt,  vol.  i.  p.  262. 

•  An  elaborate  account  of  Frekkenhorst,  a  chief  German  seat  of  the 
worship  of  Frigge,  or  Frea,  is  given  by  Massmann,  in  Dorow*s  DenkmaUr^ 
pp.  199 — ^203.     We  have  also  Frekeleve  near  Magdeburg,  Freyenwald  ou 
the  Oder,  and  Freyenburg  in  Belgium.    MUller,  Alt-deut,  Rd.  p.  121 ; 
Salverte,  Essai  sur  les  Notnsy  vol.  ii.  p.  238. 
8  Fraisthorpe  and  Freasley  are  more  probably  Frisian  settlements. 
*  Close  to  Woodnesborough  is  a  tumulus  called  Winsborough. 
8  Kemble,  Saxons^  vol.  i.  p.  344 ;  Haigh,  Conquest  of  Britain^  p.  141 ; 
^Ionis,  Local  Names^  p.  8 ;  Guest,  in  Archecolog.  Joumaly  voL  xvL  p.  107. 


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Local  Vestiges  of  Saxon  Heathendom,  323. 

Wodnestreow,  and  WAKSDIKE  in  Wiltshire  was  Wodnes* 
die.  WODEN  HILL  on  Bagshot  Heath,  WONSTON  in 
Hampshire,  WAMBROOK  in  Dorset,  WEDNESHOUGH  in 
Lancashire,  WAMPOOL  in  Cumberland,  WANSFORD  in 
Northamptonshire,  and  another  place  of  the  same  name 
in  the  East  Riding,  WANSTEAD  in  Essex,  WAMDEN  in 
Bucks,  WADLEY  in  Berks,  two  WANSLEYS  and  WEDNES- 
FIELD  in  Staffordshire,  WENDON  in  Essex  and  in  Somer- 
set, WEDESLEY  in  Derbyshire,  WEDNESHAM  in  Cheshire, 
WANTHWAITE  in  Cumberland,  and  WONERSH  in  Surrey, 
with  other  more  doubtful  names  of  the  same  class, 
enable  us  to  form  some  estimate  of  how  wide  was  the 
diffusion  of  Woden's  worship.^ 

The  Scandinavian  Thor  was  worshipped  by  the  Anglo- 
Saxons  under  the  name  of  Thunor,  a  name  identical  with 
the  English  thunder  and  the  German  equivalent  2)onnf  r.* 

^  In  Germany  we  have  Godesberg,  near  Bonn,  anciently  Wodenesberg  ; 
Gudensberg,  in  Hesse,  anciently  Wuodenesbexg,  as  well  as  another  Gudens- 
bctg,  and  a  Gudenberg ;  also  Godensholt,  anciently  Wodensholt,  in  Olden- 
burg ;  Woensdrecht,  near  Antwerp,  and  Vaudemont,  in  Lorraine,  anciently 
Wodani  Mons.  In  Denmark  we  find  Odensbeig;  Onsbeig,  anciently 
Otheosbeig ;  Onsjo,  anciently  Othansharet ;  Onsala,  anciently  Othansftle ; 
Onaley,  anciently  Othanslef ;  Odinsey,  on  the  island  of  Funen ;  and  in 
Norway,  Onso,  anciently  Odinsey.  Grimm,  Deut.  Myth,  pp.  133,  140, 144 ; 
Vilmar,  Ortsnatrun^  p.  244 ;  Bender,  Detttscken  Ortsnamen,  pp.  107,  io8 ; 
Mone,  Gesch,  Heidenthums^  voL  i.  p.  269;  vol.  ii.  p.  154.  On  the  occur- 
rence of  the  names  of  Woden  and  Thunor  in  the  Saxon  Charters,  see 
Kemble,  Codex  Dip,  voL  liL  p.  xiiL 

*  The  identity  of  Thunor  and  Indra  has  been  proved  by  Mannhardt,  by 
a  laborious  comparison  of  the  Teutonic  and  Indian  myths.  Germ.  Mytheit^ 
pp.  I — 242.  The  names  also  of  Indra  and  Donnor,  different  as  they  may 
seem,  are,  no  doubt,  ultimately  identical.  We  have  seen  (p.  207,  supra) 
that  udra  and  %tdan  are  related  Sanskrit  words,  meaning  water.  The  first 
gives  us  the  name  of  Indra,  the  second  that  of  Donnor  or  Thunor,  both  of 
whom  are  the  storm  and  rain  gods ;  both  were  bom  out  of  the  water,  both 
fin  the  rivers,  and  pour  the  milk  of  the  doud-cows  of  heaven  upon  the 
earth.     See  Mannhardt,  Germ.  Myth.  pp.  3,  38,  50,  143,  147,  213,  216; 

Y  2 

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324  Sacred  Sites. 

We  find  traces  of  the  worship  of  the  Saxon  god  in  the 
names  of  THUNDERSFIELD  in  Surrey,  two  places  called 
THITNDERSLEIGH  in  Essex,  and  one  in  Hants,  as  well  as 
THUNDRIDGE  in  Herts,  and  THUNDERHILL  in  Surrey.^ 
To  the  name  of  Thor  ive  may  assign  THURSLEY  in 
Surrey,  THURLEIGH  in  Bedfordshire,^  KIRBY  THORE  in 
Westmoreland,  THURSCROSS  in  Yorkshire,  THURSTON 
in  Suffolk,  THURSTABLE  and  THURLOW  in  Essex,  THURS- 
FIELD  in  Staffordshire,  THURSFORD  in  Norfolk,  TURS- 
DALE  in  Durham,  THURSHELTON  in  Devon,  THURSBY 
in  Cumberland,  THURSO  in  Caithness,  TORNESS  in 
Shetland,  and  THORIGNY  in  Normandy,  all  of  which, 
as  we  have  seen,  are  in  regions  settled  more  or  less  by 
Scandinavian  colonists."  In  some  of  these  cases  it  is 
probable  that  the  name  may  have  been  derived  from 
some  Viking  who  bore  the  name  of  Thor*  The  Anglo- 
Saxon  names,  however,  are  not  liable  to  this  ambiguitj% 

Mannhardt,  GoUerwdt^  voL  i.  p.  61 ;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures,  second  seiies, 
p.  430. 

^  The  little  scholars  who  enjoy  catching  a  great  scholar  tripping,  may 
amuse  themselves  with  Mr.  Kemble*s  attempt  to  find  an  allusion  to  the 
Thunderer's  Hammer,  in  the  Hammer  ponds  in  Surrey ;  the  iaxX  bdug, 
that  the  name  originated  frum  some  ironworks  now  disused 

>  There  is  a  remarkable  tumulus  in  the  middle  of  the  village  called  Buy 

9  On  the  continent  we  find  Thtmeresberg,  in  Westphalia,  where  stands 
a  sacred  oak,  under  which,  to  this  day,  an  annual  festival  is  held ;  Doo- 
nersbeig,  near  Worms,  anciently  Thoneresberg ;  Donnerkaute  and  Don- 
nersgraben  in  Hesse ;  Donnersreut  in  Franconia  ;  Donnerbiihel  in  Berne ; 
Donnersted  in  Brunswick  ;  Donershauk  in  Thuringia  ;  Thorsborg  in 
Gothland ;  Donnerschwee,  anciently  Donerswe  i^e,  holyX  in  Oldenburg ; 
Donnersbach  in  Styria ;  Torslunde»(/»;f</r,  a  sacred  groveX  and  Thorsbro 
in  Denmark ;  and  Th6isbidrg,  Th6rBhofh,  and  others,  in  Norway.  Grimm, 
Deutsche  Mytkol.  pp.  64,  155,  169;  Grimm,  Namen  Donners;  Vilmar, 
Ortsnamen,  p.  244 ;  Mannhardt,  Germanische  Mythefty  p.  235. 

4  In  the  case  of  several  villages  called  Thursby  this  is  the  more  probable 


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Celtic  Deities,  325 

since  it  does  not  appear  that  any  Anglo-Saxon — more 
timid,  or  more  reverent  than  the  Northman — ever  dared 
to  assume  the  name  of  the  dreaded  Thunor. 

Names  like  BALDERBY  or  BALDERTON,  may  probably 
be  derived  from  the  personal  name  Balder,  rather  than 
from  that  of  the  deity.  Pol,  another  form  of  the  name 
of  the  god  Balder,  is  probably  to  be  found  in  such 
names  as  POLBROOK,  polstead,  polsden  and  polsdon, 
as  well  perhaps  as  in  BELL  HILL,  and  HILL  BELL.  The 
last  two  names,  however,  are,  more  probably,  vestiges  of 
a  still  earlier  cultus — Celtic,  or  possibly  Semitic.^  It 
has  been  thought  that  there  must  have  been  some 
original  connexion,  etymologic  or  mythologic,  between 
the  Syrian  Baal,  the  Celtic  Bel  or  Belen,  the  Sclavonic 
Biel-bog,  and  the  Teutonic  PoL  To  the  Celtic  deity  we 
may  probably  assign  the  local  names  of  BELAN,  near 
Trefeglwys  in  Montgomeryshire,  BELAN  near  Newtown, 
two  BELAN  BANKS  in  Shropshire,  and  the  BAAL  HILLS 
in  Yorkshire,  besides  three  mountains  called  BELCH 
in  the  Vosges  and  the  Black  Forest.^  BALERIUM,  the 
ancient  name  of  the  Land's  End,  may  possibly  be  due 
to  the  Phoenicians.  BEL  TOR  in  Devon  may  be  either 
Teutonic,  Celtic,  or  Semitic.  Several  of  the  Devonshire 
Tors  seem  also  to  bear  names  derived  from  a  primeval 
mythology.  MIS  TOR  and  HAM  TOR  have  been  supposed 
to  bear  Semitic  names  derived  from  Misor,  the  moon, 

*  Grimm,  Deutsche  Mythol.  pp.  208,  580;  Leo,  Vorlesungen^  vol.  i. 
p.  205;  Thierry,  Hist,  Gaul<nSy  vol.  il  p.  77,  78;  Miiller,  Alt-detUsche 
Rd^ioHy  pp.  253,  256  ;  Ferguson,  Northmen^  pp.  95,  98 ;  Mone,  Gesckichte 
Hadenthums,  vol.  ii.  p.  345 ;  Barth,  Druiden^  p.  69,  The  Beltane  fires 
are  still  kept  up  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  in  Yorkshire.  Train,  Isle  of  Matty 
▼oL  L  p.  328. 

•  Mone,  Gesckichte  Heidenthums^  vol.  ii  p.  337  j  Barth,  Druiden^  p.  86, 
Cf.  Piderit,  Ortsnanun^  p.  300, 


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326  Sacred  Sites. 

and  Ham  or  Ammon.  The  name  of  hessary  TOR  can 
with  greater  confidence  be  referred  to  the  Celtic  deity 
Esus  or  Hesus,!  mentioned  by  Lucan — 

Teutates,  horrensque  fens  altaribus  Hesus, 
£t  Taranis  Scythicse  non  mitior  ara  Dianse.' 

The  Celtic  deity  Taith  referred  to  in  these  lines 
under  the  name  of  Teutates,  must  not  be  confounded 
with  the  Teutonic  Tiw,  though  the  names  are  probably 
not  unconnected.  Places  called  TOT  HILL,  TOOT  HILL, 
or  TOOTER  HILL,  are  very  numerous,  and  may  possibly 
have  been  seats  of  Celtic  worship.^ 

The  word  Easter,  as  we  learn  from  Beda,  is  derived 
from  the  name  of  Eostre,*  or  OstSra,  the  Anglo-Saxon 
goddess  of  Spring,  to  whom  the  month  of  April  was 
sacred.  As  in  other  instances  the  Catholic  clergy  seem 
to  have  given  the  heathen  festival  a  Christian  import, 
and  to  have  placed  "  Our  Lady "  on  the  throne  pre- 
viously occupied  by  the  virgin  goddess  of  the  spring.* 
She  seems  to  have  bestowed  her  name  on  two  parishes 
in  Essex  which  are  called  GOOD  EASTER,*  and  HIGH 

■  ^  Cf.  the  Sanskrit  Asura,  the  supreme,  self-existent  Spirit,  a  name  pn>* 
bably  derived  from  a  root  flj=esse.  A  statue  inscribed  with  the  name  of 
Esus  was  exhumed  at  Paris.  Pictet,  Orig'.  Indo-Eur,  part  ii.  p.  655  ; 
Barth,  Druidenj  p.  71 ;  Prichard,  Researches^  voL  iiL  p.  185 ;  Thieny. 
HisL  Gaulois^  vol.  ii.  p.  78. 

*  JPharsaliay  book  i.  L  445. 

*  See  Davies,  in  Philolog,  Thins,  for  1855,  p.  219 ;  Barth,  Druiden^  p.  64  ; 
Thierry,  Hist,  Gaulois^  vol.  ii.  p.  78 ;  Prichard,  Researches^  voL  iii.  p.  185. 

4  Cf.  the  Sanskrit  ushas^hxaoxv^  from  a  root  ushy  to  bum  or  glow. 
Hence  the  Greek  y^a^s,  the  Latin  auster,  the  south,  and  the  English  mst, 
Grimm,  Deut,  Mythol,  p.  266 ;  Neus,  in  Zeitschrift  fur  Deui,  Myth,  voL 
iii.  pp.  356 — 368 ;  Pictet,  Ortg,  Indo-Eur.  part  ii.  pp.  672 — 674 ;  Leo, 
Rectitudines^  p.  206. 

*  Mayhew,  German  Ufe^  voL  ii.  pp.  332,  377. 

^  In  Domesday  this  name  appears  in  the  form  ESTRA.  good  easter  is 
probably  the  god  Eostre. 


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Teutonic  Demigods.  327 

EASTER;  we  find  also  the  xnore  doubtful  names  of 
EASTERFORD  in  the  same  county,  EASTERLEAKE  in 
Nottinghamshire,  and  EASTERMEAR  in  Hampshire. 

The  name  of  Hel,  the  mistress  of  the  gloomy  under- 
world, seems  to  be  confined  to  Yorkshire ;  it  may 
possibly  be  preserved  in  the  names  of  HELLIFIELD,  HEL- 
LATHYRNE,  .hel with,  two  HEALEYS,  HEAUGH,  and 
HELAGH,  all  in  Yorkshire.^  HELWELL  in  Devonshire 
is  probably  only  the  covered  well,  the  word  hell  origin- 
ally meaning  only  the  "  covered  "  place.  Thus  a  wound 
heals  when  it  becomes  covered  with  skin.  The  heel  is 
that  part  of  the  foot  which  is  covered  by  the  leg.  A 
helmet  covers  the  head.  The  hull  is  the  covered  part  of 
a  ship.  To  hele  potatoes  is  to  clamp  or  tump  them. 
In  Kent  to  heal  a  child  is  to  cover  it  up  in  its  cradle, 
and  to  Ileal  a  house  is  to  put  on  the  roof  or  covering. 
A  hellier  is  a  slater. 

Of  the  mythic  heroes  of  Scandinavian  legend,  the 
name  of  Weland,  the  Northern  Vulcan,  who  fabricates 
the  arms  of  the  heroes  of  the  early  Sagas,  is  preserved 
at  a  place  in  Berkshire  called  WAYLANDSMITH.  Here, 
appropriately  placed  at  the  foot  of  that  sacred  HILL  OF 
THE  WHITE  HORSE,  which  from  immemorial  times  has 
borne  the  colossal  symbol  of  Saxon  conquest,  there  still 
stands  the  structure  which  our  ancestors  called  Weland*s 
forge,^  a  huge  megalithic  monument,  consisting  of  two 
chambers  constructed  of  upright  stones  and  roofed  with 
large  slabs.  Here  the  hero-smith  was  supposed  to  fabri- 
cate shoes  for  the  sacred   horse.    Though  bearing  a 

1  We  have  Helgiaben,  Helwald,  Helleberg,  and  other  similar  names  in 
Germany.     Panzer,  DeuL  Myth.  p.  275. 

*  In  the  charters  the  place  is  called  Wdanda  Smidde^  Wayland^s  Forge. 
Codex  Ditlatn,  No.  1172. 


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328  Sacred  Sites, 

Saxon  name,  and  connected  with  a  Saxon  legend,  it  is 
doubtless  only  a  Celtic  grave.^ 

The  name  of  Eigil,  the  hero-archer,  is  probably  to  be 
sought  at  AYLESBURY,  formerly  ^gksbyrig,  as  well 
perhaps  as  at  AYLESFORD,  aysworth,  and  aylstone.* 
ASGARDBY  and  AYSGARTH,  however,  probably  refer  to 
Asgard,  the  home  of  the  gods. 

Curious  legends  often  linger  round  the  numerous 
places  called  the  Devil's  Dyke,  the  Devil's  Punchbowl, 
and  the  like,*  and  results,  not  without  value,  might 
doubtless  be  obtained  by  a  comparative  analysis  of  the 
names  of  the  various  celebrated  witch  mountains.* 

A  dark  and  rugged  rock  in  the  Lake  District  bears 
the  name  of  SCRATCH  MEAL  SCAR.  Here  we  may  perhaps 
detect  the  names  of  two  personages  who  figure  in  the 
Norse  mythology,  Skratti,  a  demon,  and  Mella,  a  weird 

^  Grimm,  Deutsche  MythoU  p.  350 ;  WilBon,  Pre-hist  Annals  of  Scot- 
iandy  p.  210 ;  Scott,  Kenilworth,  chap.  xiii.  and  note ;  Singer,  Wayland 
Smithf  p.  XXXV.  ;  Wright,  in  JoumcU  of  Archaolog,  Association^  voL  xvi. 
pp.  50—58 ;  Kemble,  Saxons  in  England^  vol.  i.  pp.  419—421 ;  Grimm, 
Neidensage,  pp.  41,  322,  323  ;  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  221. 

*  Grimm,  Deutsche  MytkoL  p.  349 ;  Kemble,  Saxons,  vol.  i.  p.  422. 

'  We  find  Teufelstein  near  Durkheim,  Teufelsbeig  in  Bavaria,  and  Ten- 
felsmaner  in  Austria.  See  Panzer,  Deut,  Myth,  pp.  46,  100,  204 ;  Piderit, 
Ortsnamen,  p.  301.  There  are  also  many  places  called  Drachenfels, 
Drachenbogen,  Drachenkammer,  &c  Panzer,  Deut.  Myth,  p.  293;  Grimm, 
HeldensagCy  p.  316.  "^ 

The  chief  of  these  are  the  Blocksberg,  or  Brocken,  in  the  Haitz; 
several  Blocksbergs  in  Mecklenburg  ;  the  Huiberg  near  Halberstadt;  the 
Horselberg  in  Thuringia  ;  the  Bechelsberg  in  Hesse  ;  the  Koterberg  and 
the  Weckingstein  in  Westphalia ;  the  Kandel,  the  Heuberg,  and  the 
Staffelstein  in  the  Black  Forest ;  the  Bischenberg  and  the  Biichelberg  in 
Alsace  ;  the  Bl&kuUa  (Black  Mountain)  in  Sweden ;  and  the  BlaakoUe  in 
Norway.  See  Thorpe,  Northern  Mythology^  voL  L  p.  243 ;  Grimm,  Dent. 
Myth,  p.  1004.  Hanenkamm  and  Hanenbuck  in  Bavaria  were  places  of 
heathen  worship.  Mone,  Gesch,  Heid,  vol.  ii.  p.  218.  Heidenbeig  is  the 
name  of  a  hill  near  Zurich,  down  which  on  winter  nights  a  headless  horse* 
man  is  seen  to  ride.     Meyer,  Ortsnamen,  p.  165. 


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Old  Scratch— Old  Nick  329 

giantess.1  There  is  also  a  SCRATTA  WOOD  on  the  borders 
of  Derbyshire.  The  demon  Skratti  still  survives  in  the 
superstitions  of  Northern  Europe.  The  Skratt  of  Sweden, 
with  a  wild  horse-laugh,  is  believed  to  mock  travellers 
who  are  lost  upon  the  waste,  and  sundry  haunted  rocks 
on  the  coast  of  Norway  still  go  by  the  name  of 
"SKRATTASKAR."2  In  the  north  of  England  the  name 
of  Skratti  continues  to  be  heard  in  the  mouths  of  the 
peasantry,  and  the  memory  of  "  Old  Scratch,"  as  he 
is/amiliarly  called,  may  probably  be  yet  destined  to 
survive  through  many  future  Christian  centuries,  in  com- 
pany with  "  Old  Nick,"  who  is  none  other  than  Nikr,'  the 
dangerous  water-demon  of  Scandinavian  legend.  This 
dreaded  monster,  as  the  Norwegian  peasant  will  gravely 
assure  you,  demands  every  year  a  human  victim,  and 
carries  off  children  who  stray  too  near  his  abode  beneath 
the  waters.  In  Iceland  also,  Nykr,  the  water-horse,  is 
still  believed  to  inhabit  some  of  the  lonely  tarns 
scattered  over  the  savage  region  of  desolation  which 
occupies  the  central  portion  of  the  island. 

^  Grimm,  Deutsche  Mythologie,  p.  493  ;  Ferguson,  Northmen^  p.  99 ; 
Edinburgh  Review,  vol.  cxi.  p.  386.  Mella,  when  tired  of  the  company  of 
Skratti,  had  a  separate  abode  on  mcll  fell  ;  unless,  indeed,  this  name 
be  Celtic  rather  than  Scandinavian,  and  allied  to  the  word  tnullf  a  head- 
land, which  we  have  in  the  Mull  of  Cantyre  and  other  names.  Or  the 
name  of  Mell  Fell  may  be  from  the  Icelandic  meiry  a  sandy  hill.  There  is 
a  Mcelifell  in  Iceland. 

«  Grimm,  Deut.  Myth.  p.  447  ;  Thorpe,  Northern  Mythology,  voL  iL 
P-  95  ;  vol  L  p.  25a  The  name  of  Skratti  is  found  also  in  the  Sarmatian 
l^ends.  In  Bohemian  Screti  means  a  demon.  See  Latham,  English 
Language,  vol.  i.  p.  360. 

»  Norwegian  n'ok,  Swedish  neck,  German  nix,  plural  nixen,  English 
nixies,  and  old  Nick.  The  name  of  the  River  Neckar  probably  comes 
from  the  same  root.  Thorpe,  Northern  Mythology,  vol.  i.  p.  246  ;  voL  ii. 
p.  20 ;  Grimm,  Deut,  Myth.  p.  456 ;  Kcmble,  Preface  to  Translation  oj 
Bebwulf,  p.  xvii.  ;«Kemble,  Saxons,  vol.  i.  pp.  389 — 392  ;  Laing,  ffeims- 
kringkLy  vol.  i.  p.  92 ;  Baring-Gould,  Iceland,  p.  149. 


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330  Sacred  Sites. 

Many  similar  traces  of  the  old  mythology  are  to  be 
found  in  that  well-stored  antiquarian  museum,  the 
English  language.  In  the  phrase  **  Deuce  take  it," 
the  deity  Tiw  still  continues  to  be  invoked.^  The 
Bogie,  with  whose  name  nurses  are  wont  to  frighten 
children,  is  probably  Bogu,  the  Sclavonic  name  of  the 
Deity ,^  and  the  name  of  Puck  has  been  referred  to  the 
same  source.*  The  nursery  legend  of  "  Jack  and  Jill  '* 
is  found  in  the  younger  Edda,  where  the  story  of  Hjuki 
(the  flow)  and  Bil  (the  ebb),  the  two  children  of  the 
Moon,  IS  seen  to  be  merely  an  exoteric  version  of  the 
flowing  and  ebbing  of  the  tides.*  The  morning  gossamer 
is  the  gott'Cymar^  the  veil  or  trail  left  by  the  deity  who 
has  passed  over  the  meadows  in  the  night  The  word 
brag  has  an  etymological  connexion  with  the  name  of 
Bragi,*  the  Norse  god  of  song  and  mirth,  while  the 
faithful  devotees  of  Bragi  fall  after  awhile  under  the 
power  of  Mara,®  a  savage  demon,  who  tortures  men  with 
visions,  and  crushes  them  even  to  death,  and  who  still 
survives,  though  with  mitigated  powers,  as  the  Night- 
mare of  modern  days."^ 

^  Compare  Augustine,  De  CivUate  Dei,  book  xy.  cap.  23,  "quosdam 
dsemones  quos  dusios  GalU  nuncupant" 

>  Sanskrit  bhaga,  god,  the  sun.  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ.  part  ii. 
p.  654;  Edinburgh  Review,  vol.  xciv.  p.  332.  See,  however,  Davies,  in 
Pkilolog.  Proceed,  vol.  vi.  p.  136 ;  Notes  and  Queries,  second  series,  voL  xL 

p.  97. 

'    »  De  Belloguet,  Ethnog,  vol.  i.  p.  222. 

*  Grimm,  Deut.  Myth.  p.  679 ;  Miiller,  Alt-deut,  Rdig.  p.  161  ;  Baring- 
Gould,  Iceland,  p.  189. 

»  Diefenbach,  Vergleich,  Worterh,  voL  i  p.  266 ;  Grimm,  Deut.  Myth. 
p.  215  ;  Baring-Gould,  Iceland,  p.  161 ;  Notes  aftd  Queries,  second  series, 
vol.  V.  p.  32. 

0  Thrupp,  Anglo-Saxon  Home,  p.  263 ;  Grimm,  Deut.  Myth,  p.  215  ; 
Kelly,  Curiosities,  p.  240  ;  Laing,  Heimskringla,  voL  L  p.  92. 

7  On  the  subject  of  the  Teutonic  and  Scandinavian  mythology,  as  iUus- 


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Detice — Bogie — Brag-^Nightmare,  331 

There  is  another  class  of  names  of  sacred  sites,  those, 
namely,  which  are  not  associated  with  the  names  of 
particular  deities. 

The  name  of  REDRUTH  in  Cornwall  is  written  in  old 
deeds  Dre-druith,  the  town  of  the  Druids.^  From  the 
Celtic  nemety  a  sacred  grove,  we  may  deduce  the  name 
of  NYMET  ROWLAND  in  Devonshire,  and  of  NISMES, 
anciently  Nemausus,  in  Provence,  as  well  as  many 
ancient  Gaulish  names,  such  as  Nemetacum  or  Neme- 
tocenna  (Arras),  Vememetum,  and  Tascinemetum.  * 
LUND  and  LUNDGARTH,  both  in  Holdemess,  are  pro- 
bably from  the  Norse  lundr,  a  sacred  grove.*  The  name 
of  HOFF,  near  Appleby,  seems  to  be  from  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  and  old  Norse  kof,  a  temple.*  The  vast  inclosure 
of  SILBURY  is  probably  the  holy  hill.*    The  names  of 

trated  by  local  names,  the  reader  may  consult  Jacob  Grimm,  Deutsche 
Mythclogie,  passim  ;  Buttmann,  Die  Deutschen  Orisnamen^  pp.  162 — 169  ; 
Kemble,  Anglo-Saxons,  vol.  i.  p.  243 — 422  ;  Ferguson,  Northmen  in  Cum- 
berland, pp.  28,  95  ;  Bender,  Die  Deutschen  Ortsnamen,  pp.  107,  108  ;  Leo, 
Anglo-Saxon  Names,  p.  5  ;  Panzer,  Deutsche  Mythologie ;  Forstemann, 
Ortsnamen,  p.  172  ;  Worsaae,  Danes  and  Norwegians,  p.  69.  A  list  of 
mythologie  names  in  the  Tyrol  is  given  in  a  paper  by  Zingerle,  in  the 
Germania,  vol.  v.  p.  108. 
^  Prycc,  Arch.  Comu-Brit.  s.v. 

*  Sanskrit  nam,  to  worship,  Greek  viyuut,  Irish  nemhta,  holy,  Latin 
nemus,  a  grove,  Gaulish  nemetum,  a  temp]|^  Brezonec  nemet,  a  sacred 
grove.  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ,  part  ii.  p.  691  ;  Zeuss,  Gram,  Celt,  vol.  i. 
p.  186 ;  Astruc,  Languedoc,  p.  439 ;  Davies,  in  Philolog,  Trans,  for  1857, 
p.  91  ;  Gliick,  Kelt,  Namen,  p.  75 ;  Adelung,  Mithridates,  voL  iL  p.  65 ; 
Maury,  Hist,  des  Forits,  p.  160. 

'  LuNDEY  Island  in  the  Bristol  channel,  and  lundholme  near  Lan- 
caster may  be  finom  this  source,  but  more  probably  from  the  Norse  lundi,  a 
puffin.  There  is  an  islet  called  lundey  on  the  Icelandic  coast.  Baring- 
Gonld,  Iceland,  p.  244. 

4  There  are  two  places  called  HOF  in  Iceland. 

*  Sdig,  holy.  See  Poste,  Brit,  Res,  p.  263.  So  Jerusalem  is  called  by 
the  Arabs  el  kuds,  the  holy.  Compare  also  the  name  of  bethel,  the 
"house  of  God,"  with  the  Beit-allah  of  Mecca,  and  the  Bsetulia  of  early 
Phoenician  worship.    Behistun  is  the  abode  of  the  gods,  from  the  Sans- 


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332  Sacred  Sites, 

WYDALE,  WIGTHORP,  and  WEIGHTON,  as  well  as  WEIH- 
BOGEN  in  the  Tyrol,  WYBORG  and  WISBY,  all  of  them 
holy  places,  probably  come  from  the  Norse  z//,  a  sacred 

Heligoland — which  means  "  holy  island  land  " — ^has 
been  with  great  probability  identified^  with  the  insula 
oceani,  which  is  described  by  Tacitus  as  the  seat  of 
the  secret  rites  of  the  Angli  and  other  adjacent  con- 
tinental tribes.  Of  the  numerous  places  bearing  the 
name  of  holywell,  holy  island,  and  holy  hill,* 
many  were  probably  the  sites  of  an  ancient  pagan 
cultus,  to  which,  in  accordance  with  Gregory's  well 
weighed  instructions,  a  Christian  import  was  given  by 
Augustine  and  his  brother  missionaries.*  The  churches 
of  St.  Martin  and  St.  Pancras,  at  Canterbury,  as  well  as 

krit  Bhaga,     See  Edin,  Rev,  voL  xciv.  p.  333  ;  Stanley,  Jewish  Churchy 

p.  59. 

^  We  have  the^Gothic  veihs,  holy,  and  veUiatty  to  consecrate ;  the  old 
High  German  vih,  a  sacred  grove,  or  temple,  the  German  weihnaelUy 
Christmas,  and  the  Anglo-Saxon  wiccian,  fascinare,  whence  the  English 
word  witch,  Pictet,  Orig,  IndthEurop.  part  ii.  p.  643  ;  Grimm,  Deutsche 
Mythol.  p.  581  ;  Yongc,  Christian  Names^  vol.  ii.  p.  238 ;  Diefenbach,  Ver* 
gleich,  Wdrterbuchf  yoi.  i.  pp.  137,  138;  Vion^  Geschichte  Heidenthums^ 
vol.  i.  p.  269  ;  Thaler,  m  the  Zatschrift  Jur  Deut,  Myth,  vol.  u  p.  286 ; 
Adelung,  Mithridates^  pp.  144,  169. 

*  See  Latham,  Germania^  np.  145,  146 ;  Eth,  of  Brit,  Is,  p.  155  ;  Grimniy 
Deutsche  Myth.  p.  211 ;  Cri^ton,  Scandinavia^  vol.  L  p.  75 ;  and  a  paper 
by  Maack,  in  the  Germania,  vol.  iv. 

'  Holy  Hill  is  the  highest  point  of  ground  in  Kent  Of.  the  nmnerons 
Heiligenbrunns  and  Heilbrunns  in  Germany,  to  the  waters  of  many  of 
which  a  supernatural  efficacy  was  supposed  to  attach.  The  original 
meaning  of  holy  is  healing.  See  Grimm,  Deutsche  Myth,  p.  553  ;  Pictet, 
Orig,  IndO'Europ.  vol.  ii.  p.  647. 

<  Gregory,  **diu  cogitsins,"  came  to  the  conclusion  that  "fana  indo- 
lorum  destrui  minime  debeant,"  but  that  the  idols  should  be  destroyed, 
and  the  temples,  well  sprinkled  with  holy  water,  should  be  supplied 
with  relics,  so  that  the  gens  Anglorum  '*  ad  loca  quae  consuevit  familaritts 
concurrat.*'  Beda,  Hist.  Ecc,  lib.  i.  c  30  ;  Gregorii  Magni  Epistd,  lib.  xi« 
ep.  Ixxvi.  J.Thorpe,  Northern  Mythology ^  voL  i,  p.  268. 


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Vestiges  of  Sclavonic  Heathenism,  333 

Westminster  Abbey  and  St.  PauFs  cathedral,  were  built 
on  the  sites  of  heathen  temples,  and  are  instances  of 
this  practice  of  enlisting,  in  favour  of  the  new  faith, 
the  local  religious  attachments  of  the  people.^ 

It  would  demand  more  space  than  the  interest  of  the 
subject  would  warrant,  to  trace  the  local  vestiges  of  the 
worship  of  the  Sclavonian  deities.  They  have  left  their 
names  scattered  far  and  wide  over  Eastern  and  Central 
Europe — a  testimony  to  the  long  duration  and  great 
difficulty  of  the  process  by  which  the  Sclavonic  nations 
were  converted  to  Christianity.  Thus  the  name  of 
Radegast,  a  god  of  light,  is  found  at  two  places  called 
RADEGAST  in  Mecklenburg  Schwerin,  one  of  the  same 
name  in  Anhalt  Dessau,  and  another  in  Oschatz;  as 
well  as  at  RADEGOSZ  in  Posen,  RADIHOSCHT  in  Bohemia, 
the  village  of  RODGES  near  Fulda  in  Hesse,  anciently 
written  villa  Radegastes^  and  many  villages  bearing  the 
names  of  radibor,  radeburg,  radensdorf,  and  the 
like.*  We  also  find  traces  of  the  worship  of  Swjatowit,® 
a  deity  with  attributes  similar  to  those  of  Radegast,  of 
Juthrbog  *  the  god  of  spring,  of  Ciza*  the  goddess  of  fer- 
tility, of  Mita^  a  malevolent  cynoform  deity,  of  Marsana^ 

1  See  Rees,  Welsh  Saints^  p.  xii.  ;  Dixon  and  Raine,  Fasti  Eboracenses^ 
p.  3 ;  Stanley,  Memorials  of  Canterbury^  p.  21  ;  Pauli,  Pictures  of  Old 
England,  p.  12. 

*  Buttmann,  Deutscken  Ortsnamen^  pp.  164,  seq. ;  Vilmar,  Ortsnamen, 
p.  246. 

>  At  Zwettnitz  in  Bohemia,  Schautewitz  in  Pomerania,  and  Zwitto  in 
Brandenburg.  Buttmann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  162 ;  Maclear,  Ifist.  of  Christian 
Missions,  p.  33. 

^  Hence  Jiiterbogk,  a  large  town  near  Berlin.  Buttmann,  Ortsnamen, 
p.  168. 

"  Hence  Zeitz,  near  Leipsig.     Buttmann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  168. 

<  Hence  Mitau  in  Courland. 

7  Hence  Marzahn  near  Berlin,  Marzahna  near  Wittenbeig,  and  Marzana 
in  Illyria.     Buttmann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  169. 


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334  Sacred  Sites. 

the  Sclavonic  Ceres,  and  of  Perun,^  a  deity  who  cor- 
responds to  the  Scandinavian  Thon 

The  subject  of  names  derived  from  the  eastern  and 
classic  mythologies  is  too  extensive  for  discussion  in 
this  place.  It  would  require  a  chapter,  or  even  a  volume 
to  itself.  There  are  many  such  places  in  India,  Syria  is 
full  of  them,  they  abound  in  Italy  and  Greece.  Thus 
CALCUTTA  and  CALICUT  are  the  Kali-Ghauts,  the  steps, 
or  landing-places  by  the  river-side,  where  the  great 
festival  of  Kali  was  celebrated.  BAALBEC  was  the  chief 
seat  of  the  worship  of  Baal,  the  ruins  of  whose  temple, 
with  its  substructure  of  colossal  stones,  is  still  one  of  the 
wonders  of  the  world.^  Panium,  now  BAN  IAS,  was  a 
sanctuary  of  Pan.^  The  shores  of  the  Mediterranean 
were  covered  with  places  bearing  the  names  of  the 
deities  of  Greece  and  Rome.  More  than  a  dozen  might 
be  enumerated  taking  their  names  from  Neptune  or 
Poseidon,  of  which  PAESTUM,  the  ancient  Posidonia,  is 
the  only  one  that  still  retains  both  its  name  and  any 
human  interest.  Hercules  seems  to  have  been  deemed 
the  most  powerful  protector  of  colonies,  for  from  him  we 
find  that  some  thirty  or  forty  places  were  named  HERA- 

under  the  protection  of  Apollo,  were  called  APOLLONIS 

1  Grimm,  Deut.  Myth,  p.  156. 

^  In  the  Old  Testament  we  find  many  traces  of  the  Canaanitish  wor- 
ship still  lingering  in  Palestine.  For  a  long  time,  probably,  the  devo- 
tions of  the  people  were  attracted  by  the  old  idolatrous  sanctuaries,  such 
as  Baal  Gad,  Baal  Hermon,  Baal  Tamar,  Baal  Hazor,  Baal  Jndah,  Baal 
Meon,  Baal  Perazim,  and  Baal  Shalisha.  In  the  genealogies  of  fiuniHes 
we  find  evidence  of  the  same  lingering  superstitions.  Thus  in  the 
family  of  Saul  we  find  persons  bearing  the  names  of  Baal,  Eshbaal,  and 
Meribaal.     Stanley,  Jewish  Church,  p.  291. 

8  Robinson,  Biblical  Researches,  vol.  iii.  p.  348. 

4  MoNTERCHi,  in  Umbria,  is  Mons  Herculis. 


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Conversion  of  the  Nofthumbrians,  335 

or  APOLLONIA,  and  fifteen  bore  the  name  of  Pallas 
Athene,  all  of  which,  except  Athens,^  have  sunk  into 

It  is  pleasant  to  leave  these  dry  bones  of  a  dead 
paganism,  and  turn  to  the  names  which  speak  to  us  of 
the  first  propagation  of  Christianity  in  our  native  land. 
One  of  the  most  striking  scenes  in  the  whole  history  of 
missionary  enterprise  was  enacted  in  the  East  Riding  of 
Yorkshire,  at  GOODMANHAM,  or  GODMUNDINGAHAM,' 
a  mile  from  WEIGHTON^  where,  as  the  name  implies, 
stood  a  large  heathen  temple.  Beda  tells  that  the 
Bishop  Paulinus  presented  himself  on  this  spot  before 
Edwin  King  of  the  Northumbrians,  and  urged  eloquently 
the  claims  of  the  new  faith.  Coifi,  the  pagan  high- 
priest,  to  the  surprise  of  all,  proclaimed  aloud  that  the 
old  religion  had  neither  power  nor  utility.  "If,"  said 
he,  "  the  gods  were  of  any  worth  they  would  heap  their 
favour  upon  me,  who  have  ever  served  them  with  such 
zeal."  The  demolition  of  the  temple  was  decreed,  but 
with  a  lingering  belief  in  the  ancient  faith,  all  shrank 
from  incurring  the  possible  hostility  of  the  old  deities, 
by  taking  part  in  its  destruction.  "  As  an  example  to 
all,"  said  Coifi,  "I  am  myself  ready  to  destroy  that 
which  I  have  worshipped  in  my  folly."  Arming  himself 
with  spear  and  sword,  he  mounted  on  a  horse,  and 
having  profaned  the  temple  by  casting  his  lance  against 
it,  it  was  set  on  fire  and  consumed.* 

1  In  this  case  the  name  of  the  city  is  probably  the  source  from  which  the 
cognomen  of  the  goddess  was  derived. 

«  The  home  of  the  mund^  or  protection  of  the  gods,  or  from  the 
NoTsegiMiif  a  priest;  hcfsgodiy  a  temple  priest    Grimm,  Dmt.  Myth.  p.  78. 

•  The  "sacred  inclosure,*'  see  pp.  120,  332,  svpra.  The  ruins  of  the 
temple  are  to  be  seen  near  Goodmanham  Church. 

*  Beda,  HistEcc,  lib.  IL  c.  13.  Cf.  Lappenbeig,  Anglo-Sax,  JCingSy  vol.  I 


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336  Sacred  Sites. 

GODNEY  near  Glastonbury,  GODMANCHESTER  in 
Huntingdonshire,  GODMANSTONE  in  Dorset,  GODLEY  in 
Cheshire,  GODSTOW  near  Oxford,  GODSHILL  in  the  Isle 
of  Wight,  and  GODSTONE  in  Surrey,  were  probably,  like 
Godmundham,  pagan  sites  consecrated  to  Christian 

The  prefix  llan  which,  as  we  have  seen,^  occurs  so 
frequently  in  Cornwall,  Wales,  and  the  border  counties, 
often  enables  us  to  detect  the  spots  which  were  the  first 
to  be  dedicated  to  purposes  of  Christian  worship. 

The  Cymric  lian  is  replaced  in  Scotland  and  Ireland 
by  the  analogous  Gadhelic  word  kiL  Originally  this 
denoted  only  a  hermit's  "cell,"  though  it  was  after- 
wards used  to  mean  the  "church,"  of  which  the  hermit's 
cell  was  so  often  the  germ. 

The  numerous  village-names  which  have  this  prefix 
kil  possess  a  peculiar  interest.  They  often  point  out  to 
us  the  earliest  local  centers  from  which  proceeded  the 
evangelization  of  the  half-savage  Celts ;  they  direct  us 
to  the  hallowed  spots  where  the  first  hermit  missionaries 
established  each  his  lonely  cell,  and  thence  spread  around 
him  the  blessings  of  Christianity  and  of  civilization. 

In  Ireland  alone  there  are  no  less  than  1,400  local 
names  which  contain  this  root,  and  there  are  very  many 
in  Scotland  also.^  In  Wales  and  the  neighbouring  coun- 
ties, a  few  names  occur  with  the  prefix  kil  instead  of 
llan.  These  names  may  probably  be  regarded  as  local 
memorials  of  those  Irish  missionaries,  who  about  the 

p.  153;  St.  John,  Four  Conquests,  voL  i.  p.  no;  Turner,  Angh-Saxons^ 
vol.  i.  pp.  356 — ^360 ;  Dixon  and  Raine,  Fasti  Eboracenses^  vol  i.  pp.  40^  41 ; 
Maclear,  History  of  Missions,  p.  1 14. 

1  See  p.  229,  supra, 

•  E,g,  Kilmore,  Kilkenny,  Killin,  IcolmkilL 


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The  Hermit  Missionaries.  337 

fifth  century  resorted  in  considerable  numbers  to  the 
shores  of  Wales.^ 

It  seems  to  have  been  by  means  of  these  Irish  hermits 
that  the  fierce  Scandinavians  who  settled  in  the  islands 
off  the  Scottish  coast  were  brought  to  submit  to  the 
gentle  influences  of  Christianity.  The  Norse  name  for 
these  anchorite  fathers  was  Papar,  Three  islets  among 
the  Hebrides,^  two  in  the  Orkneys,*  two  in  the  Shet- 
lands,*  and  others  among  the  Faroes  and  off"  the  coast  of 
Iceland,  bear  the  names  of  PABBA,  or  papa,  the  "  Father's 
isle."  In  the. Mainland  of  Orkney,  and  again  in  South 
Ronaldshay,  we  find  places  called  PAPLAYj^the  "hermit's 
abode,"  and  at  ENHALLOW,  and  at  one  of  the  PAPAS  in 
the  Orkneys,  the  ancient  cells  are  still  preserved.^ 

In  that  part  of  England  which  was  settled  by  the 
Danes,  the  missionary  efforts  seem  to-  have  been  more 
of  a  parochial  character.  We  find  the  prefix  kirk^  a 
church,  in  the  names  of  no  less  than  sixty-eight  places 
in  the  Danelagh,  while  in  the  Saxon  portion  of  England 
we  find  it  scarcely  once.^  KIRBY  means  church-village, 
and  the  Kirbys  which  are  dotted  over  East  Anglia  and 
Northumbria  speak  to  us  of  the  time  when  the  possession 
of  a  church  by  a  village  community  was  the  exception, 

1  We  find  Kilcwm,  Kilsant,  and  Kilycon  in  Carmarthen ;  Kilgarran  and 
Kilred  in  Pembrokeshire ;  Kilkenin,  Kiluellon,  and  Kilwy  in  Cardigan ; 
Kilowen  in  Flint;  Kilgwri  in  Cheshire-;  Kilmersdon  and  Kilstock  in 
Somerset ;  Kildare  and  Killow  in  Yorkshire ;  and  KUpisham  in  Rutland. 

«  Pabba  off  Skye,  Pabba  off  Harris,  and  Pabba  off  Barra. 

8  Papa  Westray  and  Papa  Stronsay. 
4  Papa  Stour  and  Papa  Little. 

9  There  is  a  Papil  in  Unst,  and  a  Pappadill  in  Rum. 

•  Wilson,  Pre-historic  AnnalSy  p.  486;  Dasent,  Burnt  Njal,  vol.  i.  p.  viii ; 
Worsaae,  Danes,  p.  231. 

7  It  is  found  over  the  whole  track  of  the  Norsemen  from  Kirkwall  in  the 
OrkneySy  to  Dunkerque  in  Flanders,  and  Querqueville  in  Normandy. 


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338  Sacred  Sites, 

and  not,  as  is  now  happily  the  case,  the  rule.  These 
names  point  to  a  state  of  things  somewhat  similar  to 
that  now  prevailing  in  Australia  or  Canada,  where  often 
but  a  single  church  and  a  single  clergyman  are  to  be 
found  in  a  district  fifty  miles  in  circumference.*  Thus 
we  may  regard  these  Kirbys  distributed  throughout  the 
Danelagh,  as  the  sites  of  the  mother  churches,  to  which 
the  surrounding  parishes,  whose  names  contain  no  such 
prefix,  would  bear  a  filial  relationship. 

Joined  with  the  prefixes  kil  and  llan  we  find  not  un- 
frequently  the  name  of  the  apostle  of  each  wild  valley 
or  rocky  islet — the  first  Christian  missionary  who  ven- 
tured into  the  mountain  fastnesses  to  tame  their  savage 
denizens.  From  the  village-names  of  Wales,  Scotland, 
and  Ireland,  it  would  be  almost  possible  to  compile  a 
Hagiology  of  these  sainted  men,  who  have  been  canon- 
ized by  locdl  tradition,  though  their  names  are  seldom 
to  be  found  in  the  pages  of  the  Bollandists. 

In  a  few  of  these  cases,  where  the  same  name  is 
repeated  again  and  again,  we  can  only  infer  the  fact  of 
the  dedication  of  the  church  to  some  saint  of  widely 
extended  fame.  Thus  the  repute  of  St  Bridget  has 
given  rise  to  no  less  than  eighteen  Kilbrides  in  Scotland 
alone.  At  icolmkill,  or  Iona,«  as  well  as  at  inchcolm, 
COLONSAY,  and  KIRKCOLM,  we  find  the  name  of  St 
Columba,  the  great  apostle  of  the  Picts,  who  is  said  to 
have  founded  an  hundred  monasteries  in  Ireland  and 
Scotland.    So  the  name  of  St.  Ciarran,  the  apostle  of 

1  See  Dixon  and  Raine,  FatH  EhoraceHset^  voL  i.  p.  27. 

*  lona,  the  chief  monasteiy  and  seminary  of  North  Britain,  and  the 
burial-place  of  innumerable  kings  and  saints,  was  originally  bestowed  oo 
St  Columba  by  one  of  the  Pictish  kings.  Lappenbeig,  AngioSaxom  KirngSf 
ToL  L  p.  132  ;  Maclear,  History  0/ Christian  Missions^  pp.  84— 9a 


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•  Local  Saints,  339 

the  Scoto-Irish,  and  the  founder  of  a  monastic  rule,  is 
found  at  KILKIARAN  in  Islay,  as  well  as  at  KILKERRAN 
in  Ayrshire  and  in  Connemara.  But  a  very  large  num- 
ber of  these  saint-names  are  locally  unique,  and  the 
parishes  which  bear  such  names  are  almost  always  the 
most  ancient,  their  ecclesiastical  position  being  that  of 
the  mother  parishes,  affiliated  to  which  are  the  churches 
dedicated  to  saints  in  the  Romish  calendar.^  Hence 
these  village-names  may  fairly  be  adduced  as  evidence 
in  any  attempt  to  localize  the  scene  of  the  labours  of 
these  primitive  missionaries.^ 

Our  space  would  fail  were  we  to  attempt  such  a 
commemoration  in  this  place ;  it  may  suffice  to  indicate 
the  names  of  a  few  of  the  local  saints  who  are  associated 
with  some  of  the  more  familiar  localities.  Thus  the 
watering  place  of  LLANDUDNO  takes  its  name  from  St 
Tudno,  a  holy  hermit  who  took  up  his  abode  among 
the  rocks  of  the  Orme's  head,  llanberis,  now  the 
head-quarters  of  Welsh  tourists,  commemorates  the 
labours  of  St  Peris,  an  apostolically-minded  cardinal.* 
In  the  case  of  beddgelert,  the  legend  of  the  hound 
Gelert,  which  Spencer  has  so  gracefully  inshrined  in 
verse,  must  give  place  to  the  claims  of  St.  Celert,  a 
Welsh  saint  of  the  fifth  century,  to  whom  the  church  of 
LLANGELLER  is  consecrated.  LLANGOLLEN  is  so  called 
from  St  Collen,  a  man  more  fortunate,  or  unfortunate, 
than  the  majority  of  his  brethren,  in  that  a  Welsh 
legend  .of  his  life  has  come  down  to  us,  recounting  the 
deeds  of  valour  which  he  performed  when  a  soldier  in 

1  Rees,  Wdsh  Samtt,  pp.  57,  59- 

•  Great  use  has  been  made  of  local  names  in  the  Lhet  of  the  Cambro- 
British  Saints^  by  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Rees,  and  m  the  Essay  on  tht  Wdsh  Saints^ 
by  Professor  Rice  Rees,  who  enumerates  479  local  saints. 

»  Rees,  Wdsh  Saints,  p.  302. 

Z  2 

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340  Sacred  Sites.         * 

the  Roman  armies ;  how  he  became  Abbot  of  Glaston- 
bury, and  finally  retired  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his 
days  in  a  cave  scooped  out  in  that  rugged  wall  of  cliff 
which  bounds  the  lovely  valley  on  which  the  saint  has 
bestowed  his  name.^ 

The  name  of  MERTHYR  TYDFIL  commemorates  the 
spot  where  the  heathen  Saxons  and  Picts  put  to  death 
the  martyr  Tydfyl,  daughter  of  the  eponymic  King 
Brychan,  who  is  asserted  by  Welsh  legend  to  have 
given  his  name  to  the  county  of  Brecknock.* 

St.  David  or  St.  Dewi  was  a  Welsh  prince,  whose 
preaching  is  compared  to  that  of  St.  John  the  Baptist. 
He  lived  on  herbs,  and  clothed  himself  in  the  skins  of 
beasts.  LLANDDEWI  BREFI  marks  the  spot  where,  at 
a  synod  assembled  for  the  purpose,  he  refuted  Pelagius. 
He  was  buried  at  his  see  of  TY  DDEWI,  "  the  house  of 
David,"  a  place  which  the  Saxons  call  St  Davids.'  The 
names  of  St.  Asaph,*  the  apostle  of  North  Wales,  and  of 
St.  Maughold  or  Macull,  the  apostle  of  the  Isle  of  Man, 
are  to  be  found  on  the  maps  of  the  countries  where  they 
laboured.  A  few  more  of  these  names  are  appended  in 
a  note.* 

1  See  Borrow,  Wild  JVaIa,\ol.  l  p.  57;  Rees,  Welsh  Saints,  p.  302. 
«  Borrow,  Wild  Wales,  voL  iil  p.  4II;  Haigh,  Conquest  of  Briiaim,  ^ 
251 ;  Rees,  Camhro- British  Saints,  pp.  602—608;  Rees,  Welsh  Saints,  ip.  151. 
»  Alban  Butler,  Lives  of  the  Saints,  March  I ;  Lappenbei^,  Angh-Saxon 
Kings,  vol.  i.  p.  133  ;  Rees,  Cambro- British  Saints,  pp.  402 — ^448 ;  Rees, 
Welsh  Saints,  pp.  43 — 56,  19 1 — 201. 
^  Rees,  Welsh  Saints,  p.  265. 

B  The  names  of  are  attributed  to 

LLANGATTOCK,    Brecknock,     and  J 

Monmouth V  St  Cadoc,  a  martyr. 

CADOXTON,  Glamorgan  .     .     .     .  ; 

LLANBADERN,  Radnor, andCardigan    St  Padem,    an    Armorican  bishop 

who  came  to  Wales. 



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The  Local  Saints  of  Wales.  341 

At  KIRKCUDBRIGHT  and  elsewhere,  we  find  the  ftame 
of  St  Cuthbert,  a  shepherd-bpy  who  became  abbot  of 
Melrose,  and  the  Thaumaturgus  of  Britain.  St.  Beya, 
an  Irish  virgin,  lived  an  ascetic  life  at  ST.  BEES,  where 
her  shrine  was  long  a  great  place  of  pilgrimage.  We 
find  the  name  of  St.  Jia,  another  female  saint,  at  ST. 
IVES  in  Cornwall.  There  is  another  place  called  ST. 
IVES,  which  takes  its  name,  we  are  told,  from  St  Ivon,^ 

LLANGYBi,  near  Caerleon     .    .    •  \  q.   ^  v» 
CAERGYBi,  at  Holyhead  .     ,    .     •  /  ^'-  ^y°*' 

LLANiLLTYD.  Glamorgan     .     .     .  |  st  Illtyd,  an  Armorican. 

ILLSTON,  Glamojgan ) 

CRANTOCK,  Cardigan St  Carannog. 

LLANGADOG,  Carmarthenshire  .     .     St  Gadoga,   a  British  saint  of  the 

fifth  centuiy,  who  died  in  Brittany. 


WBry^N.toKe.^!"^    '.    '.    :i  St  Finian  the  leper,  a  royal  saint 
KiLBAR,  in  the  Isle  of  barra    .     .     St  Bar. 

ST.  kenelm's  well St  Kenelm,  a  Mercian  prince,  mur- 
dered in  a  wood  by  his  aunt  at  the 
age  of  seven. 

killaloe St  Lua. 

perranzabuloe,  or  St  Perran  in  \  St  Piran,  a  bishop  consecrated   by 
Sabulo,     Cornwall,     a    church  >     St  Patrick  for  a  mission  to  Corn- 
buried  in  the  drifting  sand    .    .  )     wall. 
PADSTOW,  f>.  Petrocstow,  in  Com- )  St  Petroc,  one  of  St  Patrick's  mis- 
wall     )      sionary  bishops. 

PENZANCE,  />.  Saint's  Headland  ,     St  Anthony. 

The  legends  of  St  Cadoc,  St  Padem,  St  Cybi,  St  Illtyd,  and  St 
Carannog  will  be  found  at  length  in  Rees,  Cambro- British  Saints^  pp.  309, 
396,  465,  495,  502 ;  and  those  of  the  others,  in  Alban  Butler,  Lives  of  the 
Saints^  and  Rees,  Welsh  Saints, 

1  Cf.  Gough*s  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  248.     There  is  a  third  St  Ivo,  the 
popular  saint  of  Brittany.    He  was  an  honest  lawyer,  and  hence  he  is  repre- 
sented as  a  black  swan  in  certain  mediaeval  verses  in  his  honour : — 
"  Sanctus  Ivo  erat  Brito 
Advocatus,  sed  non  latro 
Res  miranda  populo." 

Jephson,  Tour  infirittany^  p.  81. 

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342  Sacred  Sites. 

a  Persian  bishop ;  but  how  his  body  reached  Hunting- 
donshire, where  it  was  miraculously  discovered  by  a 
ploughman  in  the  year  looi,  tradition  sayeth  not  The 
neighbouring  town  of  ST.  NEOTS  bears  the  name  of  St. 
Neot,  who  was  a  relative  of  King  Alfred.^ 

St.  MALO  takes  its  name  from  St.  Maclou,  as  the 
chronicles  call  him.  He  appears  to  have  been  one  of 
those  wandering  evangelists^  of  whom  Ireland  and 
Scotland  sent  forth  so  many  in  the  sixth  century,  and 
we  may  perhaps  conjecture  that  his  real  name  was 
McLeod,  and  that  his  cousin  St  Magloire  was  really  a 
McClure.*  A  more  historical  personage  is  St  Gall  (the 
Gael),  the  most  celebrated  of  the  successors  of  St 
Columba: — ^he  occupied  high  station  in  France,  and 
founded  in  the  uncleared  forest  the  Scotch  abbey  of 
ST.  GALLEN,  from  which  one  of  the  Swiss  cantons  takes 
its  name.*  Another  Swiss  canton,  that  of  GLARUS, 
belonged  to  a  church  founded  by  St  Fridolin,  an  Irish 
missionary,  and  dedicated  to  St  Hilarius,  a  saint  whose 
name  has  been  corrupted  into  Glarus.*  ST,  GOAR  built 
a  hut  beneath  the  dangerous  Lurlei  rock,  at  the  spot 
which  bears  his  name,  and  devoted  himself  to  the 
succour  of  shipwrecked  mariners.*  St  Brioc  fled  from 
the  Saxon  invaders  of  Britain,  and  founded  a  monas- 
tery at  ST.  BRIEUX  in  Brittany.^     The  town  of  ST, 

1  Turner,  Saxons,  vol.  i.  pp.  549—553- 

*  A  catalogue  of  some  of  these  Irish  saints  will  be  found  in  Alban  Battery 
Lives  of  the  Saints,  vol.  xii.  pp.  415 — 432. 

'  For  an  account  of  St  Magloire  see  Ansted,  Channel  Islands,  pi  324 ; 
Rees,  IVelsh  Saints,  p.  256. 

4  Madear,  History  0/ Missions,  pp.  I46--152;  Lappenbei^  Angh-Sax»m 
Kings,  vol.  i.  p.  183, 

*  lAppenberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol,  i.  p.  183. 

*  Maclear,  If istory  0/ Christian  Missions,  p.  132. 
'  Jephson,  Tour  in  Brittany,  p.  31. 


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Si  Ives— St  Mah—SU  Cloud— St.  Heliersl      343 

OMER  was  the  see  of  St  Audomar,  a  Suabian  favourite  of 
Dagobert,  and  ST.  CLOUD  was  the  scene  of  the  retirement 
of  St.  Hlodowald,  one  of  the  saints  whose  royal  birth 
facilitated  their  admission  to  the  honours  of  the  calendar.^ 

Legends  more  or  less  marvellous  often  attach  to  names 
of  this  class. 

The  history  of  St  Brynach,  who  gave  his  name  to 
LLANFRYNACH,  is,  to  Say  the  least,  somewhat  remark- 
able! We  are  gravely  told  how,  for  lack  of  a  boat,  he 
sailed  from  Rome  to  Milford  Haven  mounted  on  a  piece 
of  rock,  and  how  among  other  proofs  of  supernatural 
power  he  freed  Fishguard  from?  the  unclean  spirits, 
who  by  their  bowlings  had  rendered  the  place  uninha- 

Sometimes  we  have  legends  of  a  totally  different 
class,  as  in  the  case  of  ST.  HELIERS  in  Jersey.  Here, 
we  are  told,  was  the  retreat  of  St.  Helerius,^  who  morti- 
fied the  flesh  by  standing  on  sharp  stones  with  spikes 
pointed  against  his  shoulders,  and  others  against  his 
breast,  in  order  to  prevent  him  from  falling  backwards 
or  forwards  in  his  weariness.* 

A  far  more  picturesque  legend  is  that  which  accounts 
for  the  name  of  the  castle  of  ST.  angelo  at  Rome. 
We  are  told  that,  in  the  time  of  Gregory  the  Great, 
while  a  great  plague  was  desolating  Rome,  the  Pontiff, 

1  SANTAR£M,  SANTIAGO,  and  SANTANDER,  In  the  Peninsola,  take  their 
names  respectively  from  St.  Irene,  a  holy  virgin,  St  James,  and  St.  Andrew; 
AUCHANGEL,  in  Russia,  from  St  Michael ;  marsaba,  on  the  Dead  Sea, 
from  the  celebrated  St  Saba,  hermit  and  abbot 

s  Rees,    Cambro-BritUh  Saints,  pp.    2S9 — 298;    Rees,    Welsh  Saints^ 

p.  156. 

*  Not  to  be  confounded  with  St  Hilarius,  Bishop  of  Poitiers,  or  with 
Hilarius,  Bishop  of  Aries,  to  whom  Waterland  has  assigned  the  authorship 
of  the  Athanasian  Creed. 

4  Lfitham,  Channel  Islands,  pp.  320—323. 


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344  Sacred  Sites. 

walking  in  procession  at  the  head  of  his  monks,  and 
chaunting  a  solemn  litany  for  the  deliverance  of  the 
city,  saw,  or  thought  he  saw,  St  Michael,  the  destroying 
angel,  standing  upon  the  very  summit  of  the  vast 
mausoleum  of  Hadrian,  in  the  act  of  sheathing  his 
avenging  sword.  The  plague  ceased,  and  thencefor- 
ward, in  memory  of  the  miracle,  the  tower  bore  the 
name  of  the  castle  of  the  angel,  whose  effigy,  poised 
upon  its  summit  in  eternal  bronze,  is  pointed  out  as 
a  perpetual  evidence  of  the  truth  of  the  legend.^ 

Where  the  reputed  burial-places  of  celebrated  saints 
have  become  great  places  of  pilgrimage,  the  name  of 
the  saint  has  often  superseded  the  original  appellation. 
Thus  the  reputed  tomb  of  Lazarus  has  changed  the 
local  name  of  Bethany  to  EL  LAZARIEH;  and  Hebron, 
the  place  of  interment  of  Abraham,  who  was  called  the 
friend  of  God,  is  now  called  by  the  Arabs  EL  KHALIL, 
or  "  the  friend."  ^  ST.  Edmund's  bury  in  Suffolk  was 
the  scene  of  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Edmund,  king  of  the 
East  Angles.  He  was  taken  prisoner  by  Ingvar  the 
Viking,  and  having  been  bound  to  a  tree,  he  was 
scourged,  and  made  a  target  for  the  arrows  of  the  Danes, 
and  was  finally  beheaded.^  ST.  OSYTH  in  Essex  is  said 
to  bear  the  name  of  a  queen  of  the  East  Angles  who 
was  beheaded  by  the  Danes.*    ST.  ALBANS  claims  to  be 

^  Dean  Milman  has  ruthlessly  pronounced  this  picturesque  legend  to  be 
inconsistent  with  Gregory's  own  letters.    History  of  Latin  Christy  ▼oL  i. 

p.  409. 

•  Stanley,  Jrutish  Churchy  p.  488. 

s  Matthew  of  Westminster,  Roger  Wendover,  and  John  of  Brompton, 
apud  Lappenberg,  Angto-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  ii.  p.  39 ;  St  John,  Four  Qm-^ 
guests,  vol.  i.  p.  253  ;  Sharon  Turner,  Saxons,  vol.  i.  pp.  521 — 525. 

^  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  pp.  124,  138.  The  name  seems  to  be  eponymic. 
Osyth  means  *'  water  channel,"  and  would  correctly  characterize  the  natural 
features  of  the  spot 


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Places  of  Pilgrimage,  345 

the  scene  of  the  sufferings  of  the  protomartyr  of  Britain, 
and  the  still  more  marvellous  legend  of  Dionysius  the 
Areopagite  finds  a  local  habitation  at  ST.  DENIS,  the 
burial-place  of  the  kings  of  France.  The  name  of 
SANTIAGO  DE  COMPOSTELLA  in  Spain  has  been  curi- 
ously formed  out  of  the  Latin  phrase  Sancto  Jacobo 

Of  the  great  monastic  edifices  of  later  ages,  most  of 
which  are  now  demolished  wholly  or  in  part,  or  devoted 
to  other  purposes,  we  find  traces  in  the  names  of  AX- 
STER,  UPMINSTER,  and  Others.  Minster  is  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  form  of  the  Low  Latin  Monasterium,  From  the 
same  word  come  the  names  of  several  places  called 
MONSTIERS,  MOUSTIERS,  or  MOUTIER  in  France  and 
Switzerland,  and  various  MONASTIRS  in  Greece  and 
Thessaly.  The  bay  of  ABER  BENIGUET  in  Brittany, 
takes  its  name  from  the  lighthouse  which  the  Bene- 
dictine monks  maintained  to  warn  vessels  from  the 
dangerous  rocks  upon  the  coast.'  Mt)NCHEN,  or  Munich 
as  we  call  it,  takes  its  name  from  the  warehouse  in 
which  the  monks  (German  mbnche)  stored  the  produce 
of  their  valuable  salt-mines  at  Reichenhall  and  Salzburg. 
ABBEVILLE  was  the  township  belonging  to  the  Abbot 
of  St.  Valeri,  seized  and  fortified  by  Hugh  Capet* 
Numerous  names,  such  as  NUNTHORPE  and  NUNEATON, 

^  Yonge,  Christian  Names^  voL  L  p.  54. 

'  Ibid.  vol.  I  p.  382. 

•  Palgrave,  Normandy  and  England^  vol.  iii.  p.  56. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

346  Sacred  Sites. 

FRATRUM,  record  the  sites  of  the  long-secularized  pos- 
sessions of  nuns,  abbots,  priors,  bishops,  friars,  monks, 
and  priests.^  The  word  Temple  often  appears  as  a 
prefix  or  suffix  in  village  names,  and  marks  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Templars :  such  are  CRESSING  TEMPLE  and 
TEMPLE  DINSLEY  in  Herts.  TERREGLES  in  Dumfries  is 
a  corruption  of  Terra  Ecclesue^  a  phrase  which  is  usually 
translated  into  the  form  of  KIRKLANDS,  or  corrupted 
into  ECCLES.  The  name  of  AIX-LA-CHAPELLE  *  reminds 
us  of  the  magnificent  shrine  erected  over  the  tomb  of 
Charlemagne,  and  CAPEL  CURIG  of  the  chapel  of  a 
humble  British  saint 

1  Sion  House,  near  Kew,  was  a  nunnery.  Gough's  Camden,  voL  ii. 
p.  88. 

'Mr.  Buij^n,  in  his  amusing  letters  from  Rome,  has  recently  pointed  out 
an  undoubted  etymology  for  this  word  chapd^  which  has  so  long  puzzled 
etymologists.  It  seems  to  have  been  the  name  given  to  the  arched  sepulchres 
excaN'ated  in  the  walls  of  the  catacombs  of  Rome,  which  afterwards  became 
places  where  prayer  was  wont  to  be  made.  The  Low  Latin  capella  is  the 
hood  or  covering  of  the  altar.  Hence  our  words  cape  and  cap.  See  Wedge- 
wood,  Dictionary  of  English  EtymoL  vol.  i.  p.  322.  The  inscription  in  the 
catacombs  which  gave  Mr.  Buigon  the  clue  is  UUratim  as  follovrs :  *'  ego 


ERUND. "  Letters  from  Rome,  p.  206.  Any  of  our  young  schoolboy  readers 
may  correct  the  grammar,  and  then  translate  the  mscription  for  their  sister's 


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Geology  and  Etymology,  347 



7%t  nature  of  geological  changes^ — The  valley  of  the  Thames  once  a  lagoon 
filled  with  islets — Thanet  once  an  islands-Reclamation  of  Romney  Marsh 
— Newhaven — Somersetshire —  The  Traeth  Mawr^  The  Carse  of  Cowrie — 
Loch  Maree — The  Fens  of  Cambridgeshire — The  Isle  of  Axholme^Silting 
up  of  the  lake  of  Geneva — Increase  of  the  Delta  of  the  Po —  Volcanoes — 
Destruction  of  ancient  Forests — Icelandic  Forests—  The  Weald  of  Kent — In^ 
crease  of  population — Populousness  of  Scucon  England—  The  nature  of 
Scucon  husbandry — English  vineyards — Extinct  animals :  the  wolf,  badger, 
auroch,  and  beaver — Ancient  ScUt  Works — Lighthouses — Changes  in  the 
relative  commercial  importance  of  towns. 

Vast  geological  operations  are  still  in  progress  on  this 
globe ;  continents  are  slowly  subsiding  at  the  rate  of 
a  few  inches  in  a  century ;  while  new  lands  are  uprising 
out  of  the  waters,  and  extensive  deltas  are  in  process 
of  formation  by  alluvial  deposition.  But  these  changes, 
vast  as  is  their  aggr^ate  amount,  are  so  gradual  that 
generations  pass  away  without  having  made  note  of  any 
sensible  mutations.  Local  names,  however,  form  an  en- 
during chronicle,  and  often  enable  us  to  detect  the  pro- 
gress of  these  physical  changes,  and  occasionally  even  to 
assign  a  precise  date  to  the  period  of  their  operation. 

Thus  it  is  not  difficult  to  prove  that  the  present  aspect 
of  the  lower  valley  of  the  Thames  is  very  different  from 
what  it  must  have  been  a  thousand  years  ago.     Instead 

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348       Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names, 

of  being  confined  within  regular  banks  the  river  must 
have  spread  its  sluggish  waters  over  a  broad  lagoon, 
which  was  dotted  with  marshy  islands.  This  is  indicated 
by  the  fact  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  word  ea  or  ey^  an 
island,  enters  into  the  composition  of  the  names  of  many 
places  by  the  river-side  which  are  now  joined  to  the 
mainland   by   rich  pastures.      BERMONDSEY,   PUTNEY, 


ETON  or  Eaton,  were  all  islands  in  the  lagoon.  The 
Abbey  Church  of  Westminster  was  built  for  security  on 
THORNEY  Island,  and  the  eastern  portion  of  the  water 
in  St.  James's  Park  is  a  part  of  that  arm  of  the  Thames 
which  encircled  the  sanctuary  of  the  monks,  and  the 
palace  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  kings.  The  name  CHELSEA 
is  a  contraction  of  chesel-ea^  or  "  shingle  island,"  and  in 
its  natural  features  the  place  must  have  once  resembled 
the  eyots  which  are  found  in  the  Thames  near  Hampton. 
In  Leland*s  time  there  was  a  shingle  bank  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Axe  in  Devon  called  the  Chisille.  The  long 
ridge  of  shingle  which  joins  the  Isle  of  Portland  to  the 
mainland  is  also  called  the  Chesil  bank ;  and  the  name 
of  the  Isle  of  Portland  proves  that  the  formation  of  this 
ridge  took  place  in  modem  times,  subsequent  to  the 
period  when  Anglo-Saxon  gave  place  to  modem  English. 
The  Isle  of  Thanet  was  formerly  as  much  an  island  as 
the  Isle  of  Shepp<?K  is  at  the  present  time.  Ships  bound 
up  the  Thames  used  ordinarily  to  avoid  the  perils  of 
the  North  Foreland  by  sailing  through  the  channel 
between  the  island  and  the  mainland,  entering  by  Sand- 
wich and  passing  out  by  Reculver,  near  Heme  Bay. 
SANDWICH,  or  *'  sandy  bay,"  was  then  one  of  the  chief 
ports  of  debarkation ;  but  the  sands  have  filled  up  the 

^  The  island  at  the  confluence  of  the  Mole  and  the  Thames. 

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Silting  up  of  tJu  Stour.  349 

wick  or  bay,  the  ancient  port  is  now  a  mile  and  a  half 
distant  from  high-v/ater  mark;  and  the  ruins  of  Rutupiae, 
now  Richborough,  the  port  where  the  Roman  fleets  used 
to  be  laid  up,  are  now  surrounded  by  fine  pastures. 
EBBFLEET,  which  is  now  half  a  mile  from  the  shore,  was 
a  port  in  the  twelfth  century,^  and  its  name  indicates 
the  former  existence  of  a  "  tidal  channel "  at  the  spot^ 
This  navigable  channel,  which  passed  between  the  Isle 
of  Thanet  and  the  mainland,  has  ^been  silted  up  by  the 
deposits  brought  down  by  the  River  Stour.  STOUR- 
MOUTH — ^the  name,  be  it  noted,  is  English,  not  Anglo- 
Saxon — is  now  four  miles  from  the  sea,  aqd  marks  the 
former  embouchure  of  this  river,  chiselet,  close  by, 
was  once  a  shingle  islet,  and  the  name  of  FORDWICK,^ 
five  mfles  farther  inland,  proves  that  in  the  time  of  the 
Danes  the  estuary  must  have  extended  nearly  as  far  as 

ROMNEY  Marsh,*  which  is  now  a  fertile  tract  contain- 
i^^g  50,000  acres  of  the  best  pasturage  in  England, 
must,  in  Saxon  times,  have  resembled  the  shore  near 
Lymington — a  worthless  muddy  flat,  overflowed  at  every 
tide.     OLD  ROMNEY,  NEW  ROMNEY,  and  SCOTNEY,  were 

1  Stanley,  Memcriah  of  Canterbury^  p.  13. 

a  The  Celtic  name  of  durlock,  more  than  a  mile  from  the  sea,  means 
^'  water  lake,"  and  indicates  the  process  hy  which  the  estuary  was  converted 
into  meadow. 

3  Fordwick  means  in  Danish  the  bay  on  the  arm  of  the  sea.  (See  p.  161, 
supra).  Fordwick  was  anciently  the  port  of  Canterbury,  and  a  corporate 
town.  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  356.  Nonc^^  in  the  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries  was  "on  the  banks  of  an  arm  of  the  sea.''  Lyell, 
Principles  of  Geology^  p.  307. 

4  Beyond  Canterbury  is  Olantigh,  anciently  Olantige,  whose  name  shows 
that  in  Saxon  times  it  must  have  been  an  ige^  or  island. 

s  From  the  Gaelic  word  ruimne^  a  marsh.  The  name  of  RAMSEY,  in  the 
Fens,  is  derived  from  the  same  source. 


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3SO       Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names, 

low  islands  which  afforded  sites  for  the  earliest  fisher- 
villages.  The  name  of  WINCHELSEA,  or  gwent-chesel-^, 
enlightens  us  as  to  the  process  by  which  these  islands  were 
formed — namely,  by  the  heaping  up  of  shingle  banks 
at  the  seaward  edge  of  the  muddy  flats.^  The  recent 
origin  of  this  tract  of  land,  and  the  gradual  progress  of 
its  reclamation,  are  moreover  curiously  illustrated  by 
the  fact  that  over  the  greater  portion  of  the  marsh  the 
local  names  present  a  marked  contrast  to  the  ancient 
names  which  so  abound  in  Kent.  They  are  purely 
English,  such   as   IVYCHURCH,  FAIRFIELD,  6ROORLAND, 

and  NEWCHURCH.  In  a  few  of  the  more  elevated  spots 
the  names  are  Saxon  or  Celtic,  as  winchelsea  or 
ROMNEY,  while  it  is  only  when  we  come  to  the  inland 
margin  of  the  marsh  that  we  meet  with  a  fringe  of 
ancient  names  like  LYMNE  or  APPLEDORE,^  which  show 
the  existence  of  continuous  habitable  land  in  the  times 
of  the  Romans  or  the  Celts.' 

Lymne,  the  ancient  Portus  Lemanus,  is  the  mawh/^ 
Tufifjv  of  Ptolemy,  and  was  one  of  the  three  g^eat 
fortified  harbours  which  protected  the  communications 
of  the  Romans  with  the  Continent     The  ruins  of  the 

^  Dungeness,  at  the  southern  extrenuty  of  Romney  Manh,  is  a  long  spit 
of  shingle,  derived  from  the  disintegration  of  the  clii&at  Beachy  Head,  and 
has  for  the  last  two  centuries  been  advancing  seaward  at  the  rate  of  neariy 
twenty  feet  per  annum.     Lyell,  Princ^les,  p.  316. 

*  From  the  Celtic  <hor^  water.  Appledore  was  once  a  maritime  town. 
See  Cough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  368. 

>  The  same  is  the  case*in  the  Fens.  The  portions  reclaimed  at  an  early 
period  show  English  names  surrounded  by  a  border  of  Danish  names  on  the 
north,  and  of  Saxon  names  on  the  south.  The  same  is  the  case  with  the 
Delta  of  the  Rhone.  Places  lying  to  the  north  of  the  old  Roman  road  be- 
tween Nismes  and  Beziers  have  Celtic  names,  while  all  those  to  the  sooth 
of  the  road  have  names  of  Romance  derivation.  Astmc,  Hut,  Langueipe^ 
pp.  374.  375 ;  Lyell,  Principles,  p.  258. 


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Formation  of  Romney  Marsh,  •  35 1 

Roman  port  are  now  nearly  two  mUes  from  the  sea. 
The  names  of  west  HYTHE,  which  is  more  than  a  mile 
from  the  shore,  and  of  HYTHE,  which  is  only  half  a 
mile,  chronicle  the  silting  up  of  the  backwater  which 
formed  the  ancient  port,  and  the  successive  seaward  ad- 
vances of  the  shingle  since  the  time  when  the  Saxon  word 
kitke  was  superseded  by  its  English  equivalent  "haven  "^ 

The  name  of  NEWHAVEN  commemorates  a  geological 
event  of  an  opposite  character.  LEWES  was  anciently 
a  port,^  and  hamsey  was  a  marshy  island  in  the  estuary 
of  the  River  Ouse,  which  then  entered  the  sea  at  SEA- 
FORD,*  but  a  great  storm  in  the  year  1570  permanently 
changed  its  course,  and  the  port  of  Newhaven  has  arisen 
at  the  new  outlet  of  the  river.* 

Pevensey  and  selsey  arc  now  no  longer  islands, 
the  channels  which  divided  them  from  the  mainland 
having  been  silted  up.  The  name  of  SELSEY  (seal's 
island)  reminds  us  of  the  remote  period  when  seals  lay 
basking  on  the  Sussex  coast* 

The  central  part  of  Somersetshire  presents  many 
names  which  show  great  physical  changes.*  In  Celtic 
islands,  as  was  the  case  in  the  Saxon  period  with 

^  Wright,  Wanderings  of  an  Antiquary^  p.  12$. 

*  See  p.  171,  supra, 

»  Probably  from  the  Danish  j^(i?n/. 

^  The  name  of  Newport  in  South  Wales  reminds  ns  in  like  manner  of 
the  decay  of  the  Roman  port  at  Caerleon,  and  the  erection  of  another  a 
little  nearer  to  the  sea ;  and  Newport  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  has  taken  the 
place  of  an  older  harbour  near  Carisbrooke. 

'  See  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  268. 

*  See  Macaulay,  History  rfEngland^  vol  I  p.  604. 


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352       Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names. 

and  WESTHOLME,  while  the  pasture-land  called  MEARE 
must  once  have  been  the  bed  of  an  inland  lake. 

The  whole  district  of  the  TRAETH  MAWR  or  "  Great 
Sand  "  in  North  Wales  was  an  estuary  at  no  very  remote 
period.  The  action  of  the  sea  may  be  distinctly  traced 
along  the  rocks  near  Tremadoc.^  Almost  every  rocky 
knoll  on  the  wide  flat  pasture  land  bears  the  name  of 
ynysy  or  island,*  and  must  once  have  been  surrounded  by 
every  tide,  as  is  still  the  case  with  Ynys-gifftan  and 
Ynys-gyngar.  YNYS  FAWR  and  YNYS  EACH,  the  "  Great 
Island  "  and  the  "  Little  Island  "  are  now  two  miles  from 
the  sea.*  From  YNYS  HIR,  now  some  way  inland,  Madoc 
is  said  to  have  sailed  in  quest  of  unknown  lands.  Ywem, 
two  miles  from  the  sea,  was  once  a  sea-port,  as  is  proved 
by  the  parish  register  of  Penmorpha.* 

The  tract  of  land  near  Dartmouth  called  NEW  GROUND 
was  only  reclaimed  from  the  river  a  century  ago.*  ROOD- 
EY,  which  now  forms  the  race-course  at  Chester,  was 
formerly  an  island  surrounded  by  the  river  Dee,  like 
the  INCHES,  or  islands  of  Perth.  The  Carse  of  Gowrie 
is  the  bed  of  an  ancient  arm  of  the  sea,  which  having 
been  nearly  filled  up  by  the  alluvium  of  the  Tay  and 
the  Earn,  has,  in  common  with  the  whole  of  central 
Scotland,  undergone  an  elevation  of  twenty  to  thirty 
feet  since  the  Roman  period.    INCHTURE,  INCHMARTIN, 

1  The  site  of  this  town  was  reclaimed  from  the  sea  in  1813  by  means  of 
an  embankment  made  by  Mr.  Maddock. 


s  YNYS  GWERTHERYN,  south  of  Harlech,  is  a  mile  inland. 

<  Davis,  on  the  Geology  of  Tremadoc,  in  Quarterly  Journal  of  ike  C€^ 
logical  Society,  for  May,  1846,  vol.  ii.  pp.  70—75  ;  Chambers,  Anciemi  Sm 
Margins,  p.  20. 

8  Murray,  Handbook  to  Devonshire  and  Cornwall^  p.  58. 


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Recent  Elevation  of  Scotland.  353 

INCHMICHAEL,  INCHYRA,  and  MEGGINCH  were,  as  the 
names  witness,  islands  in  this  frith.^  In  the  plain  a  little 
below  Dunkeld,  a  hillock  containing  156  acres  goes  by 
the  name  of  INCHTUTHILL,  "  the  island  of  the  flooded 
stream,"  showing  that  the  Tay  must  once  have  sur- 
rounded it^ 

This  secular  elevation  of  Scotland  may  also  be  traced 
by  means  of  the  raised  beaches  on  the  western  coast 
Here  also  we  meet  with  a  remarkable  etymological 
confirmation  of  the  results  arrived  at  on  independent 
grounds  by  geological  investigators.  "Loch  Ewe,  in 
Ross-shire,  one  of  our  salt  sea  lochs,"  says  Hugh  Miller, 
"  receives  the  waters  of  Loch  Maree — a  noble  freshwater 
lake,  about  eighteen  miles  in  length,  so  little  raised 
above  the  sea  level  that  ere  the  last  upheaval  of  the 
land  it  must  have  formed  merely  the  upper  reaches  of 
Loch  Ewe.  The  name  Loch  Maree — Mary's  Loch  ^ — 
is  evidently  mediaeval.  And,  curiously  enough,  about  a 
mile  beyond  its  upper  end,  just  where  Loch  Ewe  would 
have  terminated  ere  the  land  last  arose,  an  ancient  farm 
has  borne,  from  time  immemorial,  the  name  of  KINLOCH 
EWE— the  head  of  Loch  Ewe."  * 

Start  island,  in  the  Orkneys,  has  in  comparatively 
recent  times  been  separated  from  the  Island  of  Sanda. 
The  word  start  means  a  tail,  as  in  the  case  of  Start-point, 
in  Devon,  and  the  redstart  or  red-tailed  bird.    Thus  the 

1  Chambers,  Ancimt  Sea  Margins^  p.  19 ;  Geikie,  ''On  the  Date  of  the 
Last  Elevation  of  Central  Scotland,"  in  Quarterly  Journal  of  Geological 
Society,  vol.  xviii  p.  227.  An  anchor  has  been  dag  up  at  Megginch,  and  at 
the  fann  of  Inchmichael  a  boat-hook  was  found  at  a  depth  of  eight  feet 
below  the  soil,  and  twenty  feet  above  the  present  high  watermark. 

*  Chambers,  Ancient  Sea  Margins,  p.  44. 

*  Or,  perhaps,  from  the  Celtic  mar,  the  sea. 

*  Hugh  Miller,  Lectures  on  Geology,  p.  23. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

354        Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names. 

name  of  this  island  proves  that  it  was  once  only  a  long 
promontory  projecting  from  the  island  of  Sanda.^ 

The  Fens  of  Cambridgeshire  aud  Huntingdonshire 
constitute  a  vast  alluvial  flat  of  more  than  a  thousand 
square  miles  in  extent,  and  must  formerly  have  been 
a  shallow  bay  six  times  as  large  as  the  Wash,  which 
has  been  silted  up  by  the  deposits  of  the  Nen,  the 
Welland,  and  the  Ouse. 

The  local  names  in  this  district  show,  as  might  have 
been  expected,  great  alterations  in  the  distribution  of 
land  and  water.  HOLBEACH  is  now  six  miles  from  the 
coast,  and  WISBEACH,  the  beach  of  the  Wash  or  Ouse, 
is  seven  miles  inland.^  The  ancient  sea-wall,  now  at  a 
considerable  distance  from  the  shore,  has  given  rise  to 
the  local  names  of  WALSOKEN,  WALTON,  and  walpole. 

The  tide  does  not  now  come  within  two  miles  of 
TYDD,  and  almost  all  the  present  villages  in  the  Fen 
country  were  originally  islands,  as  is  shown  by  their 
names.  Thus  Tilney,  Gedney,  Stickney,  Ramsey, 
Thomey,  Stuntney,  Southery,  Norney,  Quaney,  Helgae, 
Higney,  Spinney,  Whittlesey,  Yaxley,  Ely,  Holme, 
Oxney,  Eye,  Coveny,  Monea,  Swathesey,  Sawtrey, 
Raveley,  Rowoy,  and  Wiskin,*  are  no  longer,  as  they 
once  were,  detached  islands  in  the  watery  waste;  the 
great  inland  seas  of  Ramsey  Mere  and  Whittlesey  Mere 
are  now  drained,  and  the  flocks  of  wildfowl  have  given 
place  to  flocks  of  sheep. 

The  Isle  of  axholme  or  axelholme,  in  Lincoln- 

1  Lyell,  Principles,  p.  302. 

»  We  have  also  landbeach,  waterbeach,  asbeach,  over  (Anglo-Saxon 
ufer,  a  shore),  and  erith  {ora,  shore,  and  hithe^  haven),  which  are  all 
places  on  the  edge  of  the  present  Fen  district. 

»  Both  syllables  of  this  name  are  Celtic  It  is  evidently  the  "  ^water 
island."    See  p.  204,  supra. 


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The  Fens,  355 

shire,  is  now  joined  to  the  main  land  by  a  wide  tract 
of  rich  comland.  The  name  shows  that  it  has  been 
an  island  during  the  time  of  the  Celts,  Saxons,  Danes, 
and  English.  The  first  syllable  Ax  is  the  Celtic  word 
for  the  water  by  which  it  was  surrounded.  The  Anglo- 
Saxons  added  their  word  for  island  to  the  Celtic  name, 
and  called  it  Axey.  A  neighbouring  village  still  goes 
by  the  name  of  HAXEY.  The  Danes  added  holing  the 
Danish  word  for  island,  to  the  Saxon  name,  and  modern 
English  influences  have  corrupted  Axeyholme  into 
Axelholme,  and  contracted  it  into  Axholme,  and  have 
finally  prefixed  the  English  word  Isle,  The  internal 
evidence  afforded  by  the  name  is  supplemented  by 
historical  facts.  In  the  time  of  Henry  II.  the  island 
was  attacked  and  taken  by  the  Lincolnshire  men  in 
boats,  and  so  late  as  the  time  of  James  I.  it  was  sur- 
rounded by  broad  waters,  across  which  the  islanders 
sailed  once  a  week  to  attend  the  market  at  Doncaster. 

We  can  trace  similar  changes  on  the  Continent.  The 
city  of  LISLE  is  built  on  Uisky  once  an  island.  MON- 
TREUIL  SUR  MER,  formerly  Monasteriolum  super  Mare, 
was  built  in  the  year  900,  on  the  banks  of  an  estuary 
which  has  been  silted  up,  and  the  town  is  now  separated 
from  the  sea  by  many  miles  of  alluvial  soil.^  A  Danish 
fleet  once  sailed  up  to  jS^rvent,  which  is  now  ten  miles 
from  the  sea.  WISSAN  is  now  four  miles  from  the  sea. 
The  name  is  a  corruption  of  the  Norse  Wissant  or 
Witsand,  and  refers  to  the  "white  sand"  which  has 
choked  up  the  harbour  from  which,  in  all  probability, 
Caesar  first   sailed    for  Britain.^      ST.  pierre-SUR-LE- 

1  Smiles,  Lives  of  the  Engineers^  vol.  i.  p.  37. 

'  Palgrave,  England  and  Normandy ^  vol.  ii.  p.  57.  - 

*  Ibid.  vol.  ii.  p.  200. 

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3S6        Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names. 

DIGUE,  near  Bruges;  is  six  miles  from  the  present 
seawall,  and  the  town  of  DAMME,  which  once  possessed 
an  harbour  and  considerable  maritime  trade,  is  now  an 
inland  agricultural  town.^  n6tre  dame  DES  PORTS, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Rhone,  was  an  harbour  in  the  year 
898,  but  is  now  three  miles  from  the  sea.^  OSTIA,  as 
the  name  implies,  and  as  we  are  expressly  told,  was 
founded  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber,  but  the  alluvial 
matter  from  the  Apennines  brought  down  by  the  yellow 
river  has  now  advanced  the  coast  line  three  miles 
beyond  Ostia.* 

There  are  but  few  islands  in  the  world  whose  names 
do  not  contain  some  root  denoting  their  insular  character. 
A  remarkable  exception  to  this  rule  is  to  be  found  in 
the  names  of  the  islands  which  lie  off  the  mouth  of  the 
Scheldt,  and  at  the  entrance  of  the  Zuyder  Zee.  Does 
not  the  circumstance  bear  a  striking  testimony  to  the 
historical  fact  that  it  is  only  within  comparatively  recent 
times  that  the  delta  of  the  Scheldt  has  been  broken  up, 
and  the  Zuyder  Zee  formed  by  incursions  of  the  ocean  ? 

Port  VALAIS,  the  Portus  Valesiae  of  the  Romans, 
occupies  the  site  of  the  ancient  harbour  at  the  upper 
end  of  the  Lake  of  Greneva.  The  alluvium  of  the  Rhone 
has  advanced  the  land  nearly  two  miles  in  less  than 
two  thousand  years,  being  at  the  rate  of  between  four 
and  five  feet  per  annum.  VILLENEUVE,  the  new  town, 
has  taken  the  place  of  the  old  port 

The  southern  face  of  the  Alps  is  bare  and  precipitous, 
and  from  meteorological  causes,  which  are  well  under- 
stood, the  district  is  peculiarly  liable  to  sudden  and 

*  Burn,  Tour  in  Belgium,  p.  14. 

«  Lyell,  Principles,  p.  259. 

8  Bimbuiy,  in  Smith's  Diet.  ofGeogr,  s.  v.  Ostia. 


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Delta  of  the  Po.  357 

violent  falls  of  rain.  The  rivers  of  Lombardy  are,  in 
consequence,  charged  with  an  exceptional  amount  of 
alluvial  matter.  The  whole  plain  of  the  Fo  is  rapidly- 
rising,  so  much  so  that  at  Modena  the  ruins  of  the 
Roman  city  are  found  forty  feet  beneath  the  surface 
of  the  ground.  Hence  at  the  embouchures  of  the  Po 
and  the  Adige  we  might  anticipate  rapid  changes  in 
the  coast  line ;  and  this  we  find  to  be  the  case.  We 
find  a  range  of  ancient  dunes  and  sea  beaches  stretching 
from  Brandolo  to  Mesola.  Ravenna,  now  four  miles 
inland,  stood  on  the  coast  two  thousand  years  ago.  One 
of  the  suburbs  of  Ravenna  is  called  CLASSE,  a  corruption 
of  Classis,^  the  ancient  name  of  the  port,  which  was 
capable  of  giving  shelter  to  250  ships  of  war.  Classe 
is  now  separated  from  the  sea  by  a  dense  forest  of 
stone-pines  two  miles  in  breadth.  The  Adriatic  takes 
its  name  from  the  town  of  ADRIA,  which  was  its  chief 
port,  B.C.  200.  ATRI,  the  modern  town  upon  the  site, 
is  now  nearly  twenty  miles  from  the  coast 

The  present  delta  of  the  Po,  containing  2,800  square 
miles,  was  probably  at  no  very  distant  date  a  shallow 
lagoon,  resembling  that  which  is  crossed  by  the  railway 
viaduct  between  Mestre  and  Venice.  The  delta  com- 
mences at  the  town  of  OSTEGLIA,  now  eighty-six  miles 
from  the  sea.  The  name  of  Osteglia  would  indicate 
that  here  formerly  was  the  embouchure  of  the  Po. 
ESTE  is  nearly  thirty  miles  inland,  and  the  name  seems 
also  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  word  ostia.  The  Po  has, 
moreover,  frequently  changed  its  channel,  and  two  of 
these  deserted  river-beds  are  known  by  the  names  of 
the  PO  MORTO,  the  PO  VECCHIO.^ 

1  Niebnhr,  Lectures  on  EthnoL  and  Geogr,  vol.  ii.  p.  240 ;  Lyell,  Prin- 
cipleSy  p.  256 ;  Marsh,  Man  and  Nature^  p.  256. 

*  Lyell,  Principles f  p.  255  ;  Beardmore,  Hydrology^  pp.  164 — 180. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

3  5  8        Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names. 

The  name  of  VESUVIUS  is  probably  Oscan,  and  proves, 
as  Benfey  thinks,  that  this  volcano  must  have  been  in 
eruption  some  2,400  years  ago,  before  the  Greeks 
arrived  in  Italy .^  A  similar  conclusion  may  be  deduced 
from  the  fact  that  the  name  of  ETNA  means  a  "furnace'* 
in  the  Phoenician  language.^ 

On  the  Bay  of  Baiae  we  find  MONTE  NUOVO,  the  "  new 
mountain,"  which,  at  the  time  of  the  eruption  in  the 
year  1538,  was  thrown  up  to  a  height  of  440  feet  in  less 
than  a  week.^ 

Near  Primiero,  in  the  Italian  Tyrol,  is  a  lake,  three 
miles  long,  called  LAGO  NUOVO.  This  was  formed  a  few 
years  ago  by  a  landslip  which  choked  up  the  entrance 
to  one  of  the  narrow  mountain  valleys  * 

The  physical  condition  and  the  climate  of  the  northern 
hemisphere  have  been  largely  affected  by  the  destruction 
of  the  forests  which  once  clothed  the  greater  part  of 
Europe.*  The  notices  of  ancient  writers  are  seldom 
sufficiently  definite  or  copious  to  enable  us  to  discover 
the  extent  of  the  old  woodland.  Occasionally  we  have 
tangible  evidence  such  as  is  supplied  by  the  bog  oak  of 
Ireland,  or  the  buried  trees  of  Lincolnshire.  But  ancient 
names  here  stand  us  in  good  stead,  and  enable  us,  at 
certain  definite  periods,  to  discover  with  considerable 
precision,  the  extent  of  primaeval  forests  now  partly  or 
entirely  destroyed 

1  Benfey,  in  Hofer's  ZeUschrifty  vol.  ii.  p.  1 18.  Cf.  the  Sanskrit  twnr, 

*  See  p.  93,  supra.  The  name  of  sodom  means  burning,  thereby  indi- 
cating, as  Dr.  Stanley  has  suggested,  the  volcanic  character  of  the  r^on  in 
'which  the  catastrophe  took  place.     Sineu  and  Pal,  p.  289. 

*  Lyell,  Principles  of  Geology^  pp.  366 — ^372. 

4  Gilbert  and  Churchill,  Dolomite  Mountains^  p.  451. 
B  See  Marsh,  Man  and  Nature^  pp.  128 — 329. 


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Destruction  of  Forests.  359 

The  local  names  of  Iceland  show  in  a  very  curious 
manner  the  way  in  which  the  rigour  of  the  climate  and 
the  scarcity  of  fuel  have  caused  the  total  destruction  of 
the  few  forests  of  dwarf  trees  which  existed  at  the  time 
when  the  island  was  first  discovered.  At  the  present 
time,  a  solitary  tree,  about  thirty  feet  in  height,  is  the 
sole  representative  of  the  former  Icelandic  forests  ;  and 
the  stunted  bushes  growing  on  the  heaths  are  so  eagerly 
sought  for  fuel  that,  as  a  recent  traveller  has  observed, 
the  loss  of  a  toothpick  is  likely  to  prove  an  irreparable 
misfortune.  The  chief  resource  of  the  inhabitants  is 
the  drift-wood  cast  upon  the  coast  by  the  gulf  stream, 
or  the  costly  substitute  of  Norwegian  timber.  But  at 
the  time  of  the  first  settlement  of  the  island  there  must 
have  been  considerable  tracts  of  woodland.  In  the  Land- 
namabok  we  find  no  less  than  thirty-one  local  names 
containing  the  suffix  Iiolty  a  wood,  and  ten  containing 
the  word  skogr,  a  shaw.  Most  of  these  names  still  re-  ' 
main,  though  every  vestige  of  a  wood  has  disappeared. 
Thus  there  are  several  places  still  called  HOLT ;  and  we 
also  find  HOLTFORD,  SKALHOLT,  REYKHOLT  (where 
Snorro  Sturleson  was  murdered),  SKOGARFOSS,  Cape 

The  name  of  HOLSTEIN,  or  Hol-satia,  means  the  Forest 
settlement,  and  it  probably  indicates,  as  Dr.  Latham 
has  observed,^  that  the  now  barren  Segeberger  Heath 
was  once  a  vast  forest  which  supplied  a  portion  of  the 
Angles  with  the  materials  for  the  fleets  with  which  they 
invaded  the  shores  of  England, 

In  southern  Europe  names  like  BROGLio,  BROLO,  and 
BREUIL  attest  the  former  existence  of  forests  in  districts 

1  English  Language^  vol.  i.  p.  123. 


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360       Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names. 

now  entirely  bare.  The  name  of  the  island  of  MADEIRA 
bears  witness  to  the  vast  forests  which  clothed  the  moun- 
tains of  the  island,  and  which  were  wantonly  destroyed 
by  fire  soon  after  the  discovery  by  the  Portuguese,^ 

The  bare  heaths  to  the  south-west  of  London  seem 
to  have  been  at  one  time  partially  clothed  with  forest 
This  is  indicated  by  the  root  holt  (German  <^oI)), 
which  we  find   in  the   names  of  bagshot,  badshot, 


The  vast  tract  in  Kent  and  Sussex  which  is  now 
called  the  WEALD,'  is  the  remains  of  a  Saxon  forest 
called  the  Andredesleah,  which,  with  a  breadth  of  30 
miles,  stretched  for  120  miles  along  the  northern  frontier 
of  the  kingdom  of  the  South  Saxons.  In  the  district  of 
the  Weald  almost  every  local  name,  for  miles  and  miles, 
terminates  in  hurst y  ley,  den^  or  field.  The  hursts^  and 
charts^  were  the  denser  portions  of  the  forest ;  the  leys 
were  the  open  forest  glades  where  the  cattle  love  to  lie ;  * 

^  Marsh,  Man  and  Nature,  p.  12^  So  also  local  names  attest  thefonner 
existence  of  the  forests  which  covered  the  noW  bare  slopes  of  the  High 
Alps  of  Dauphiny.     lb.  p.  24. 

*  Cf.  the  German  wald^  wood  well  Street  is  the  name  of  the  Roman 
road  which  ran  through  the  wooded  district  Maiuy,  HiU,  des  Forits^ 
p.  129. 

*  E.g.  Penshurst,  Lyndhurst,  and  Chiselhurst 

^  As  in  Seal  Chart  and  Chart  Sutton  in  Kent  The  word  chart  is  identical 
with  the  hart  (wood,  or  forest),  which  we  find  in  such  German  names  as  the 
HARTZ  Mountains,  the  hercynian  Forest,  hunhart,  lyndhart,  flkc  H 
and  ch  are  interchangeable,  as  in  the  case  of  the  -Chatti,  who  have  given 
their  name  to  Hesse.  There  seems  to  have  been  a  German  word  harmd  or 
charudf  from  which  hart  and  chart  are  derived  We  find  it  in  the  names  of 
the  "forest  tribes,"  the  Harudes  and  the  Cherusd.  Cf«Tatham,  En^h 
Language,  vol.  t  p.  57  ;  Maury,  Hist,  des  Forks,  p.  187. 

»  The  root  of  the  word  leah  or  lea,  is  the  verb  "  to  lie,"  Kemble,  Codcx' 
Dipt.  voL  iii.  p.  xxxiiL 


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The  Weald. 


the  dens  ^  were  the  deep  wooded  valleys,  and  the  fields  * 
were  little  patches  of  "felled"  or  cleared  lands  in  the 
midst  of  the  surrounding  forest.  From  PETERSFIELD 
HURST,  and  LAMBERHURST,  as  far  as  hawkshurst 
and  TENTERDEN,  these  forest  names  stretch  in  an  un- 
interrupted string.*  The  dens  were  the  swine  pastures ; 
and  down  to  the  seventeenth  century  the  "Court  of 
Dens,"  as  it  was  called,  was  held  at  Aldington  to  deter- 
mine disputes  arising  out  of  the  rights  of  forest  pasture.* 

^  Den  is  probably  a  Celtic  word  adopted  by  the  Saxons.  The  ardennes 
is  the  ''great  forest"  on  the  frontiers  of  Belgium  and  France.  On  the 
word  den,,  see  Leo,  RectitudineSy  p.  91 ;  Kemble,  Saxons,  vol.  i.  p.  481  ; 
Maury,  Hist,  des  Forfts,  p.  167. 

*  E,g,  Cuckfield,  lindfield,  Uckfield.    On  Jleid  sec  note  on  p.  160,  supra, 
>  An  analysis  of  the  forest  names  in  the  Weald  gives  the  following 
results: — 







Central  Kent   .... 
Northern  Sussex    .     .     . 
Southern  Surrey    .     .     . 
Eastern  Hants  .... 


























*  The  surnames  Hayward  and  Howard  are  corruptions  of  Hogwarden, 
an  officer  elected  annually  to  see  that  the  swine  in  the  common  forest  pas- 
tures or  dens  were  duly  provided  with  rings,  and  were  prevented  from 
5tTa3ring.  The  Howard  family  first  comes  into  notice  in  the  Weald,  where 
their  name  would  lead  us  to  expect  to  find  them.  So  the  family  name  of 
Woodwanl  is  vudu  veard,  the  wood  warden,  whose  duties  were  analogous 
to  those  of  the  howard.  There  are  many  evidences  of  the  importance 
attached  to  swine  in  Anglo-Saxon  times.  F/itcA  is  etymologically  the  same 
word  z&fldsck  or  fiesh,  showing  that  the  flesh  of  swine  was  pre-eminently 


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362        Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names, 

Another  line  of  names  ending  in  den  testifies  to  the 
existence  of  the  forest  tract  in  Hertfordshire,  Bedford- 
shire, and  Huntingdonshire,  which  formed  the  western 
boundary  of  the  East  Saxon  and  East  Anglian  king- 
are  vestiges  of  the  great  Warwickshire  forest  of  ARDEN, 
which  stretched  from  the  forest  of  Dean  to  Sherwood 

The  BLACK  FOREST  in  Argyle  is  now  almost  entirely- 
destitute  of  trees,  and  the  same  is  the  case  with  the 
COTSWOLD  Hills  in  Gloucestershire.  This  name  con- 
tains two  synonymous  elements.^  The  second  syllable 
is  the  Anglo-Saxon  weald,  a  wood,  which  we  find  in 
the  now  treeless  WOLDS  of  Yorkshire ;  and  the  first 
portion  is  the  Celtic  coed,  a  wood,  which  we  find  in 

The  name  of  DERBY,  the  "village  of  wild  beasts,"* 
shows  us  the  state  of  things  on  the  arrival  of  the  Danes. 
The  Midland  Derby  lay  between  the  forests  of  Arden 
and  Sherwood.  The  hundred  of  Derby,  which  occupies 
the  southern  portion  of  Lancashire,  and  includes  the 
populous  towns  of  Liverpool  and  Wigan,  was  one  vast 
forest,  with  the  solitary  village  of  Derby  standing  in 

"  the  flesh  "  to  which  our  ancestors  were  accustomed.  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
in  the  well-known  forest  dialogue  in  Ivanhoe,  has  pointed  out  the  fact  that 
while  veal,  beef,  mutton,  and  venison  are  Norman  terms,  bacon  is  Saxcnu 
Cf.  Mrs.  Grote,  Collected  Papers,  p.  165  ;  Kemble,  Angh-Saxons,  vol.  i.  pp. 
481 — ^486  ;  Leo,  RectUudines,  p.  129;  Marsh,  Lectures  on  En^ish  Langua,gLt 
p.  248. 

^  See  pp.  210—213,  supra, 

*  Whitaker,  History  of  Whalley,  p.  9 ;  Verstegan,  Restitution,  p.  26a. 

>  The  German  word  thier  still  means  any  wild  animal ;  but  in  En^and 
the  extermination  of  the  wolf,  the  vrild  ox,  and  the  badger,  has  left  the 
*'  deer  "  as  the  solitaiy  representative  of  the  German  thier. 


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Forest-Names,  363 

the  midst,  till  at  length  the  villages  of  Ormskirk  and 
Preston  grew  up  around  the  church  built  by  Ormr,  and 
the  priest's  house.^ 

Indeed,  Lancashire,  which  is  now  such  a  busy  hive  of 
workers,  was  one  of  the  most  desolate  and  thinly  peopled 
parts  of  England  before  coal  had  been  discovered  under- 
lying her  barren  moorlands  and  thick  forests.  An 
analysis  of  the  local  names  will  enable  us  to  make  a 
rough  comparison  of  the  area  anciently  under  cultivation 
with  that  which  was  unreclaimed.  Throughout  Lan- 
cashire we  find  very  few  names  ending  in  borough^  by^ 
or  thorpe^  and  hence  we  conclude  that  the  number  of 
villages  and  towns  was  small.  There  is  a  fair  sprinkling 
of  names  in  haiUy  worthy  and  cote^  suffixes  which  would 
denote  detached  homesteads ;  while  the  very  lai^e 
number  of  names  which  are  compounded  with  the  words 
shaWy  holt,  ley,  hill,  and  merey  prove  that  the  greater 
portion  of  the  county  consisted  only  of  woodland  or  wild 

In  order  to  arrive  at  somewhat  definite  results  an 
analysis  has  been  made  of  the  local  names  in  the  counties 
of  Surrey  and  Suffolk.  Of  the  total  number  of  names 
in  Surrey  36  per  cent,  have  terminations  like  wood^  holt, 
hursty  ley,  detiy  or  moor,  and  12  per  cent,  end  in  daUy 
combey  ridge,  hill,  &c.,  while  40  per  cent  exhibit  such 
suffixes  as  haniy  worth,  cotey  totiy  stedy  or  borough,  whence 
we  gather  that  the  proportion  of  uninhabited  to  in- 
habited places  was  48  to  40.  In  Suffolk,  on  the  other 
hand,  the  population  seems  to  have  been  much  more 
dense,  for  65  per  cent,  of  the  names  denote  habitations, 
18  per  cent  denote  wood  and  moorland,  and  7  per  cent 

^  See  Whitaker,  History  of  Maruhestery  vol.  ii.  p.  403. 
•  Davies,  in  Philolog,  Trans,  for  1855,  p.  262. 


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364       Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names, 

denote  hills.^  It  would  thus  appear  that  the  ratio  of 
the  density  of  the  population  in  Suffolk  to  that  in  Surrey 
was  approximately  as  13  to  8,  whereas  at  the  present 
time  the  population  of  Suffolk  is  215  to  the  square  mile, 
and  that  of  Surrey  842,  or  in  the  ratio  of  13  to  48. 

The  names  which  we  have  been  considering  indicate 
the  former  existence  of  ancient  forests  that  have  been 
cleared.  In  Hampshire  we  are  presented  with  the  con- 
verse phenomenon ;  we  meet  with  names  which  establish 
a  fact  which  has  been  doubted  by  some  historical  in- 
quirers, that  extensive  populated  districts  were  afforested 
to  form  what  now  constitutes  the  New  Forest  The 
very  name  of  the  NEW  FOREST  has  its  historical  value — 
and  within  its  present  reduced  area,  the  sites  of  some  of 
the  villages  that  were  destroyed  are  attested  by  names 
CHURCH  MOOR,  while  the  village  names  of  Greteham, 
Adelingham,  Wolnetune,  and  Bermintone  survive  only 
in  the  Domesday  record.* 

The  hundred  is  supposed  to  have  been  originally  the 
settlement  of  one  hundred  free  families  of  Saxon  colonists, 

*  We  may  tabulate  these  results  as  follows : — 

Names  in 





or  bury. 





Suffolk.     .     .     . 
Surrey  .... 












•  Ellis,  Introduction  toD(fmesday,  p.  xxxiv.  A  colony  of  the  dispossessed 
villagers  was  established  at  Carlisle  by  Rufus.  Of  this  I  can  find  no  trace 
in  local  names.    See  Palgrave,  Eng.  Common,  vol  i.  p.  449. 


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Populousness  of  Saxon  England, 


just  as  the  canton  was  a  similar  Celtic  division.^  In 
rural  districts  the  population  must  have  increased  at 
least  tenfold — often  in  a  much  larger  proportion — since 
the  period  of  the  formation  of  the  present  hundreds. 
Many  single  agricultural  parishes  contain  a  hundred 
families  removed  above  the  labouring  class,  and  we  may 
probably  conclude  that  the  population  is  equal  to  that 
one  of  the  Saxon  hundreds. 

The  manner  in  which  the  island  was  gradually  peopled, 
and  the  distribution  and  relative  density  of  the  Saxon 
population,  are  curiously  indicated  by  the  varying  sizes 
of  the  hundreds.  In  Kent,  Sussex,  and  Dorset,  which 
were  among  the  earliest  settlements,  the  small  dimensions 
of  the  hundreds  prove  that  the  Saxon  population  was 
very  dense,  whereas,  when  we  approach  the  borders  of 
Wales  and  Cumberland,  where  the  Saxon  tenure  was 
one  rather  of  conquest  than  of  colonization,  and  where 
a  few  free  families  probably  held  in  check  a  considerable 
subject  population,  we  find  that  the  hundreds  include  a 
much  larger  area. 

Thus  the  average  number  of  square  miles  in  each 
hundred  is, 

In  Sussex 23 

Kent 24 

Dorset 30 

Wiltshire 44 

Northamptonshire     •    .  52 

Surrey 58 

In  Herts  .  .  . 
Derbyshire  .  . 
Warwickshire  . 
Lancashire  .     . 


We  arrive  at  somewhat  similar  conclusions  from  the 
proportions  of  the  slaves  to  the  rest  of  the  population, 
as  returned  in  Domesday.     In  the  east  of  England  we 

1  From  the  Welsh  cant^  a  hundred.     See  Diefenbach,  Cdtica^  i.  pp.  113 
—115;  Hallam,  Middle  Ages^  voL  ii.  p.  391. 


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366        Physical  CJianges  attested  by  Local  Names, 

find  no  slaves  returned,  the  Celtic  population  having 
become  entirely  assimilated.  In  Kent  and  Sussex  the 
slaves  constitute  lo  per  cent,  of  the  population:  in 
Cornwall  and  Devon,  20  per  cent ;  and  in  Gloucester- 
shire, 33  per  cent 

The  knowledge  which  we  possess  of  several  thousand 
names  which  have  been  preserved  in  Anglo-Saxon 
charters,  enables  us  to  ascertain,  in  many  cases,  the 
original  forms  of  names  which  have  now  become  more 
or  less  corrupted.  From  the  study  of  these  names  Pro- 
fessor Leo,  of  Halle,^  has  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that 
agriculture  was  in  a  more  advanced  state  among  the 
Anglo-Saxons  than  on  the  Continent  A  three  course 
system  of  husbandry  was  adopted ;  wheat  and  flax  axe 
the  crops  which  seem  to  have  been  the  most  cultivated. 
We  meet  with  indications  of  the  existence  of  extensive 
estates,  on  which  stood  large  houses,  occasionally  of 
stone,  but  more  frequently  of  wood,  for  the  residence  of 
the  proprietor,  surrounded  by  the  tun  or  inclosure  for 
cattle,  and  the  bartun  or  inclosure  for  the  gathered 
crops.  Round  the  homestead  were  inclosed  fields,  with 
bams,  mills,  and  weirs.  There  were  detached  outlying 
sheepfolds  and  sheepcotes,  with  residences  for  the  serfs, 
and  special  pasturages  were  allotted  to  swine  and  goatSw 
The  estates  were  separated  from  one  another  by  a  mark^ 
or  broad  boundary  of  woodland.  There  were  open 
forest-pastures  fed  by  swine,  which  ipust  have  presented 
an  appearance  resembling  that  of  the  open  parts  of  the 
New  Forest  at  the  present  day.  In  these  woodlands  the 
prevalent  vegetation  consisted  of  the  thorn,  hazel,  oak, 

^  Leo,  Anglo-Saxon  Natnes^  p.  72.  See  also  Codex  Diplomatiau  vCsv 
Scuconiciy  passim ;  St  John,  Foiir  Conquests  of  England^  voL  ii.  p.  191  ; 
Ellis,  Introduction  to  Domesday  Booky  pp.  xxx. — xliv. 


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Saxon  Agriculture — English  Vineyards.         367 

ash,  elm,  lime,  and  fern.  The  maple,  beech,  birch,  aspen, 
and  willow  grew  less  abundantly.  There  were  planta- 
tions of  osiers,  and  the  names  of  the  rush  and  sedge 
occur  so  frequently  as  to  indicate  a  very  defective  state 
of  drainage. 

One  fact,  however,  which  we  gather  from  these  ancient 
names  indicates  a  marked  peculiarity  in  the  aspect  of 
Anglo-Saxon  England.  In  no  single  instance  through- 
out the  charters  do  we  meet  with  a  name  implying  the 
existence  of  any  kind  of  pine  or  fir,  a  circumstance 
which  curiously  corroborates  the  assertion  of  Caesar, 
that  there  was  no  fir  found  in  Britain.^  The  names  of 
fruit-trees  are  also  very  unfrequent,  with  the  exception 
of  that  of  the  apple-tree,  and  even  this  appears  very 
rarely  in  conjunction  with  Anglo-Saxon  roots,  being 
found  chiefly  in  Celtic^  names,  such  as  appledore,' 
APPLEDURCOMBE,  and  AVALON ;  or  in  Norse  names, 

At  the  period  of  the  Conquest,  vineyards  do  not  seem 
to  have  been  uncommon  in  the  south  of  England.  In 
Domesday  Book  vineyards  are  mentioned  in  the  coun- 
ties of  Hertford,  Middlesex,  Norfolk,  Suffolk,  Kent, 
Hampshire,  Dorset,  and  Wilts.  At  the  present  day  a 
part  of  the  town  of  Abingdon  is  called  the  vineyard, 
and  there  is  also  a  field  so  called  near  Beaulieu  Abbey 
in  Hampshire,  and  another  near  Tewksbury.  The  same 
name  is  borne  by  lands  which  were  formerly  attached 
to  monastic  foundations  in  the  counties  of  Worcester, 

1  See,  however,  Whitaker,  History  of  Manchester^  vol.  i.  p.  309. 

t  The  root  apple  or  apiU  runs  through  the  whole  of  the  Celtic,  Scandi- 
navian, Teutonic,  and  Sclavonic  languages.  See  Diefenbach,  Vergleich, 
Worterb.  vol.  i.  p.  88. 

s  Appledore  in  Romney  Marsh  was  a  favourite  station  of  the  Vikings. 
See  Saxon  Chronicle.    Hastmg  the  Dane  built  a  castle  there. 


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368        Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Nantes, 

Hereford,  Somerset,  Cambridge,  and  Essex,  The  very 
early  existence  of  vine  culture  in  England  is  indicated 
by  the  name  of  WINNAL  in  Hampshire,  which  is  de- 
rived from  the  Celtic  gwinllaUy  a  vineyard.^ 

Local  names  occasionally  preserve  evidence  of  the 
former  existence  of  animals  now  extinct  The  names  of 
the  wolf  and  the  bear  were  so  commonly  used  as  per- 
sonal appellations  by  the  Danes  and  Saxons,  that  we 
are  unable  to  pronounce  with  certainty  as  to  the  signi- 
ficance of  names  like  WOLFERLOW  in  Herefordshire,  or 
BARNWOOD  in  Gloucestershire.  WOLVESEY,  a  small 
island  at  Winchester,  was,  however,  the  place  where  the 
Welsh  tribute  of  wolves'  heads  was  annually  paid.^  The 
badger  or  broc  gave  its  name  to  BAGSHOT,  BROXBOURNE, 
and  BROGDEN ;  the  wild  boar  (eofer)  was  found  at 
the  crane  at  CRANFIELD  and  CRANBOURN. 

The  huge  aurochs,  which  once  roamed  over  the 
forests  of  Germany,  is  mentioned  in  the  Niebelungen 
Lied  by  the  name  of  the  Wisent ;  and  in  Hesse  we  find 
a  place  called  wiesenfeld,  the  "aurochs'  field,"  and 
another  called  WIESENSTIEGE,  the  "aurochs'  stair."* 
We  find  traces  of  the  elk  at  ELBACH  and  ELLWANGEN  ; 
and  of  the  Schelch,  a  gigantic  elk,  now  everywhere 
extinct,  at  SCHOllnach.* 

The  fox  is  unknown  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  not  even 

1  Redding,  Wines,  pp.  33,  34 ;  Gough*s  Camden,  vol.  i.  p.  189 ;  Lap- 
penberg,  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,  vol.  ii.  p.  360 ;  Edinburgh  Rtview,  voL  cxL 

P-  392. 

*  Yonge,  Christian  Nanus,  vol.  ii.  p.  269. 

'  Leo,  Anglo-Saxon  Names,  p.  12;  Morris,  Local  Names,  p.  10;  Monk- 
house,  Etymologies,  p.  40. 

4  Piderit,  Ortsnamen,  p.  296 ;  Fo»temann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  I45. 

■  Forstemann,  Ortsnamen,  p.  145  ;  Marsh,  Man  and  Nature,  p.  85. 


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Extinct  A  nimals —  The  Beaver.  369 

a  tradition  survives  of  its  former  presence.  A  place 
called  CRONKSHYNNAGH,  which  means  "Fox  hough," 
is,  however,  sufficient  to  prove  that  this  animal  was  once 
a  denizen  of  the  island.^ 

The  vestiges  of  the  Beaver  are  very  numerous.  BE- 
VERLEY in  Yorkshire  is  the  "  beaver's  haunt,"  and  we 
find  a  BEVERSTONE  in  Gloucestershire,  and  a  BEVER- 
COATES  in  Nottinghamshire.  The  valley  which  stretches 
northwards  from  the  Glyders,  scored  with  glacial  striae 
and  dotted  over  with  moraines,  bears  the  name  of  NANT 
FRANGON,  or  "the beaver's  dale";  and  across  this  valley 
stretches  SARN  YR  AFRANGE,  or  "the  beaver's  dam."^  The 
magnificent  pool,  well  known  both  to  the  artist  and  to  the 
angler,  which  lies  just  below  the  junction  of  the  Lledr  and 
the  Conway,  is  called  LLYN  YR  AFRANGE,  "  the  beaver's 
pool."^  In  Germany  we  have  the  names  of  BIBERSBURG,* 
BIVERBIKE  (the  beaver's  beck),*  and  the  BEBRA  (anciently 
Piparaha,  or  beaver's  river).*  From  the  Sclavonic  bobr^ 
a  beaver,  we  have  the  River  BOBER  in  Silesia,  as  well  as 
AUJ  BifeVRE  on  the  Aisne  has  been  identified  with 
the  BIBRAX  of  Caesar,  and  bibracte,  now  Autun,  was 
the  chief  city  of  the  iEduL  The  tribe  of  the  BIBROCI  no 
doubt  called  themselves  "  the  Beavers,"  in  the  same  way 
that  North  American  tribes  take  their  names  from  the 
snakes,  the  foxes,  or  the  crows.® 

1  Train,  Isle  of  Man,  vol.  L  p.  2a 

*  Pennant,  WaieSy  voL  ii.  p.  299. 
»  Ibid.  vol.  il  p.  134. 

-*  Pictet,  Orig.  Indo-Europ,  vol,  L  p.  444. 

»  Vilmar,  Ortsnamen,  p.  258. 

«  Piderit,  Ortsnamat,  p.  297 ;  Vilmar,  Ortsftamen^  p.  256. 

7  Buttmann,    Orisnamen,   p.    124 ;   Jaco})i,   Ortsnamen    urn    Potsdam, 

p.  34. 

*  Zeuss,  Grammatka  CelHca,  vol.  i.  p.  44 ;  voL  ii  p.  761 ;  Gliick,  Kelt 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

3/0        Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names, 

In  the  Saxon  charters  we  find  many  allusions  to 
quarries,  but  there  is  a  remarkable  absence  of  names 
denoting  iron-works  or  mines,  such  names,  for  instance, 

as     the     GOLDBERG,    EISENBERG,    KUPFERHCTTE,     and 

ERZGEBERGE,  which  we  find  in  Germany.  In  the  Forest 
of  Dean,  however,  we  find  on  the  map  CINDERFORD 
and  CINDERHILL,  names  derived  from  vast  heaps  of 
scoriae,  from  which  the  iron  had  been  so  imperfectly 
extracted  by  the  Roman  miners,  that  these  mounds  form 
a  valuable  consideration  in  the  purchase  of  the  ground 
on  which  they  lie.^  The  charters  contain  numerous 
indications  of  the  localities  where  salt  was  procured  or 
manufactured.^  Domesday  Book  enumerates  no  less 
than  385  salt-works  in  the  single  count>''  of  Sussex.  The 
wics  in  the  Essex  marshes  were  probably  once  salt- 
works, and  we  have  already  traced  the  singular  way  in 
which  the  wych  or  bay-houses  on  the  coast  came  to 
give  a  name  to  the  inland  salt-works  of  DROITWICH  and 
NANTVVICH.^  But  the  evidence  of  names  enables  us  to 
prove  that  many  existing  salt-works  were  worked  before 
the  advent  of  the  Teutonic  race.  This  we  can  do  by 
means  of  the  Celtic  word  kal,  salt;  which  we  find  in 
the  name  of  PWLLHELLI,  the  "  salt  pools,"  in  Carnarvon- 
shire. At  HALING,  on  the  Hampshire  coast,  salt-works 
still   exist,  which  apparently  date  from  Celtic  times ; 

Namen^  p.  43 ;  Forstemann,  Orfsnamen,  p.  145.  The  word  beaver  b 
common  to  roost  of  the  Ar]ran  languages.  Latin  fiber  [=beber],  Comisfa 
hefir^  Gaelic  beabhor,  Gaulish  biber^  German  beftr.  The  Welsh  names  are 
afranfVf  and  Host  lydaiu,  *'  the  broad-tailed. "  On  the  former  ezistenoe  of 
the  beaver  in  Scotland,  see  Wilson,  Pre-historic  Annals^  p.  193. 

1  Nicholls,  Forest  of  Dean^  p.  216. 

s  Ellis,  Introduction  to  Domesday^  p.  zl.;  Lappenberg,  AngUhSaxam 
KingSy  vol.  i.  p.  363. 

'  See  p.  X62,  mpra. 


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Salt'  Works — LightJtotises,  371 

and  we  find  a  place  called  HALTON  in  Cheshire,  and 
HALSAL  and  HALLATON  in  Lancashire.  In  the  salt- 
producing  districts  of  Germany  several  towns  whose 
names  contain  the  Celtic  root  hal  stand  on  rivers  which 
contain  the  Teutonic  synonym  sal}  Thus  HALLE,  in 
Prussian  Saxony,  stands  on  the  river  SAALA  (salt  river) ; 
REICHEN-HALL,  in  Bavaria,  is  also  on  a  river  SALE;* 
HALLEIN,  in  SALZBURG,  stands  on  the  SALZA.  We  find 
towns  called  HALL  near  the  salt  mines  of  the  Tyrol,  of 
Upper  Austria,  and  of  Swabia;  there  is  a  halle  in 
Ravensberg,  a  HALLSTADT  in  the  Salzkammergut,  and 
HALEN  and  HAL  in  Brabant.* 

The  institution  of  lighthouses  dates  from  very  early 
times,  as  names  bear  witness.  The  names  of  the  PHAROS, 
at  Dover  and  Alexandria,  and  the  GIBEL  EL  FARO,  near 
Malaga,  take  us  back  beyond  the  Christian  era.  In 
Sicily,  the  cape  by  the  side  of  Charybdis,  and  opposite 
Scylla,  was  called  cape  pelorus  (Cape  Terrible).  It 
has  now  become  CAPO  DI  faro — the  erection  of  the 
lighthouse  having  caused  the  Cape  to  lose  at  once  its 
terrors,  and  its  name  of  terror.*  cape  COLONNA,  in 
Greece,  takes  its  name  from  the  conspicuous  white 
columns  of  the  ruined  Doric  temple  which  served  as 
a  landmark  to  the  Genoese  and  Venetian  seamen;^ 

^  An  ingenious  attempt  to  account  for  thiis  distinction  will  be  found  in 
Leo,  VarUsungen^  voL  i  p.  196. 

*  There  were  six  German  rivers  anciently  called  sala.  Forstemann,  Alt* 
iUut,  Namenbuchy  vol.  iL  p.  1209.  We  find  the  river  halys  (salt  water)  in 
Galatia,  and  the  river  halycus  in  Sicily. 

s  On  names  containing  tlxe  root  hal^  see  Leo,  ReciUudinesy  p.  203  ;  and 
an  article  by  the  same  writer  in  Haupt's  Zntschrifl,  vol.  v.  p.  511  ;  Grimm, 
Deut  MyihoL  p.  1000;  Gamett,  Essays^  p.  150;  Bender,  Deutschen  Orts- 
namen^  p.  113  ;  Mahn,  Namm  Berlin^  p.  6. 

4  Duff,  in  Oxford  Essaysy  for  1857,  p.  93;  Duke  of  Buckingham,  Diary^ 
Tol  i.  p.  226. 

»  Bremer,  Gruce^  toL  L  p.  313. 

BB  2  n  \ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

iyz       Physical  Changes  attested  by  Local  Names, 

and  CAPE  CORUNNA,  in  Spain,  is  so  called  from  the 
columna  or  tower  which  served  the  purpose  of  a  Pharos. 
The  name  of  FLAMBOROUGH  HEAD  speaks  of  the  rude 
fires  of  coal  or  wood  that  used  to  "  flame"  by  night  on 
that  dangerous  headland.^  At  the  extremity  of  the 
peninsula  of  FURNESS^  (Fireness)  is  a  small  island,  on 
which  stands  a  ruined  building,  called  the  PILE  OF 
FOUDRY— that  is,  the  **peel"  or  tower  of  the  "fire  isle"* 
Furness  and  Foudry  are  Norse  names,  and  are  an  indi- 
cation of  the  antiquity  of  the  lighthouse  which  guided 
the  Northmen  in  their  voyages  from  the  Isle  of  Man  to 
Lancaster.*  The  numerous  BEACON  HILLS  throughout 
the  island  call  to  mind  the  rude  though  efficient  means 
by  which,  before  the  days  of  the  Electric  Telegraph,  the 
tidings  of  great  events  could  be  communicated  from  one 
end  of  the  island  to  the  other.  There  are  those  now 
alive  who  can  remember  looking  out,  the  last  thing  every 
night,  towards  the  Beacon  Hill  to  know  if  the  dreaded 
landing  of  Bonaparte  had  taken  place. 

Though  the  commerce  of  the  Anglo-Saxons  was  not 
extensive,  yet  our  local  names  indicate  considerable 
changes  in  the  relative  commercial  importance  of  various 
towns.  The  natural  advantages  of  the  site  of  London 
have,  enabled  it  to  maintain,  at  all  times,  its  ancient  pre- 
eminence— for  its  Celtic  name  implies  that,  even  in 
pre-historic  times,  it  was,  as  it  is  still,  the  "city  of 

^  This  name  may,  however,  mean  the  "camp  of  refuge.'*  Anglo-Saxon 
fleam,  a  fugitive.  The  extremity  of  the  headland  has  been  conyerted  into 
a  stronghold  by  an  ancient  dyke  still  called  Danes*  Dyke. 

'  Ferguson,  Northmen^  p.  109. 

s  It  is  possible,  however,  the  Furness  may  be  only  the  *'foreness^*'  and 
Foudry  the  **  isle  of  fowls.'* 

^  There  is  also  a  furness  on  the  Belgian  coast 


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Commercial  Changes,  373 

From  the  Anglo-Saxon  ceapiatiy  to  buy,  cypa^i,  to  sell, 
and  ceap}  price,  or  sale,  we  derive  many  names  which 
indicate  early  seats  of  commercial  activity.  A  chipping 
was  the  old  English  term  for  a  market-place;  thus 
Wicliffe  translates  Luke  vii.  32,  "They  ben  like  children 
sitting  in  chepinge  and  spekinge  togidre."  Hence  we 
CHEPING  HILL  on  the  south  side  of  the  church  at  Witham, 
CHEPSTOW,  and  CHIPPINGHAM,  are  ancient  market- 
towns — once  of  much  gredX^r  relative  commercial  import- 
ance than  they  are  at  present  CHEAPSIDE  and  EAST- 
CHEAP  were  the  old  market-places  of  London.  In 
Norse  names  the  form  cope  takes  the  place  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  ceap,  COPENHAGEN^  is  equivalent  to  Chipping 
Haven.     In  like  manner  we  infer  from  the  name  of  the 

*  To  this  root  we  may  trace  many  idiomatic  English  words.  A  chapman 
is  an  itinerant  seller  :  chap  was  originally  an  abbreviated  form  of  chapman. 
Ckmp^  an  abbrevialion  of  good  cheap,  answers  to  the  French  bon  marchi ; 
while  gwd  cheap  still  sundves  in  the  phrase  dog  cheapo  where  the  letters  d. 
and  g  have  been  interchanged  according  to  a  well-known  phonetic  law.  The 
original  sense  of  the  root  is  that  of  bargaining — the  ancient  method  of 
making  a  purchase — ^which  is  preserved  in  the  word  to  chaffer.  To  chop 
horses  is  to  sell  them.  A  horse  couper  is  one  who  deals  in  horses.  To  chop 
and  change  is  to  sell  and  barter.  To  swop  and  to  swab  are  probably  pho- 
netic variations  of  to  chop.  Thus  we  say  the  wind  chops,  i.e.  changes. 
The  ultimate  root  is  the  Sanskrit  kupa,  the  beam  of  a  balance.  Compare 
the  old  Sclavonic  kupitiy  to  buy,  the  Gothic  kaupotiy  the  Latin  caupo^  and 
the  Greek  Kohn}Xof.  Wedgwood,  Eng,  Etym.  vol.  i.  p.  327  ;  Pictet,  Orig. 
IndO'Europ,  part  ii.  pp.  416,  417. 

'  Anciently  Kiobmaens  havn.  The  Norse  word  hoping^  is  pronounced 
chaping.  Hence  we  derive  the  names  of  jOnk^ping,  lidcOping,  ny- 
kOping,  norrkOping.  See  Thompson,  1  ravels  in  Sweden^  p.  42,  quoted 
in  Crichton,  Scandinavia^  vol.  i.  p.  226.  KIEL  and  kiei.erfiord  take 
their  names  from  the  Danish  keol^  a  ship.  Morris,  LoccU  Names,  p.  29. 
The  name  of  the  hanse  towns  seems  to  be  from  hansel^  a  contract,  or 
Aanse,  a  company  or  association.  Wedgwood,  in  Philology  Trans,  for 
1860-61,  p.  37. 


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374        Physical  CJianges  attested  by  Local  Names. 

COPELAND  Islands  near  Belfast,  that  here  were  the  store- 
houses of  the  goods  brought  by  Norwegian  traders. 
COPMANSTHORPE,  near  York,  would  be  equivalent  to 
the  German  Kaufmansdorf,  the  merchants'  village ;  and 
the  form  of  the  word  shows  us  that  here  the  Danish 
traders  resided,  just  as  those  of  Saxon  blood  dwelt 
together  at  CHAPMANSLA*DK  The  word  staple  also 
enables  us  to  detect  some  of  the  local  centres  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  trade.  This  word  has  undergone  some  changes 
in  meaning.  It  now  denotes  the  established  merchandize 
of  a  place  ; — thus  we  should  say  lace  is  the  staple  of 
Nottingham.  But  the  term  was  formerly  applied  to  the 
place  rather  than  to  the  merchandize,  and  our  forefathers 
would  have  said  Nottingham  is  the  staple  of  lace.^  In 
local  names— as  dunstable,  BARNSTAPLE,  and  STAPLES 
in  France— this  word  staple  denotes  a  place  where  mer- 
chants were  wont  to  store  their  goods.^ 

When  the  English  word  market  takes  the  place  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  chipping,  or  staple^  as  in  the  case  of  STOW- 
we  ipay  fairly  conclude  that  the  commercial  importance 
of  the  town  in  question  dates  from  a  more  recent  period. 

^  See  Trench,  Glossary ^  p.  205. 

•  It  may  be  noted  that  the  name  of  ampurias  in  Spain  retains,  nearly 
unchanged,  the  name  of  the  Hellenic  settlement  of  Emporia, 


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Changes  and  Errors.  375 



Vitality  of  Local  Names — Recurrence  to  ancient  Names — Changes  in  Names 
often  simply  phonetic — Lincoln — Sarum —  Whitehall— Phonetic  corruptions 
among  savage  tribes — Interchange  of  suffixes  of  analogous  sound — Tendency 
to  contraction — Laws  of  Phonetic  change — Examples — Influence  of  popular 
efymological  speculation  on  the  form  of  Names — Tendency  to  make  Names 
significant — Examples —  Transformations  of  French  Names — Invention  of 
new  Saints  from  Local  Names — Transformed  names  often  give  rise  to 
legends — Bozra — TTtongcastle — The  Dun  Cow— Antwerp — The  Mouse 
Tower— The  Amazons  of  the  Baltic— Pilatus— The  Picts—The  Tatars 
— Poland — Mussulman — Negro-pont — Corruptions  of  Street-Names — 
America—  The  Gypsies, 

Professor  Max  MCller,  in  his  deservedly  popular 
lectures,  has  well  illustrated  the  process  of  phonetic 
decay  by  which  the  words  of  a  nation's  speech  are 
clipped  and  worn  down  by.  constant  currency,  until,  like 
ancient  coins,  the  legend  which  they  bore  at  first  has 
become  effaced.  Many  words,  whose  paternity  is  never- 
theless indisputable,  do  not  retain  a  single  letter,  some- 
times not  even  a  single  vocable,  of  the  ancestral  form, 
and  exhibit  still  less  resemblance  to  collateral  descendants 
from  the  parent  stock.  Who  would  imagine,  for  instance, 
that  the  French  word  larnie  is  the  same  as  the  English 
tear;  that  the  French  yi;ar  is  a  lineal  descendant  of 
the  Latin  dies}  or  that  dies,  and   the  two  syllables  of 

^  Dies — diurnum  tempus —giomo—jour,  Aujourd^hui  contains  the  root 
dies  twice,  the  hui  being  a  corruption  of  hodie=hoc  die.  Max  Miiller, 
Lectures,  p.  48;  Lewis,  Romance  Languages,  pp.  213,  220. 


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3/6  Changes  and  Errors, 

Tuesday  are  all  descended  from  the  same  original  Aryan 
root  ? 

In  the  case  of  local  names  the  raw  materials  of  lan- 
guage do  not  lend  themselves  with  the  same  facility  as 
other  words  to  the  processes  of  decomposition  and  re- 
construction, and  many  names  have  for  thousands  of 
years  remained  unchanged,  and  even  linger  round  the 
now  deserted  sites  of  the  places  to  which  they  refer. 
The  names  of  five  of  the  oldest  cities  of  the  world — 
still  pronounced  by  the  inhabitants  in  exactly  the  same 
manner  as  was  the  case  thirty,  or  perhaps  forty,  centuries 
ago,  defying  oftentimes,  the  persistent  attempts  of  rulers 
to  substitute  some  other  name.  During  the  three 
hundred  years  of  the  Greek  rule,  an  attempt  was  made 
by  the  conquerors  to  change  the  name  of  HAMATH  to 
Epiphania,  but  the  ancient  appellation  lingered  on  the 
lips  of  the  surrounding  tribes,  and  has  now  resumed  its 
sway,  while  the  Greek  name  has  been  utterly  forgotten. 
The  name  of  Accho,  which  we  find  in  the  Old  Testament, 
was  superseded  for  some  time  by  the  Greek  name  of 
Ptolemais.  This  is  now  forgotten,  and  the  place  goes 
by  the  name  of  AKKA.^  The  Greeks  attempted  to  im- 
pose their  name  of  Nicopolis  on  the  town  of  Emmaus, 
but  in  vain ;  for  the  modem  name,  'AMWAs,  still  asserts 
the  vitality  of  the  ancient  designation.^  We  read,  in  the 
Book  of  Chronicles,  that  Solomon  built  TADMOR  in  the 
wilderness.  The  Romans  attempted  to  impose  on  it 
the  name  of  Adrianopolis,  but  this  appellation  has 
utterly  perished,  and  the  Bedouin  still  give  the  ancient 

^  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Palestine^  p.  381  ;   Robinson,  Later  ResearclUs^ 
p.  92. 
»  Robinson,  Later  Researches^  p.  146. 


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Vitality  of  Local  Names,  377 

name  of  Tadmor^  to  the  desolate  forest  of  erect  and 
prostrate  columns,  which  marks  the  site  of  the  city  of 
the  palms.  TENEDOS  and  ARGOS  still  bear  the  names 
which  they  bore  in  the  time  of  Homer.  Most  of  the 
islands  of  the  Grecian  archipelago,  and  many  of  the 
neighbouring  cities,  retain  their  ancient  names  with  little 
variation,^  and  several  of  the  Etruscan  cities  are  called 
by  the  same  names  which  they  bore  at  the  first  dawn  of 
Italian  civilization.' 

But  we  need  not  go  to  the  East  for  instances  of  the 
persistency  with  which  names  adhere  to  the  soiL  The 
name  of  LONDON  is  now,  in  all  probability,  pronounced 
exactly  as  it  was  at  the  time  when  Caesar  landed  on  the 
coast  of  Kent.  The  Romans  attempted  to  change  the 
name,  but  in  vain.  It  mattered  little  what  the  city  on  the 
Thames  was  called  in  the  edicts  of  prefects  and  procon- 
suls. The  old  Celtic  name  continued  in  common  usage, 
and  has  been  transmitted  in  turn  to  Saxons,  Normans, 
and  Englishmen.  It  is  curious  to  listen  to  Ammianus 
Marcellinus  speaking  of  the  name  of  London  as  a  thing 
of  the  past — an  old  name  which  had  gone  quite  out 
of  use,  and  given  place  to  the  grand  Roman  name 

1  PALMYRA  is  an  Italian  trandation  of  the  enchorial  name  of  Tadmor, 
and  is  known  only  in  the  West  See  Beaufort,  Egyptian  Septdchres  and 
Syrian  Shrines^  vol.  i.  pp.  34,  302. 

«  Delos  is  now  dili,  Paros  is  paro,  Scyros  is  skyro,  Naxos  is  naxia, 
Patmos  is  patimo,  Samos  is  samo,  Thasos  is  thaso,  Sardis  is  s art,  Sparta 
is  SPARTI,  Arbela  is  arbil,  Tyre  or  Tzar  is  sur,  Nazareth  is  NAZI  rah, 
Joppa  is  YAFA,  Gaza  is  ghuzzeh. 

»  The  names  of  saturnia  and  populonia  are  unaltered.  Cdrtona  is 
now  CORTONO,  Yokterrse  is  volaterra,  Sena  is  sienna,  Pisse  is  pisa,  and 
Penisia  is  perugia. 

*  Ab  Augusti  profectus,  quam  veteres  adpellavere  Lundinium.  Amm, 
Marc*  lib.  xxviii.  cap.  3,  §  i.  Lundinium,  vetus  oppidum,  quod  Augustam 
posteritas  adpdlavit.     Ibid.  lib.  xxvii.  cap.  8,  §  7. 


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378  Changes  and  Errors. 

In  like  manner  the  ancient  Indian  name  of  HAITI 
has  replaced  the  appellation  of  ST.  DOMINGO,  which 
the  Spanish  conquerors  attempted  to  impose  upon  the 
island.  But  though  so  many  names  remain  substantially 
unchanged  in  spite  of  efforts  to  supplant  them,  yet,  as 
the  successive  waves  of  population  have  flowed  on, 
many  influences  have  been  set  at  work  which  have 
sometimes  produced  material  modifications,  and  it  often 
requires  the  utmost  care,  and  no  inconsiderable  research, 
to  detect  the  original  form  and  signification  of  very 
familiar  names,  and  to  extract  the  information  which 
they  are  able  to  afford. 

These  modifying  influences  are  of  two  kinds.  The  first 
is  simply  phonetic.  A  conquering  nation  finds  it  difficult 
to  pronounce  certain  vocables  which  enter  into  the  names 
used  by  the  conquered  people,  and  changes  consequently 
arise  which  bring  the  ancient  names  into  harmony  ^ath 
the  phonetic  laws  of  the  language  spoken  by  the  con- 
querors. Many  illustrations  of  this  process  may  be 
found  in  Domesday.  The  *' inquisitors  "  seem  to  have 
been  slow  to  catch  the  pronunciation  of  the  Saxon 
names,  and  were,  moreover,  ignorant  of  their  etymo- 
logies, and  we  meet  consequently  with  many  ludicrous 
transformations.  The  name  of  LINCOLN,  for  example, 
which  is  a  hybrid  of  Celtic  and  Latin,  appears  in  the 
Ravenna  Geographer  in  the  form  Lindum  Colonia,  and 
in  Beda  as  Lindocolina.  The  enchorial  name  must 
have  been  very  nearly  what  it  is  now.  This,  however, 
the  Norman  Conquerors  were  unable  to  pronounce,  and 
changed  the  name  into  Nincol  or  Nicole.^  The  name  of 
SHREWSBURY  is  an   English   corruption  of  the  Anglo- 

*  Dugdale,  Monast  Anglic,  vol.  il  p.  645,  apud  Thierry,  Norman  Con- 
qtust^  p.  84. 


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Corruptions,  379 

Saxon  Scrobbes-byrig  or  Shrubborough.  The  Normans, 
however,  corrupted  Scrobbesbury  into  Sloppesburie, 
whence  the  modern  name  of  SALOP  is  derived.  So  also 
the  Roman  Sorbiodunum  was  contracted  into  the 
English  SARUM,  and  then,  as  in  the  case  of  Salop,  the 
Normans  changed  the  r  into  an  /,  and  have  thus  given 
us  the  form  SALISBURY. 

In  the  Arabic  chronicles  of  Spain  we  meet  with  many 
curious  transformations  of  familiar  names,  such,  for 
instance,  as  that  of  the  Visigoths  into  the  Bishtolkat.^ 

Mr.  Motley,  in  his  United  Netherlands,  has  given  an 
amusing  instance  from  the  archives  of  Simancas.  A 
dispatch  of  the  ambassador  Mendoja  stated  that  Queen 
Elizabeth  was  residing  at  the  palace  of  St.  James'. 
Philip  II.  according  to  his  custom,  has  scrawled  on  the 
margin  of  this  dispatch,  "  There  is  a  park  between  it, 
and  the  palace  which  is  called  Huytal,  but  why  it  is 
called  Huytal  I  am  sure  I  don't  know."  WHITEHALL 
seems  to  have  presented  an  insurmountable  etymological 
difficulty  to  the  "  spider  "  of  the  Escurial. 

Among  unlettered  nations  phonetic  changes  of  this 
kind  are  especially  likely  to  arise.  The  word  YANKEE 
IS  probably  an  Indian  corruption  of  either  Anglois  or 
English?  The  Chinese  call  an  Englishman  Yingkwoh? 
the  Bengalee  calls  him  Inrej\  and  corrupts  the  words 
champagne  and  coachman  into  the  forms  simkin  and 
gurrawaun,^    At  Fort  Vancouver,  the  medium  of  inter- 

*  Gayangos,  Dynasties^  vol.  i.  p.  324.  So  the  Indian  names  Misachibee 
and  Tlaltelolco  have  been  corrupted  into  Mississippi  and  guadalupe. 
Russell,  Diary  North  and  South y  vol.  i.  p.  381  ;  Yonge,  Christian  Names , 
vol.  i  p.  81. 

«  Drake,  Book  of  the  Indians,  book  i.  p.  23. 

'  Fleming,  TVavels  on  Horsdackf  p.  116. 

^  Hotten,  Slang  Dictionary,  pp.  148,  231. 


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380  Changes  and  Errors, 

course  a  few  years  ago  was  a  curious  Lingua  Franca, 
composed  of  Canadian-French,  English,  Iroquois,  Cree, 
Hawaian,  and  Chinese.  The  word  for  rum  was  lum,  for 
money  tula^  a  corruption  of  dollar,  and  an  Englishman 
went  by  the  name  of  a  Kintshosh,  a  corruption  of  King 
George.^  The  Kaffirs  of  Natal  call  Harry  Halt,  and 
Mary  Mali,  The  Egbas  have  turned  Thompson  into 
Tamahana,  and  Philip  into  Piripi?  The  Maoris  make 
sad  havoc  of  biblical  names;  they  have  transformed 
Lot  to  Rota,  and  Philemon  to  Pirimona?  Sailors  are 
especially  given  to  such  innovations.  Jos-house,  for 
instance,  the  name  applied  to  the  Buddhist  temples  in 
China,  has  been  formed  by  English  sailors  out  of  the 
Portuguese  word  dios,  god.* 

Anglo-Saxon  suffixes  of  nearly  similar  sound  some- 
times come  to  be  interchanged.  This  has  very  fre- 
quently taken  place  in  the  case  of  stone  and  ton.  Thus 
Brigges-stan  has  been  transmuted  into  BRIXTON,  and 
Brihtelmes-stan  into  Brighthelmstone,  Brighthampton, 
and  BRIGHTON.  The  change  from  don  to  ton  is  also 
common.     Seccan-dun  is  now  SECKINGTON,*  and  Beam- 

^  Wilson,  Pre-kistoric  Man,  voL  ii.  p.  43 1.  An  American  is  called 
Boston^  and  the  ordinary  salutation  b  Clakkohahyah,  which  is  explained  by 
the  fact  that  the  Indians,  frequently  hearing  a  trader  named  Clark,  long 
resident  in  the  Fort,  addressed  by  his  companions  in  the  village,  "  Claris 
how  are  you  ? "  imagined  that  this  sentence  was  the  correct  English  fonn  of 

■  Burton,  Mission  to  Gelelc,  vol.  i.  p.  32. 

*  Yonge,  Christian  Names,  voL  i.  p.  10. 

^  The  sailors'  transformations  of  H.M.S.  Bellerophm  into  the  BSfy 
Ruffian^  of  the  Andromache  into  the  Andrew  Mackay^  of  the  JEoius  into 
the  Alehouse,  of  the  Courageux  into  the  Currant  Juice,  and  of  the  steamer 
Ilironddle  into  the  Iron  Demi,  belong  to  another  class  of  changes,  which 
we  shall  presently  consider.     See  p.  387,  infra, 

»  Sax,  Chron,  a.d.  755. 


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IntercJiange  of  Suffixes — Tendency  to  Contraction,     381 

dun  is  BAMPTON.i  The  suffix  hithcy  a  haven,  is  changed 
into  ey^  an  island,  in  the  case  of  STEPNEY,  formerly 
Stebenhithe,  and  into  heady  in  the  case  of  Maidenhead, 
formerly  Maydenhithe.  In  CARISBROOK,  which  was 
anciently  Wihtgara-byrig,  we  have  a  change  from  burgh 
to  brook?  The  suffix  in  the  name  DURHAM  is  properly 
not  the  Saxon  ham^  but  the  Norse  holniy  and  Dunelm — 
the  signature  of  the  bishop — reminds  us  also  that  the 
Celtic  prefix  is  Dun^  a  hill  fort,  and  not  Dur^  water.* 

Many  of  these  changes  seem  to  be  simply  phonetic, 
among  which  we  may  reckon  Gravesham  into  GRAVES- 
END,  Edgeworth  into  EDGEWARE,  Ebbsham  into  EPSOM, 
Swanwick  into  SWANAGE,  and  Badecanwylla  or  Bath- 
well  into  BAKEWELL.  The  great  tendency  is  to  con- 
traction; as  Home  Tooke  puts  it,  "letters,  like  soldiers, 
being  very  apt  to  desert  and  dropoff  in  a  long  march."* 
Thus  we  find  Botolph's  ton  contracted  into  BO'STON, 
Agmondesham  into  AMERSHAM,  and  Eurewic  into 
YORK.  In  London  St.  Olafs  Street  has  been  changed 
intoTOOLEY  Street,  and  in  Dublin  into  TULLOCH  Street.* 
St  Mary's  Hall,  Oxford,  has  been  transformed  into 
Skimmery  Hall,  and  this  has  been  abbreviated  into  the 
disrespectful  appellation  SKIM.  St.  Bridget  is  turned 
into  St.  Bride,  St.  Benedict  into  St.  Bennet,  St.  Etheld- 
reda  into  St.  Awdrey,  St.  Egidius  into  St.  Giles.^  This 
tendency  to  contraction  is  often  to  be  detected  in  the 

1  .SiMr.  Chron,  A.D.  614. 

«  See  p.  307,  supra, 

»  Durham  is  written  Dnnholm  in  the  Saxon  Chronicle^  A,D.  1072. 

4  Tooke,  Diversions  of  Purley^  part  L  ch.  vi.  p.  94. 

«  Now  pulled  down.     It  was  standing  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

«  Territorial  surnames  show  still  more  startling  changes.  St.-  Denys  has 
been  corrupted  into  Sydney,  St.  Maur  into  Seymour,  St.  Paul  into  Semple, 
Sevenoaks  into  Snooks,  and  St.  John  and  St.  Leger  ore  pronounced  Sinjun 
and  Sillinger. 


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CJianges  and  Errors. 

pronunciation  of  names  of  which  the  more  lengthened 
form  is  retained  in  writing.  Thus  CIRENCESTER  is  pro- 
nounced Cisester ;  GLOUCESTER,  Gloster ;  WORCESTER, 
Worster ;  barfreestone,  Barston ;  and  trotters- 
CLIFFE,  Trosley.^  In  America,  on  the  other  hand, 
owing  to  the  universal  prevalence .  of  reading,  the 
tendency  is  to  pronounce  words  exactly  as  they  are 
spelt,  and  WORCESTER  is  pronounced  Wor-ces-ter,  and 
ILLINOIS  is  called  Illinoys.* 

In  endeavouring  to  recover  the  original  forms  of 
names,  it  becomes  important  to  discover  the  phonetic 
tendencies  which  prevailed  among  different  nations. 
This  is  not  the  place  to  exhibit  or  discuss  the  laws  of 
phonetic  change  which  have  been  detected ; '  all  that 

^  In  Switzerland  inghoftn  is  generally  contracted  into  ikon^  as  Benning' 
hofen  into  Bennikon.     Meyer,  Ortsnamen,  pp.  127" — 136. 

9  In  Samuel  Rogers'  youth  every  one  said  Lunnon ;  we  have  now  returned 
to  Lundun. 

s  '*  Grimm's  law,"  as  it  is  called,  enables  us  to  identify  cognate  words  in 
the  Teutonic  and  Romance  languages.     It  is 

In  Greek  and  gene-  \ 
rally  in  Sanskrit  f 
and   Latin,   thei 
letters      .     .     .  ) 










Correspond        in ) 
Gothic  to     .     .  J 










And  in  Old  High  ) 
German  to  .     .  j 










The  changes  from  the  Latin  to  the  modem  Romance  languages  are  more 
simple.     The  chief  correspondences  are  — 

Latin    .     .    . 








J     \ 

Romance  Lan-) 
guages    .     .  5 





g,  ch,  k,t,s 





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Plionetic  Changes, 


can  here  be  attempted  is  to  illustrate  them  by  a  few 
characteristic  instances. 

The  tendency  among  the  German  nations  is  to  de- 
velop the  sibilants  and  gutturals;  among  the  Romance 
nations  to  suppress  these  and  develop  the  mutes  and 
liquids.  Thus  in  the  name  of  the  river  Atesis  or  Atygis, 
how  harsh  is  the  German  name — the  ETSCH ;  how  soft 
and  harmonious  the  Italian  development  of  the  same 
word — the  ADlGE.  Again  we  may  compare  the  German 
lDttich  with  the  French  Li^GE,  or  we  may  contrast 
the  German  change  of  Confluentes  into  COBLENTZ  with 
the  soft  effect  produced  even  in  cases  when  the  Italians 
have  introduced  sibilants,  as  in  the  change  of  Florentia 
into  FIRENZE,  or  Placentia  into  PIACENZA. 

But  the  best  illustration  of  these  phonetic  tendencies 
will  be  to  enumerate  a  few  cases  where  the  same  root 
has  been  variously  modified  by  different  nations.  Let 
us  take  the  Latin  word  forum.  The  Forum  Julii,  in 
Southern  France,  hcis  become  FRifijUS ;  and,  in  Northern 
Italy,  the  same  name  has  been  changed  to  FRIULI.  In 
the  Emilia  we  find  FORLI  (Forum  Livii),  FOSSOMBRONE 

Latin     .     .    . 








Romance  Lan-"> 
giiagea    .     .J 








See  Bopp,  VergUick,  Gramm,;  Grimm,  Geschtchte  der  Deut.  Sprache^  vol.  L 
pp.  294 — ^434 ;  Schleicher,  Die  Sprachen  Europas ;  Bunsen,  Brit,  Assoc. 
Reports  for  1847,  p.  262  ;  Edinb.  Rev,  vol.  xciv.  pp.  318,  319  ;  Prichard, 
Eastern  Origin^  pp.  179—200;  Mone,'  Celt,  Forschungen ;  Donaldson, 
Varronianus  ;  New  CratyittSy  pp.  144 — 190 ;  Max  Miiller,  Lectures,  second 
series,  pp.  198 — ^222;  Pott,  Etymol.  Forschungen;  Diez,  Rom,  Gram, 
voL  L  pp.  175—253;  Lewis,  Romance  Languages;  Milman,  Hist,  Latin 
Christianifyi  voL  vL  p.  343. 


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384  Changes  and  Errors, 

(Forum  Sempronii),  FERRARA  (Forum  AUieni),  and 
FORNOVO  (Forum  Novum).  In  Central  Italy  we  have 
FORCASSI  (Forum  Cassii),  FIORA  (Forum  Aurelii),  FOR- 
FIAMMA  (Forum  Flaminii),  and  FORLIMPOPOLI  (Forum 

With  these  compare  the  German  name  klagenfurt 
(Claudii  forum),  the  Dutch  VOORBOURG  (Forum  Ha- 
driani),  the  French  FEURS  (Forum  Segusianorum),  and 
the  Sardinian  FORDONGIANUS  (Forum  Trajani). 

Or  let  us  take  the  changes  effected  in  the  Greek  word 
7roXt9,  a  city.  Neapolis,  in  Italy,  has  become  NAPLES, 
in  the  Morea  it  has  become  NAUPLIA.  Neapolis,  near 
Carthage,  is  now  NABEL,  and  Neapolis,  in  Syria,  is  nIbu- 
LUS  or  NABLtrs.^  TRIPOLI  is  little  changed  ;  Amphipblis 
is  now  EMBOLI,  Callipolis  is  GALLIPOLI,  Antipolis  is 
ANTIBES,  Gratianopolis  is  GRENOBLE.  STAMBOUL,  or 
ISTAMBOUL,  the  modern  name  of  Byzantium,  is  not, 
as  might  be  imagined,  a  corruption  of  Constantinopolis, 
but  of  h  rav  iro>uv?  a  phrase  analogous  to  that  which 
we  use  when  we  speak  of  a  journey  to  London,  as  going 
"  to  town."  In  like  manner  STANKO,  the  modem  name 
of  the  Island  of  Cos,  is  a  corruption  of  €9  rav  Kj&? 

1  Robinson,  Biblical  Researches^  vol.  iii.  pp.  96,  119. 

'  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Palestine,  p.  246 ;  Leo,  Vorlesungen,  vol.  i.  p.  196. 

s  The  same  process  of  the  incorporation  of  preposition  and  articles  maj 
be  seen  in  zermat,  an  derm  at.  Many  German  names  b^[inning  with  M 
are  due  to  am  or  im  prefixed  to  Celtic  names.  Thus  Oersberg  has  become 
changed  to  marsberg,  Eppenthal  to  meppenthal,  Achenthal  to  machcn- 
THAL.  So  with  MOSBACH,  MEICHES,  and  many  othen.  Mone,  (Uli. 
Forsch,  pp.  157,  180.  THAXTED  is  probably  The  Axstead,  THISTLEWORTH 
is  The  Istle-worth,  atford  and  otford  are  At  the  ford,  and  abridgk  is  At 
the  bridge.  Also  in  Spain  the  Arabic  article  Al  is  often  incorporated  into 
the  name.  See  p.  106,  supra,  luxor,  one  of  the  four  villages  which 
stand  on  the  site  of  ancient  Thebes,  is  a  contraction  of  £1  Eksor,  the 
palaces.     Fairholt,  Up  the  Nile^  p.  266. 


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Phonetic  Changes.  385 

We  find  the  word  Trajectus  in  ATRECHT  or  ARRAS 
(Atrebatum  Trajectus),  maestrecht  (Mosae  Trajectus), 
and  UTRECHT  (Ultra  Trajectum).^ 

The  Romanized  Celtic  suffix  iacum  is  changed  into 
ay  in  France  and  ach  in  Germany,  while  in  Brittany  and 
Cornwall  the  original  form  is  ordinarily  retained.*  Thus 
Cortoriacum  is  now  COURTRAY,  Camaracum  is  CAMBRAY, 
Bagacum  is  BAVAY,  and  Toumacum  is  TOURNAY.  An- 
tunacum  is  now  ANDERNACH,  Olimacum  is  LYMBACH, 
Vallacum  is  WILNPACH,  and  Magontiacum  is  MAINTZ. 

The  manner  in  which  personal  names  have  entered 
into  the  names  of  places  has  been  referred  to  in  a 
previous  chapter.'  A  few  instances  may  be  here  again 
enumerated  as  affording  admirable  illustrations  of  di- 
verse phonetic  tendencies.  Thus  the  name  of  Augustus 
is  found  in  the  Spanish  ZARAGOSSA  (Caesarea  Augusta), 
and  BADAJOZ  (Pax  Augusta) ;  in  the  Italian  AOSTA 
(Augusta)  ;  in  the  French  AOUST  (Augusta),  AUCH 
(Augusta),  and  AUTUN  (Augustodunum) ;  in  the  German 
AUGSBURG  (Augusta),  and  AUGST  (Augusta) ;  and  the 
English  AUST  passage  (Trajectus  Augusti).  We  find  the 
word  Julius  or  Julia  in  LILLEBONNE  (Julia  Bona), 
LOUDON  (Juliodunum),  in  BJ5JA  in  Portugal  (Pax  Julia), 
in  jClich  or  JULIERS  (Julicacum),  in  ZUGLIO  (Julium), 
and  in  FRIULI  and  FRijus  (Forum  Julii) ;  and  the  name 
of  Constantius  or  Constantinus  is  found  in  CQNZ,  COU- 

1  The  word  trajectus  may  have  sometimes  been  confounded  with  the 
Celtic  traeth^  sands.  See  Diefenbach,  Origines  Eitropaa,  p.  429; 
De  Belloguet,  Ethnog,  p.  139;  Ludlow,  in  Philolog,  Trans,  for  1857, 
p.  IS. 

s  E,g,  Flabenec,  Bourbriac,  Loudeac,  and  Gourarec  in  Brittany,  and 
Bradock,  Boconnoc,  Isnioc,  Ladock,  Phillack,  Polbathick,  andj  Polostoc 
in  Cornwall. 

*  See  pp.  316,  317,  supra. 

C  C 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

386  Changes  and  Errors. 

Some  additional  changes,  valuable  as  illustrating  pho- 
netic laws,  are  added  in  a  note.^ 

The  changes  that  have  hitherto  been  discussed  may 
be  considered  as  natural  phonetic  changes— changes 
bringing  combinations  of  letters  from  one  language  into 
harmony  with  the  laws  of  another. 

We  have  now  to  consider  a  class  of  corruptions  which 
have  arisen  from  a  totally  different  cause.  Men  have 
ever  felt  a  natural  desire  to  assign  a  plausible  meaning 
to  names — ^to  make  them,  in  fact,  no  longer  sounds,  but 
words.  How  few  children,  conning  the  atlas,  do  not 
connect  some  fanciful  speculations  with  such  names  as 
the  CALF  OF  MAN,  or  IRELAND'S  EYE ;  they  suppose 
that  JUTLAND  is  the  land  which  "juts  out,"  instead  of 
the  land  of  the  Jutes  ;*  they  suppose  that  Cape  HORN 
has  received  its  name,  n